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CDVE Tables of Contents: 0405060708091011121314

CDVE 2011: International Conference on Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering

Fullname:Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering: 8th International Conference
Editors:Yuhua Luo
Location:Hong Kong, China
Dates:2011-Sep-11 to 2011-Sep-14
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6874
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-23734-8; ISBN: 978-3-642-23733-1 (print), 978-3-642-23734-8 (online); hcibib: CDVE11
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page
  1. Cooperative Design
  2. Cooperative Applications
  3. Cooperative Engineering
  4. Cooperative Visualization
  5. Basic Theory and Technology

Cooperative Design

Concert Halls in Cooperative Virtual Environments BIBAKFull-Text 1-6
  A. Benjamin Spaeth
The integration of simulation tools into an architectural design and decision process comprise a large potential. The design of acoustic spaces like concert halls or theatres is very complex in regard to the design and evaluation of its acoustic quality. To enable evaluation and discussion between different participants of an acoustic design and decision process an adequate cooperative and interactive design environment was searched. As the acceptance and the reliability of cooperative virtual environment rises with the number of addressed senses and the quality of representation the combination of a high quality visual simulation (COVISE/COVER) with a high quality acoustic simulation (RAVEN/VA) is achieved. The paper describes the system architecture in regard to its cooperative aspects and points out possible cooperation modes. Different application scenarios of the virtual acoustic environment, like education scenario or planning scenario are described through case studies. The experiences from these scenarios are summarised in the conclusions.
Keywords: virtual acoustics; virtual reality; architectural design; design tools
Design Offered Up: Control and Open Outcomes in a Digitally Enabled Design Process BIBAKFull-Text 7-13
  Anne Filson; Gary Rohrbacher
This paper presents the design of a digitally fabricated, customizable line of furniture and casework objects that leverage parametric technology and social networking to produce a highly collaborative distributed digital fabrication workflow. It describes how a furniture system, serving as an apprehensible model for architecture, was designed concurrently with the networked, multi-agent workflow that manufactures it and the layered user input that defines it. The furniture object designs are inextricably linked to their fabrication by a distributed network of small fabricators that supplant the single large manufacturer, and to their open outcomes that balance professional design expertise with user input. The paper concludes with describing how this model challenges the architectural profession's prevailing focus on the transactional and object oriented capabilities of recent digital innovations. By using such tools to design the objects within their systemic and networked relationships, architects might successfully create outcomes that better respond to society's increasingly complex demands.
Keywords: Collaborative Design; Emergence; Network Theory; Parametric Modeling; Open Design; Networked Fabrication; Multi-Agent Systems
Design Interaction via Multi-touch BIBAKFull-Text 14-21
  Marc Aurel Schnabel; Rui (Irene) Chen
We present a multi-touch-tabletop tool for design-collaborations and -communication tasks employing three-dimensional digitalized models. Our system allows users from various disciplines to communicate and share their ideas by manipulating the reference and their own input simultaneously by simply using intuitive gestures. Haptic and proprioceptive perception of tangible representations are perceived and understood more readily whereby our system provides an increased potential to compensate for the low spatial cognition of its users. Our integration of combining both model-based and participatory approaches with multi-touch tabletop system setups differs considerably from conventional visual representations for collaborative design. Since the multi-touch design interaction allows users to engage intuitively within virtual design environments, it is presenting a next generation of common graphical user interfaces.
Keywords: Multi-touch; collaboration; interaction; haptic; design
Collaborative Learning through Cooperative Design Using a Multitouch Table BIBAKFull-Text 22-29
  Tim Warnecke; Patrick Dohrmann; Alke Jürgens; Andreas Rausch; Niels Pinkwart
Today, typical classrooms are still equipped with blackboards, chalk and sometimes overhead projectors. Technology-enriched rooms can often only be found in school libraries or computer pools where students can research topics on the WWW or use other specific computer applications. In this paper, we present an educational game called "Parcours", developed for the interactive SMART table. This cooperative design game, installed on a tabletop that is located within a classroom, is intended to teach primary school children collaboration and coordination skills as well as logical thinking.
Keywords: Collaborative Learning; Cooperative Design; Multitouch table
The Use of 3D Optical Measurement Systems in Collaborative Ship Design BIBAKFull-Text 30-36
  Marina Z. Solesvik
The paper presents three dimensional scanning tools elaborated by a Norwegian firm. This tool is applied by a number of Norwegian firms (ship designers, shipbuilders, suppliers of equipment, and classification societies) during their collaborating projects. This tool allows 3D scanning, making drawings and 3D hull models. This tool is also applied in other industries, for example, architecture, house construction, and mechanical production.
Keywords: cooperative design; shipbuilding; optical measurement system; 3D models

