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Proceedings of the 2002 Conference on Creativity and Cognition

Fullname:ACM Conference on Creativity and Cognition
Editors:Terence Kavanagh; Tom Hewett
Location:Loughborough, United Kingdom
Dates:2002-Oct-13 to 2002-Oct-16
Standard No:ISBN 1-58113-465-7 ACM Order Number 608028; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CC02
Links:Conference Home Page
Creativity support tools: a tutorial overview BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  Ben Shneiderman
The tutorial begins with a model of creative processes and refines it into design principles. Participants will learn of eight ways to improve software that supports human creative processes:
  • - searching and browsing digital libraries
  • - visualizing data and processes,
  • - consulting with peers and mentors,
  • - thinking by free associations,
  • - exploring solutions: what- if tools,
  • - composing artifacts and performances,
  • - reviewing and replaying session histories, and
  • - disseminating results. These practical suggestions can be integrated into existing software applications, built into web services, or serve as the framework for novel tools. Software examples will be shown and brainstorming sessions will use projects from participants.
  • Computational models of creative designing based on situated cognition BIBAFull-Text 3-10
      John S. Gero
    This paper presents computational models of creative designing. It commences with describing notions of creative designing within individuals, groups and then societies. In doing so it moves from absolute to situated cognition approaches. The paper then describes various computational approaches that simulate individual create designing processes with exemplars. It then moves on to describe situated cognition as the basis for group creative designing, which is described through a multi-agent example. Finally, the notion of creativity as a social behaviour is explored through simulations.
    Cybernetic serendipity revisited BIBAFull-Text 11-13
      Brent MacGregor
    In this paper, the 1968 landmark computer art exhibition Cybernetic Serendipity is examined systematically and in detail. Extant archives were examined and interviews conducted. Certain common conceptions about the nature of the event are discussed with some surprising results.
    Creative cognition in design: processes of exceptional designers BIBAFull-Text 14-19
      Nigel Cross
    Three case studies of creative design in engineering and product design are reported. The studies are of exceptional designers and comprise two retrospective interview studies and one protocol study. In each case, an example of the designer's approach to a particular design problem is presented. Comparisons between the three examples are drawn, and there appear to be some striking similarities, despite the very different project examples. A general descriptive model of creative cognition in design is developed from these commonalities.
    2 performances in the 21st century virtual color organ BIBAFull-Text 20-24
      Jack Ox
    Jack Ox is the visual artist half of a collaborative team consisting of herself and David Britton, programmer. She will talk about the development of their virtual reality immersive project called "The 21st C. Virtual Color Organ" The Organ is an instrument which can visualize multiple musical compositions. It can be outfitted with separate color and image systems, depending on the different needs of various compositions. Ox will describe "Im Januar am Nil", composed by Clarence Barlow, a computer assisted composition based mathematically on a 2 dimensional spiral and played by chamber orchestra. She will also talk about the in progress collaboration with Alvin Curran to be called "Gridjam". This piece will be performed by geographically separated musicians inside their own immersive environment over the AccessGrid.
    Panel: research into art and technology BIBAFull-Text 25-30
      Linda Candy; Bronac Ferran; Judith Mottram; Ernest Edmonds; John Haworth; Jon Pettigrew
    The panel will discuss the nature of research in creative practice. The participants will draw upon their current studies and experiences of projects that investigate creativity and the role of digital technology.
       Edmonds and Candy are applying a practice-led research approach to the study of collaborative work between artists and technologists.
       Mottram discusses practice-based research approaches and discusses the particular role of digital technologies in such research.
       Howarth is concerned with theories of perception and art and ongoing research into the interplay between mind, body and technology in fine art.
       Pettigrew is investigating how children act as creative artists using computers and proposes that children are different from adults.
