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Behaviour and Information Technology 33

Editors:Tom Stewart
Publisher:Taylor & Francis, Ltd.
Standard No:ISSN 0144-929X
Links:Table of Contents
  1. BIT 2014-01-02 Volume 33 Issue 1
  2. BIT 2014-02-01 Volume 33 Issue 2
  3. BIT 2014-03-04 Volume 33 Issue 3
  4. BIT 2014-04-03 Volume 33 Issue 4
  5. BIT 2014-05-04 Volume 33 Issue 5
  6. BIT 2014-06-03 Volume 33 Issue 6
  7. BIT 2014-07-03 Volume 33 Issue 7
  8. BIT 2014-08-03 Volume 33 Issue 8
  9. BIT 2014-09-02 Volume 33 Issue 9
  10. BIT 2014-10-03 Volume 33 Issue 10
  11. BIT 2014-11-02 Volume 33 Issue 11
  12. BIT 2014-12-02 Volume 33 Issue 12

BIT 2014-01-02 Volume 33 Issue 1

Too Young for Technology? BIBFull-Text 1-3
  Tom Stewart
Adaptive training interfaces for less-experienced, elderly users of electronic devices BIBAFull-Text 4-15
  Carmen Bruder; Lucienne Blessing; Hartmut Wandke
A great number of complex electronic devices are now part of our everyday lives. While many of us learn to handle these products by trial and error; others, especially older users with little experience in using electronic devices, need support. In order to allow the user maximum flexibility in terms of learning time and location, a training programme is presented which is implemented as part of the software embedded in the product itself. Particular focus is placed on the effect of adaptive training on learning. In this study, the training versions differed in their ability to adjust their complexity to the user's experience (adaptive user interface complexity) and their capability to support the learner by prompting them during the learning process (adaptive training advice). The results show that the adjustment of complexity had a positive effect on users' experience: elderly users who trained with an adaptive interface were more successful in learning to use a mobile phone. Adaptive training advice, however, was found to have no significant effects on learners' success and reduced their self-efficacy. This work offers guidelines on how to design integrated training applications for electronic devices that successfully help elderly users with little prior experience.
The impact of self-efficacy and perceived system efficacy on effectiveness of virtual training systems BIBAFull-Text 16-35
  Dawei Jia; Asim Bhatti; Saeid Nahavandi
This study developed and tested a research model which examined the impact of user perceptions of self-efficacy (SE) and virtual environment (VE) efficacy on the effectiveness of VE training systems. The model distinguishes between the perceptions of one's own capability to perform trained tasks effectively and the perceptions of system performance, regarding the established parameters from literature. Specifically, the model posits that user perceptions will have positive effects on task performance and memory. Seventy-six adults participated in a VE in a controlled experiment, designed to empirically test the model. Each participant performed a series of object assembly tasks. The task involved selecting, rotating, releasing, inserting and manipulating 3D objects. Initially, the results of factor analysis demonstrated dimensionality of two user perception measures and produced a set of empirical validated factors underlining the VE efficacy. The results of regression analysis revealed that SE had a significant positive effect on perceived VE efficacy. No significant effects were found of perceptions on performance and memory. Furthermore, the study provided insights into the relationships between the perception measures and performance measures for assessing the efficacy of VE training systems. The study also addressed how well users learn, perform, adapt to and perceive the VE training, which provides valuable insight into the system efficacy. Research and practical implications are presented at the end of the paper.
Blog learning: effects of users' usefulness and efficiency towards continuance intention BIBAFull-Text 36-50
  Jeung-tai E. Tang; Tzung-I Tang; Chi-Hui Chiang
Web-based learning is ubiquitous. The blog is a learning channel where learners acquire useful knowledge, to use in specific situations or in dealing with issues. These benefits may stimulate learning motivation for learners. Whether each blog learner can effectively enhance continuance learning intentions is a valuable research issue. Hence, this study proposes an extended expectation-confirmation model (ECM) that explicitly incorporates experiential learning, perceived self-efficacy, and perceived usefulness to examine blog continuance learning behavioural intentions. A survey of 318 bloggers provides strong support for the extended model. Results of the study show that these variables have a strong effect on satisfaction. This study demonstrates the blog as a good learning platform, and provides implications and recommendations resulting from the study.
Effects of individuals' locus of control and computer self-efficacy on their e-learning acceptance in high-tech companies BIBAFull-Text 51-64
  Jung-Wen Hsia; Chia-Chi Chang; Ai-Hua Tseng
High-tech companies encounter intense competition in today's global economy. With rapid changes in working environments, high-tech employees must learn quickly and effectively to solve difficult problems and increase their productivity. Many large high-tech companies have recently implemented electronic learning (e-learning) for employee training. However, e-learning systems are expensive and often underutilised. Therefore, understanding the factors associated with acceptance to e-learning are of priority concern. By integrating locus of control, computer self-efficacy and technology acceptance model (TAM) into one model, this study examines the feasibility of the extended TAM to explain employee acceptance of e-learning systems. Data were collected from 223 employees at five high-tech companies located in the Hsinchu Science Park, Taiwan. Analytical results indicate that locus of control had significant direct effects on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Computer self-efficacy had significant direct effects on perceived ease of use and behavioural intention to use. Overall, analytical results provide strong support for using the extended TAM to explain user acceptance of e-learning systems. The research and practical implications of findings are discussed.
The nature and components of perceived behavioural control as an element of theory of planned behaviour BIBAFull-Text 65-85
  Ali Hussein Saleh Zolait
Ajzen (1991. The theory of planned behaviour. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 50 (2), 179-211) suggested three constructs that determine the user's intention: attitude, subject norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Recently, some psychologists have argued that PBC is poorly understood. This study attempted to investigate the nature and components of PBC in research adapting theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to predict the intentions of bank customers with regard to adoption of Internet banking. The findings show some difficulty in discriminating between the presumed internal and external determinants of PBC. This study identifies two determinants: (1) self-efficacy (SE) and (2) facilitating conditions. The latter is broken into three facilitation factors: (1) resources, (2) technology and (3) government support (GS). Interestingly, SE, if considered as an internal factor, exhibits a significance effect on PBC in the presence of the three external factors. This shows that the external factors have a significance effect on PBC when entered for regression analysis without SE. These are valuable findings which show that both components of one's belief in one's level of control (internal factors: SE; external factors: resources, technology and GS) are important. However, which factors have the greatest effect on PBC might be related to the type of innovation or to other factors.
Under pressure to sext? Applying the theory of planned behaviour to adolescent sexting BIBAFull-Text 86-98
  Michel Walrave; Wannes Heirman; Lara Hallam
Adolescent sexting -- the electronic swapping of sexually intimate texts or images -- has attracted significant media and policy attention. However, questions remain about the predictors of this phenomenon, in which mobile phones play a central role in adolescents' exploration of sexuality. Therefore, a survey involving 498 adolescents aged between 15 and 18 years was conducted. The first aim of this study is to determine the predictive value of personal attitudes, subjective norm (SN) and perceived behavioural control by applying the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). As the second aim, we wish to assess the relative importance of the most salient beliefs underpinning the TPB components, since this will allow us to gain a more nuanced insight into the characteristics of adolescent sexting. Analyses reveal that SN is the most important predictor, followed by adolescents' attitudes towards sexting. Perceived behavioural control is significantly but weakly associated with teenagers' sexting intentions. Within SN, friends and romantic partners represent the most important sources of social pressure, while only positive behavioural outcomes are found to affect adolescents' sexting intentions. The most important control belief affecting adolescents' intention to sext is the belief that it occurs relatively more often among those whom adolescents feel they can trust entirely.