Cooperative Applications

Simulation of Collaborative Innovation System in Cluster Environment BIBAKFull-Text 37-44
  Shuangxi Huang; Hua Bai; Jinsong Bao; Aidan Li
Cluster innovation system (CIS) is a kind of complex adaptive system. The system performance of CIS depends critically on the interactions between its parts. Because it is hard to formalize and define the system equation, the analytical or deductive method is unfitted with the high dynamics, uncertainty, and complex structure of CIS. In the paper, swarm principles are used to deal with the complexity of CIS. The multi-agent model is established to represent the interaction, collaboration, group behavior, and the emergence of higher order system structure. Based on this multi-agent model, the emergent behaviors and the key characteristics of the system are obtained using swarm simulation. The key parameters for system evolution can be identified and the attribute features and behavior rules of an individual enterprise (agent) can be set up. The objective of the research is to find out the key factors influencing the evolution of CIS and the proper innovation strategy for CIS.
Keywords: Cluster Innovation System; Swarm Simulation; Multi-agent
Implementation of a RIA Tool for Supporting a Collaborative Initiative of Software Process Improvement BIBAKFull-Text 45-52
  I. Garcia; C. Pacheco; D. Cruz
Under a Software Process Improvement (SPI) environment, all phases of a process improvement initiative involving establishing commitment, assessment or diagnosing, improvement plans generation, pilot implementation and improvements deployment, may be accomplished collaboratively by different groups inside an enterprise. Organizational, technical and process-based circumstances have an impact on process assessment and modeling practices. Based on a Model-based Collaborative Design, a strategy for collaborative process assessment and modeling is proposed. This collaborative support helps project managers in overcoming complexities and to create a common understanding of the process and products of a SPI initiative. Finally, a Rich Internet Application (RIA) is developed and applied to provide strong support for distributed project managers, to collaboratively assess and model their software process within a SPI project, the CEForSPI (Collaborative Environment For Software Process Improvement) prototype. This tool represents a collaborative strategy to support SPI teams in handling the different phases of a typical SPI lifecycle.
Keywords: Collaborative model; software process improvement; process modeling; process assessment; rich-internet applications
On the Development of a Sensor Network-Based System for Wildfire Prevention BIBAKFull-Text 53-60
  Luis Vicente-Charlesworth; Sebastià Galmés
In this paper, we show the process of designing a wildfire prevention system based on a time-driven wireless sensor and actuator network. The description highlights the architectural and cooperative aspects of the proposed system, as well as key design issues related with the deployment of nodes and the construction of a data-gathering tree that optimizes system lifetime and reduces the number of relay nodes necessary to create a connected network.
Keywords: Sensor network; data-gathering tree; Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA); Minimum Spanning Tree (MST)
Taking Cooperative Decisions in Group-Based Wireless Sensor Networks BIBAKFull-Text 61-65
  Miguel Garcia; Jaime Lloret; Sandra Sendra; Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues
Several studies have demonstrated that communications are more efficient when cooperative group-based architectures are used in wireless sensor networks (WSN). This type of architecture allows increasing sensor nodes' lifetime by decreasing the number of messages in network. But, the main gap is to know how to take cooperative decisions in order to make the right communication. In this paper, we analyze the main aspects related to collaborative decisions in WSNs. A mathematical analysis will be presented in order to take the correct decision. Finally, the simulations will show the efficiency of the method used to make cooperative decisions in WSNs.
Keywords: cooperative decisions; cooperative WSN; group-based WSN
Cooperative Operating Control for Induction or Elimination of Self-sustained Oscillations in CSTB BIBAKFull-Text 66-73
  Piotr Skupin; Mieczyslaw Metzger
The problem of cooperative control is especially important in the case of selection of an appropriate mode of operation for a wide class of bioprocesses. In classical approach, this can be achieved via SCADA systems used by process operators. However, due to the nonlinear nature of bioprocesses, the operators usually are not able to assess the efficiency of a bioprocess, especially in the presence of self-sustained oscillations (SSO) of the biomass concentration. Hence, they must cooperate with experts who are usually geographically dispersed. This paper presents the solution of the above-stated problems using an additional server application in the layer of supervisory control. The main tasks of the application are to provide the process data (collected by the SCADA system) to a group of experts and allow them to discuss possibilities of enhancing the efficiency of the bioprocess. The taken decisions are then sent to the operator.
Keywords: cooperative operating control; agent-based cooperation; self-sustained oscillations
Handling Different Format Initial Data in a Cooperative Decision Making Process BIBAKFull-Text 74-77
  Sylvia Encheva
Many-valued Galois connection reflects on the similarity between attribute values in a many-valued context. In this work we apply many-valued formal concept analysis for answering queries when some of the initial data is available in text form and another part in with crisp values.
Keywords: Many-valued Galois connections; intelligent systems
Modeling Decisional Knowledge with the Help of Data Quality Information BIBAKFull-Text 78-81