    Supporting creativity in problem solving environments BIBAFull-Text 31-37
      Marc Vass; John M. Carroll; Clifford A. Shaffer
    We seek to provide a theoretical basis for the development of problem solving environments that support creativity. This paper combines flow theory, the systems model of creativity, and a newly developed workflow of problem solving to produce a theory of the creative problem solving user, WorkFlow. It extends the definition of usability to include creativity and identifies key areas and methods for the support of creativity in problem solving.
    Recognizing creative needs in user interface design BIBAFull-Text 38-44
      Michael Terry; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
    The creative process requires experimentation, the exploration of variations, and the continual evaluation of one's progress. While these processes are frequently non-linear and iterative, modern user interfaces do not explicitly support these practices, and instead impose a linear progression through tasks that is a poor fit for creative pursuits. In this paper we use data from three case studies, and draw upon Schon's theory of reflection-in-action to illustrate specific deficiencies in current user interfaces when used in creative endeavors. We then develop a set of guidelines for user interface design and demonstrate their application in three designs intended to support tasks in the domain of image manipulation.
    Generator: the dialectics of orderly disorder BIBAFull-Text 45-49
      Geoff Cox
    As complexity theory has demonstrated in correlation with dialectical thinking, the relationship between order and disorder does not lie simply in their opposition. This paper proposes that generative artworks have a useful analogical relation to the way computer systems (and systems in general) operate and the ways in which artist-programmers might interfere with these operations. This principle of the correlation of dialectical and generative processes will be demonstrated by referring to the exhibition Generator (Spacex Gallery, May-June 2002, and touring in the UK) and in particular by referring to two works: ordure::real-time by Stuart Brisley & Adrian Ward; and forkbomb.pl by Alex McLean. Despite the appearance of order, Generator suggests that disorder is just below the surface and this is where change can be found and prompted.
    Computer aided creativity: practical experience and theoretical concerns BIBAFull-Text 50-56
      Robert Pepperell
    In this paper I will outline some of the practical experiences and theoretical concerns that have informed some 15 years of research into the relationship between human creativity and technology. I will discuss a number of approaches to the design of effective creativity enhancing systems and identify the key theoretical concerns that have informed the practical research. Finally, I will present some conclusions about the nature of human and synthetic creativity arising from my published work. At conference the paper will be presented using a variety of audio-visual illustrations.
    The impact of functional knowledge on sketching BIBAFull-Text 57-64
      Winger Tseng; Stephen Scrivener; Linden Ball
    Previous research investigating sketching processes during object visualisation and design has indicated that drawing occurs in a primarily part-by-part manner, whereby the component structures of objects appear to dominate the organisation of ongoing activity. Some non-part-by-part sketching does arise, however, and appears to be closely linked with those parts of objects that possess multiple functionality. The present experiment aimed to provide further evidence to support the influence of functional knowledge on sketching. Overall, the results indicate that functional understanding is an important element of visual reasoning and sketch production in design-related tasks. We propose that functional knowledge serves simultaneously to promote certain aspects of representational accuracy (e.g., in terms of functional properties of parts) whilst, paradoxically, engendering other aspects of representational inaccuracy (e.g., in terms of the precise geometric structure of parts).
    Why use computers to make drawings? BIBAFull-Text 65-71
      George Whale
    In the field of art and design, there are some circumstances in which the use of computers for drawing would seem to confer few tangible benefits; and in situations where computers are productively employed, usage is often tightly bound by convention. Consequently, some practitioners doubt whether the technology has anything new to offer them. In this paper, a wide-ranging review of contemporary, computer-mediated drawing leads the author to conclude that such scepticism is unfounded -- that computers are not only enabling artists and designers to extend the scope of drawing, but that they are also helping us to understand aspects of the drawing process itself.
    Functions of sketching in design idea generation meetings BIBAFull-Text 72-79
      Remko van der Lugt
    This study consists of four experimental meetings, which explore whether functions of sketching in design activity are also valid for idea generation meetings in design. The relevant functions of sketching found in theory are: 1) supporting a re-interpretive cycle in the individual thinking process, 2) supporting re-interpretation of each other's ideas in group activity, and 3) enhancing the access to earlier ideas. The results provide some support for the first and the third function. No support was found for the second function.
    How to study artificial creativity BIBAFull-Text 80-87
      Rob Saunders; John S. Gero
    In this paper, we describe a novel approach to developing computational models of creativity that supports the multiple approaches to the study of artificial creative systems. The artificial creativity approach to the development of computational models of creative systems is described with reference to Csikszentmihalyi's systems view of creativity. Some interesting results from studies using an early implementation of an artificially creative system, The Digital Clockwork Muse, are presented. The different studies show how the artificial creativity approach supports the study of creativity from a variety of standpoints that mirror the disciplines that study human creativity. The use of artificial creativity allows these different studies to be conveniently conducted on the same computational model and integrated in to a more complete picture of the creative process.
    Computers and modern art: digital art museum BIBAFull-Text 88-94
      Mike King
    This paper focuses on the relationship between fine art movements in the 20th C and the pioneers of digital art from 1956 to 1986. The research is part of a project called Digital Art Museum, which is an electronic archive devoted to the history and practice of computer art, and is also active in curating exhibitions of the work. While computer art genres never became mainstream art movements, there are clear areas of common interest, even when these are separated by some decades.
    Acting to know: improving creativity in the design of mobile services by using performances BIBAFull-Text 95-102
      Kari Kuutti; Giulio Iacucci; Carlo Iacucci
    The paper contrasts two views on knowing: those of the observer and the active actor in a situation. The paper suggests that there are design cases where performance can produce different knowledge. The paper reviews the use of performances in theatre and discusses a technique to use performances in the design of mobile services. The technique is illustrated by example. The session are analysed to describe creativity and knowledge of participants.
    Interaction design as a collective creative process BIBAFull-Text 103-110
      Kumiyo Nakakoji; Yasuhiro Yamamoto; Atsushi Aoki
    This paper reports our case study on an ongoing interaction-design-centered software development project (ART project) viewed as an evolutionary collective creative process. In this project, a visual interaction designer and an expert programmer have collaboratively produced a series of interactive software tools, including a various types of movie players, innovative 3D visualizations and application systems. Visual interaction design is viewed as a process of seeking for compromises between what are desirable (expressed by the designer) and what are possible (expressed by the programmer). In the collaboration, each of the designer and the programmer collects, represents, interacts with, and reflects on a various types of visual representations. This paper characterizes the visual interaction design task, presents our framework to analyze the creative processes, and reports in detail how their creative processes have been carried out.
    A concept to facilitate musical expression BIBAFull-Text 111-117
      Chika Oshima; Kazushi Nishimoto; Yohei Miyagawa; Takashi Shirosaki
    In this paper, we propose a concept for helping performers to freely demonstrate their musical expression. This approach divides all of the musical elements into non-expressive elements and expressive elements and allows the performer to directly manipulate the performance with the expressive elements. We illustrate three prototype systems based on the concept and evaluate their effectiveness through the systems' subjective experiments. The results of the experiments suggest the possibility of our concept as well as effectiveness. In addition, we discuss an essential feature of musical performance and the role of a facilitating system for musical performance.
    How designers transform keywords into visual images BIBAFull-Text 118-125
      Yukari Nagai; Hisataka Noguchi
    In this paper, we describe two experiments for examining how designers think with drawings in order to generate visual images of the design object. In the first experiment, we assigned to subjects the task of designing a chair, which evokes a 'sad image'. An assumption of our work, based on previous experiments, is that an abstract keyword is more difficult to apply to a visual image of the design than using a concrete keyword. From the results of this experiment, several different paths in the thinking process were found and we concluded that the creative thinking process needs a high abstract level in transforming a goal description to its corresponding visual image. In the second experiment, the aim was to understand more details of the creative thinking process. We monitored the subjects' drawing process by using video cameras from two different angles. In this experiment, we adopted a method whereby the subjects verbalized about their actions during the design process. Based up the results of this experiment, we found several different search modes in the subjects' thinking processes. Finally, we propose a general thinking path model of creative design.