  Jérôme Wax; Benoît Otjacques; Thomas Tamisier; Olivier Parisot; Yoann Didry; Fernand Feltz
The success of the deployment of decision support systems heavily relies on the design of knowledge bases. In particular, assessing the quality of instanced data helps ensure an appropriate use of the knowledge. We present a collaborative editor for procedural knowledge that manages specific information about the quality of the data called into the procedures. Experimentations by a panel of users notably show that information being correctly interpreted and necessary to draw optimal procedures.
Keywords: Data quality; Knowledge models; Decision support
Adapting Decision Support to Business Requirements through Data Interpretation BIBAKFull-Text 82-85
  Thomas Tamisier; Olivier Parisot; Yoann Didry; Jérôme Wax; Fernand Feltz
Decision support shows often a gap between the problems in terms of business knowledge and the answers restricted to a final decision result. We present a decisional framework for automating business procedures, developed through with the administration, that allows managing and formalizing extra information besides the mere decisional knowledge. This information can be useful to tune the knowledge model according to operational data, or to better exploit the decision result in the subsequent stages of a collaborative workflow.
Keywords: Decision support; Data interpretation; Information retrieval
Multilayer Automated Methods for the System Integration BIBAKFull-Text 86-93
  Dariusz Choinski; Michal Senik
Large distributed control systems present non trivial problems during integration. In order to successfully perform integration, MAS methodology has been widely incorporated. Multiple, distributed over the network, types of server objects can be treated as a good example of such dynamic systems. This paper describes multiple user cooperation problems during large system integration. The introduced MAS forms a top level interaction layer over the existing system which is composite of hierarchically organized internal sub layers. Each layer consists of multiple interacting agents which are indivisible functional entities that can form larger cooperating subsystems inside their parent layer. Concurrent user cooperation over the integrated system is performed by means of top level MAS layer which provides indirect access to all system resources possibly by the graphical interface. Concurrent user cooperation is possible through multiple agent interfaces and because agents are created in both Java and .Net no real obstacle currently exists. Possible user conflicts are solved in the real time automatically by the internal MAS system mechanisms because all system agents are independent to some extent.
Keywords: JADE; FIPA; OPC; Java; .Net; Multi-Agent Systems
Active Citizenship in the Planning Process: Information Management vs. Creative Participation BIBAKFull-Text 94-101
  Ursula Kirschner
The significance of early and continuous involvement of the citizens in city development processes is clearly evident in the current critical reporting on Stuttgart 21 in Germany, a traffic and urban development project to relocate the Stuttgart railway junction. Stuttgart 21, a planning process for a new major train station that has gone on for over ten years, has been accompanied by a citizen protest movement across all party lines since 2009. Construction has been halted several times.
   When citizens are consulted too late, not at all or only intermittently during the development process, the results are often the most varied protests and demonstrations.
   This research project analyzes methods of citizen involvement in construction planning processes in Hamburg and attempts to identify new approaches to qualitative social research as expert research actions in function of deep drilling. The aim is the development and testing of a new methodology for active citizenship in terms of an expert research like deep drilling instead of working under the involvement of the majority.
Keywords: social networking; active citizenship; creative participation
A "Live" Interactive Tagging Interface for Collaborative Learning BIBAKFull-Text 102-109
  Yang Ting Shen; Tay-Sheng Jeng; Yen-Chia Hsu
We present a real-time interactive tagging system called SynTag for collaborative learning in lectures. The system allows students accessing the web-based interface to tag an ongoing lecture. The collective tagging outcomes are instantly visualized with a dynamic timeline chart to illustrate the assessment of all students. With SynTag, students not only engage in a lecture by the interactive tagging function, but also cooperate with each other to contextualize the lecture. According to the outcomes of students' collaborative tagging activities, the critical spatio-temporal segments of a lecture video are automatically generated as the wave-shape timeline chart. Through the peaks of the wave-shape timeline chart, the valuable video chips of the lecture can be easily highlighted and recognized. In the end of this paper, we demonstrate how the SynTag system contributes to the collaborative learning in undergraduate classes through quantitative and qualitative studies. Finally, we conclude with a discussion based on our evaluation for the improvements and potentials of our system in future works.
Keywords: Collaborative learning; Collaborative tagging; synchronous; Timeline; Interface design; Interactive tagging system; Education; Lecture
Ask Friends for Help: A Collaborative Query Answering System BIBAFull-Text 110-113
  Dominik Popowicz; Piotr Bródka; Przemyslaw Kazienko; Michal Kozielski
The probability that we get help is greater if we ask a friend, rather than a stranger. On the basis of this sociological phenomenon, the innovative SocLaKE recommender system for query propagation in the social network was invented. In this paper, a general concept of the system as well as a discussion on various issues and challenges related to its application are presented.

Cooperative Engineering

Extended Ontology-Based Process Management Architecture BIBAKFull-Text 114-120
  Tingting Liu; Huifen Wang; Linyan Liu
Process management is a technology used to design, enact, control, and analyze business processes. Today although workflow management systems are readily available and a large number of literatures present improvements in business process management, the reuse ratio of knowledge involved in process is low and most of organizations cannot reuse existing knowledge effectively. In this paper we propose an extended ontology-based process management architecture. Through analyzing the process characters, we identify six ontologies in the process management, including process ontology, organization ontology, resource ontology, knowledge ontology, object ontology and constraint ontology. OWL language has been used to describe each element in the ontology. Based on these six ontologies, a four-level process management architecture is presented and described in detail to show how it can work to reuse the context-related knowledge in process execution. The main contribution of this paper is to achieve knowledge reuse in process management.
Keywords: process management; ontology; knowledge reuse
Information Model for Cooperative Disassembly Process Planning BIBAKFull-Text 121-124
  Hanmin Lee; Seongwhan Park; Shaw C. Feng
Disassembly of end-of-service-life products is a key operation to separate a product into reusable and recyclable parts. This paper describes an information model for cooperative disassembly process planning. A description of the classes and their relationships on assembly structure, disassembly sequence and method, features, disassembly equipment, disassembly workflow, and operations of separations are included in the paper. A case study on a car suspension design is conducted to test the model.
Keywords: Information Modeling; Disassembly Process Planning; Disassembly Information Model
RFID Supported Cooperation for Construction Waste Management BIBAKFull-Text 125-128
  Jack C. P. Cheng; Lauren Y. H. Ma
The severity of construction and demolition waste problem has been observed around the world in recent years. Therefore, management of construction waste is important worldwide. Currently, radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is a growing technology which has been applied in many areas including the construction industry. This paper discusses the application of RFID technology for construction waste management, which is lacking in research in the construction industry. This paper presents a proposed RFID-based approach to facilitate the cooperation among on-site contractors, pick-up truck companies, and recycling companies. Waste pick-up and recycling could therefore be enhanced. Some reusable construction wastes like high strength cables are valuable and prone to be stolen. The proposed system could help the inspection of these construction wastes by using the automatic tracking capability of RFID technology.
Keywords: RFID technology; construction waste management; waste recycling; pick-up schedule; construction cooperation
Planning for the Environmental Quality of Urban Microclimate: A Multiagent-Based Approach BIBAKFull-Text 129-136
  Dino Borri; Domenico Camarda
An increasing concern about urban environmental quality has grown in the last decades caused by urban production mechanisms. Now, policies and ICT models need to integrate traditional quantitative techniques with more complex multiagent tools to support effective recovery strategies.
   Basing on a hybrid scenario approach, the present research links information and knowledge aspects to define sequences of events and processes for decisionmaking. An ICT-based model is set up, involving human agents, low-profile artificial (routinary) agents and/or high profile (intelligent) agents, as defined by computer-science and multi-agent studies.
   Particularly, the paper focuses on the case study of Bari, Italy, addressing multi-agent-based relationships between urban microclimatic and social characters.
Keywords: Urban microclimate planning; multiple agents; urban pollution; scenario management; decision-support systems
LabVIEW Based Cooperative Design for Control System Implementation BIBAKFull-Text 137-140
  Witold Nocon; Grzegorz Polaków
In this paper an object-oriented approach to the cooperative process of designing and implementing control systems is presented. Such approach promotes code reuse, code encapsulation and polymorphism, which, in relation to control systems, result in a better way of designing the system to be robust, easy to maintain and clear to analyze. Class hierarchy of system blocks and variables is presented using UML class diagram. Implementation in a graphical programming language LabVIEW is outlined.
Keywords: Object-oriented design; cooperative implementation of control systems; IEC 61131; IEC 61499
Improving Collaboration in the Construction Industry through Context-Aware Web Services BIBAKFull-Text 141-144
  Jack C. P. Cheng; Moumita Das
Collaboration technologies have been increasingly used for supporting the requirements of a multi-disciplinary construction project team in recent years. In particular, web services technology has been leveraged in the construction industry for distributed communication and information management through message exchanges. However, the current standardized web services are unsuitable for typical construction information, which is large in magnitude and diverse in scope. This paper presents our proposed context aware web service framework that uses standardized ontologies to facilitate efficient and faster exchange of construction information in real time. This paper also presents an example scenario illustrating the collaborative environment facilitated with the proposed web service framework.
Keywords: Building information exchange; Construction Collaboration Technology; Context Awareness; Building Information Modeling (BIM); Web Services Technology