    Cognitive mechanisms underlying the creative process BIBAFull-Text 126-133
      Liane Gabora
    This paper proposes an explanation of the cognitive change that occurs as the creative process proceeds. During the initial, intuitive phase, each thought activates, and potentially retrieves information from, a large region containing many memory locations. Because of the distributed, content-addressable structure of memory, the diverse contents of these many locations merge to generate the next thought. Novel associations often result. As one focuses on an idea, the region searched and retrieved from narrows, such that the next thought is the product of fewer memory locations. This enables a shift from association-based to causation-based thinking, which facilitates the fine-tuning and manifestation of the creative work.
    Modeling co-creativity in art and technology BIBAFull-Text 134-141
      Linda Candy; Ernest Edmonds
    Collaborative projects in art and technology provide an opportunity to investigate how co-creativity takes place. This paper describes some of the characteristics of collaborative work that were identified from empirical evidence captured during the COSTART project [4]. We examine the way the information was analyzed and the results of that exercise. An approach to modeling co-creativity based on case study data is described and three example models proposed. This work enabled us to consider the implications of the different models for supporting creativity and their relationship to success factors. We conclude that the provision of 'support' for co-creativity in art and technology needs to include ongoing collaborative relationships that are fostered by organizations dedicated to the co-evolution of both art and new technology.
    A system to support long-term creative thinking in daily life and its evaluation BIBAFull-Text 142-149
      Hirohito Shibata; Koichi Hori
    Most current creativity support systems support short-term temporal thinking that is separate from users' daily activities. In this paper, we propose a system that supports long-term idea-generation in daily life. The system consists of two subsystems: a management system for problems and ideas called IdeaManager; and a personal information storage system called iBox. When information is registered in iBox, it searches related problems and ideas in IdeaManager and then presents the results. Then users try to generate or enhance ideas for automatically retrieved problems or ideas using registered information as the hint. Our target users are those who must generate novel ideas and acquire relevant information for a certain problem or theme, such as researchers or planners. To evaluate and enhance our system, we carried out a six-week experiment. During this period, subjects managed their problems and ideas in their daily activities. In the experiment, several methods of searching for related problems and ideas in IdeaManager were compared. Based on the results, we give some proposals for future systems.
    Scripting the interactor: an approach to VR drama BIBAFull-Text 150-156
      Josephine Anstey; Dave Pape
    In this paper, we describe a CAVE VR application, The Thing Growing, which is designed to engage the user in an emotional relationship with a computer-controlled character in the context of a fictional narrative. We discuss the process of building an interactor-centered virtual drama and assess The Thing Growing.
    QSketcher: an environment for composing music for film BIBAFull-Text 157-164
      Steven Abrams; Ralph Bellofatto; Robert Fuhrer; Daniel Oppenheim; James Wright; Richard Boulanger; Neil Leonard; David Mash; Michael Rendish; Joe Smith
    We describe QSketcher, a new environment for composing music for film. The main focus is the support of early stages of the creative workflow, from idea conception through realization, rather than the order and synchronization of musical fragments with film. This paper describes the design process and rationale, the system, the user environment, and how they relate to one another. Novel aspects of the system include a free-form 'idea space', a main workspace that can be configured to individual needs, an "idea capturing" facility, a workflow tracking mechanism through which previous workspace states can be examined and restored, and the ability to create a variety of relationships among musical elements.