Cooperative Visualization

From Collaborative Business Practices to User's Adapted Visualization Services: Towards a Usage-Centered Method Dedicated to the AEC Sector BIBAKFull-Text 145-153
  Gilles Halin; Sylvain Kubicki; Conrad Boton; Daniel Zignale
Visualization of the cooperation context is an important issue, especially when applied to complex and unstable collective activities, as it is the case in the field of Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC). With the aim of assisting cooperative construction projects it is important to propose business services and user views adapted to user's business requirements. This paper presents the concept of "adapted visualization service" and a usage-centered method that enables to design visualization services adapted to actor's business needs.
Keywords: collaborative practice; visualization services; adapted visualization; usage-centered method; cooperative context; business requirement
An Augmented Reality Application Framework for Complex Equipment Collaborative Maintenance BIBAKFull-Text 154-161
  Wei Wang; Yue Qi; QingXing Wang
Complex equipment maintenance process usually involves massive amount of components. It requires collaborative manipulation by many technicians. Therefore, traditional maintenance is difficult to meet the needs of these processes. Augmented reality technology has been demonstrated as an useful solution. This paper introduces an augmented reality application framework applicable to various complex equipments. In the framework, the difference of different equipments maintenance processes is extracted as task-driven work flow, and the functional interfaces of augmented reality are the collective base. We can create a new application as long as we can place the work flow and associated virtual resources within the application. Context-aware tutorial information and hands-free voice commands are provided in the generated applications by the framework. By using the application, the multi-user cooperative operations are well supported. We demonstrate our framework by showing the applications for key aircraft components. We also present a distributed virtual learning tool based on the framework.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Task-driven Work Flow; Collaborative Maintenance
Faculty-Wide Information System for Energy Saving BIBAKFull-Text 162-165
  Yuya Ogawa; Seisaku Shinoda; Younosuke Furui
It is difficult to persuade university students to voluntarily access data in which they are not currently interested, such as electricity consumption data. This paper describes the concept and design of a faculty-wide information system that aims to draw students' attention toward electricity consumption and to motivate them to save energy. It visualizes the data on a three-dimensional map, and displays it with other information such as announcements.
Keywords: Visualization; three-dimensional map; energy saving
Cooperative Visualization Based on Agent Voting BIBAKFull-Text 166-169
  Dariusz Choinski; Mieczyslaw Metzger; Witold Noco
In this paper a cooperative system for visualisation of a biotechnical system is presented. Some of the events associated with the state of metabolic reactions are indistinguishable, mainly due to lack of appropriate sensors and measurement capabilities. Therefore, a solution is needed to identify the state in which the reactor currently is, based on partial information and selected measurements available in real time. Those partial identification results are than used to provide a cumulative result by means of a voting mechanism between the cooperating agents.
Keywords: Voting; Multi-Agent Systems; Monitoring of Biotechnological Processes