    Supporting musical composition by externalizing the composer's mental space BIBAFull-Text 165-172
      Shigeki Amitani; Koichi Hori
    In the field of design and creativity support, "externalization of mental space" has been recognized as an important challenge. In this paper, we tackle this challenge on musical composition, which is one of the important human creative activities. In our research, we focus on the analysis of cognitive processes in musical composition. That is, we analyze what the cognitive processes in musical composition are like and how the process is affected when a representation of information is changed. For this research, we propose a musical composition supporting system named "MACSS (MAcroscopic Composition Supporting System)" which offers a spatial representation of music to a composer to support his/her composition process. Comparing with ordinary musical editors, which give chronological (1-dimensional, score-metaphored) representation, this system provides a macroscopic view by locating phrases on the 2-dimensional space. We have investigated how the cognitive process changes when the spatial representation is introduced, i.e., the representation of information is changed. Moreover, we have analyzed the observed change microscopically, especially the processes of "mental fixation" and "mental leap". We have found how the spatial representation triggers mental leap escaping from mental fixation in musical composition.
    Sounds of artificial life BIBAFull-Text 173-177
      Eduardo Reck Miranda
    We focus on issues concerning musical composition practices where the emergent behaviour of artificial life models is used to generate sounds, musical form, or both. Special attention is given to the potential of cellular automata for music-making. After a brief introduction to our research scenario, we introduce two cellular automata-based music systems of our own design: CAMUS and Chaosynth. We present a discussion on the potential and limitations of these two systems, followed by concluding remarks whereby we suggest that adaptive imitation games may foster even more effective correspondence between artificial life models and creative processes.
    Interactive processes between mental and external operations in creative activity: a comparison of experts' and novices' performance BIBAFull-Text 178-185
      Norio Ishii; Kazuhisa Miwa
    Prior studies of creativity, in the field of cognitive psychology, have mainly dealt with only the process of mentally thinking of ideas. We investigated, through a cognitive psychological experiment and its protocol analysis, experts' and novices' interactive process between the mental operation by which participants considered their ideas and the external operations by which they actually produced physical objects in creative activity. In our experiment, the participants were required to build a creative robot with LEGO Mindstorms. The experimental results showed that the experts could create work that fulfilled both high originality and practicality simultaneously. Moreover, the following four points were confirmed as characteristics of the experts' creative process: (1) the experts globally considered their initial ideas, (2) the experts reconstructed their ideas by considering comprehensively the relationship among the elements constructing their plans, (3) the experts reconstructed their ideas more actively, and (4) the experts were able to embody successfully their ideas by focusing on various aspects of important viewpoints.
    A model for information technologies that can be creative BIBAFull-Text 186-191
      Johan F. Hoorn
    To contribute to HCI investigation and interface design that develops interactive systems for creative solutions, I attempt to formulate a model of the human capability to combine familiar objects or concepts in an unusual way. Important components of the creative process are feature association, combination, abstraction, selection, integration, and adaptation to establish an optimal fit between two or more semantically remote entities. In the act of creating, the goal is to show (a quantity of) similarity where no one saw it before. The function is knowledge acquisition (also emotionally), to find all the available possibilities in a given situation, (showing how) to find new solutions, new ways to get what you want. The effect of a creation may be surprise as a function of the tension between similarity and dissimilarity between objects and/or concepts. Depending on individual tolerance levels, the balance between similarity and dissimilarity may be satisfying or pleasing. Consequences for representations design are discussed.
    Concept-context-design: a creative model for the development of interactivity BIBAFull-Text 192-199
      Andruid Kerne
    Existing CHI interaction models are focused on understanding the needs of users. They begin with user tasks and user feedback. While the involvement of users is critical for human computer interaction development, so is the imagination the artist-scientist-designer-developer. We constitute a legitimate source of impetus in the definition and development of interactive artifacts, as well as functioning as interpreters, measurers, and respondents. The development of interactivity is a fundamentally creative process. This paper distills a creative model for the development of interactivity as a residue of the CollageMachine development experience. Both the model and the artifact are components that contribute to the integrated approach of interface ecology.