Basic Theory and Technology

Comparing Static Load Balancing Algorithms in Grid BIBAKFull-Text 170-177
  Sherihan Abu Elenin; Masato Kitakami
The ability to monitor and manage Grid computing components is critical for enabling high performance distributed computing. The Grid Monitoring Architecture (GMA) specification sets out the requirements and constraints of any implementation. There are many systems that implement GMA but all have some drawbacks such as, difficult to install, single point of failure, or loss of control message. So we design a simple model after we analyze the requirements of Grid monitoring. We propose grid monitoring system based on GMA. The proposed grid monitoring system consists of producers, registry, consumers, and failover registry. The goals of it are the management and failure recovery. Load balancing (LB) should be added to the system to overcome the message overloaded. Load balancing algorithms can be static or dynamic. This paper evaluates the four types of static load balancing algorithms. We evaluate the performance of the system by measuring the response time, and throughput. Central Manager algorithm introduces the smallest response time and the highest throughput. So it is the best static load balancing algorithm.
Keywords: Grid computing; Security; monitoring system; load balancing; response time; throughput
A Model for Collaborative Scheduling Based on Competencies BIBAKFull-Text 178-181
  Tomasz Kajdanowicz
The paper presents a proposal for scheduling human resources among projects. In the situation when multiple number of projects needs to be planned in an organisation and only available human resources can be used for their completion, a group of managers needs to align scheduling and work collaboratively. The planning problem in such situations requires considering appropriate employee assignment to tasks, according to their specific skills and time constraints, which makes it very complicated. The paper describes a proposal of a model that provides the staffing solution optimisation for the given objective function, e.g. maximising the increase of competencies of the staff. Modelling is based on the quantitative description of tasks and employees.
Keywords: collaborative scheduling; staff scheduling; competence scheduling model
Towards a Functional Characterization of Collaborative Systems BIBAKFull-Text 182-185
  Jaime Moreno-Llorena; Iván Claros; Rafael Martín; Ruth Cobos; Juan de Lara; Esther Guerra
In this paper we present major results of a detailed study about the functionalities that are present in different collaborative systems, realized as collaborative components. We have used this study to establish a methodology for the automatic generation of collaborative applications supporting group needs. The methodology is directed to any community of end users, who do not need to have any programming skills.
Keywords: CSCW; Collaborative Features; Collaborative Design; Web 2.0
Efficient System for Clustering of Dynamic Document Database BIBAKFull-Text 186-189
  Pawel Foszner; Aleksandra Gruca; Andrzej Polanski
We describe in this paper, a system that groups, classifies and finds the latent semantic features in a database composed of a large number of documents. The database will be constantly growing as users who co-create it will be adding more and more new documents. Users require a system to provide them information, both about a specific document, and about the entire set of documents. This information includes statistical data about words in documents, information about aspects in which this words appears, classification, clustering, etc.
   To meet these expectations we propose using methods for searching for hidden patterns in multivariable data. We apply machine learning algorithms for data analysis, useful in identifying local patterns in multivariate data. We consider two different algorithms described in the literature (1) Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis Method [2] and (2) Nonnegative Matrix Factorization algorithm described in [4] and used in the text analysis system [1].
Keywords: clustering; classification; NMF; semantic features; document database
Proposition of a Model Using Parametric Operations to Assist the Creation of Architectural Forms BIBAKFull-Text 190-197
  Jean-Paul Wetzel
This article presents the use of form operators during the design phase. This case study of three projects of BAAM agency shows the relevance of their use of form operators. It also shows the variety of forms that can be obtained from the same idea. The aim our work is to apply operators on forms and geometries to vary randomly.
   BAAM is an architectural firm that applies the work of our research laboratory.
Keywords: Decision tree; historical operations of forms; generative form
The Digital Design Build Studio BIBAKFull-Text 198-206
  Gernot Riether
The paper will discuss the "Digital Design Build Studio" as a potential model of interdisciplinary research and show how digital design and fabrication methods that become more affordable and available might open up new possibilities to connect academia with practice. The paper will use the AIA pavilion, a Digital Design Build Studio that were taught during the Fall semester of 2010 as case study.
Keywords: Education; Digital Fabrication; Scripting; Design / Build