Book Review

"A life in error -- from little slips to big disasters," by James Rason BIBFull-Text 99-101
  Ahmet Cakir

BIT 2014-02-01 Volume 33 Issue 2

Editorial BIBFull-Text 102-104
  Tom Stewart
Usability of affective interfaces for a digital arts tutoring system BIBAFull-Text 105-116
  Hao-Chiang Koong Lin; Nian-Shing Chen; Rui-Ting Sun; I-Hen Tsai
Affective computing techniques have become increasingly important as advanced education technologies. By applying these techniques to education, this work designs and evaluates a novel Affective Tutoring System for the Digital Arts (ATSDAs). By semantically analysing a text with ontological references, the emotions induced by a text when input by a user are identified. Inference of emotions is accomplished using OMCSNet and WordNet, two engines commonly used in computational linguistics research. The proposed system has a visual agent that provides text feedback based on inferred emotions from textual analysis. The proposed system has a conscientious design flow that includes concept modelling, prototype design, expert-based evaluation (which consists of a cognitive walkthrough and heuristic evaluation), final system design and a series of evaluations from a learner's perspective. The System Usability Scale (SUS) evaluation results show that this system achieves positive usability and learners enjoy interacting with the proposed system.
The influence of the search complexity and the familiarity with the website on the subjective appraisal of aesthetics, mental effort and usability BIBAFull-Text 117-132
  Aline Chevalier; Anne-Claire Maury; Nicolas Fouquereau
The user experience is defined as 'a person's perceptions and responses that result from the use and/or anticipated use of a product, system or service' (ISO FDIS 9241-210, 2009) [Ergonomics of human system interaction Ergonomics of human system interaction -- Part 210: human-centered design for interactive systems (formerly known as 13407). Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization]. Accordingly, some authors have argued that an interactive system has to be evaluated not only with regard to its usability and utility levels, but also with regard to emotional, attractiveness, and aesthetic levels. These last aspects play a substantial role on the general assessment of such systems and on the satisfaction of users. Some studies focused on the immediate aesthetic subjective perception of systems, on their subjective usability and preference perceptions. However, few studies, at least to our knowledge, have been focused on the reverse, that is, on the effect of difficulties experienced by individuals in using systems on the aesthetic appraisal. The present study aimed at determining the role of familiarity level with the website and the search complexity on the search performance and post-experiment appraisals of aesthetics, usability, and mental effort. The main results revealed that the search complexity affected negatively search performance, whereas the familiarity level affected only the re-reading of the search questions. The post-use assessments of aesthetics, mental effort, and usability satisfaction were affected by search performance. In addition, these variables were correlated except the expressive aesthetics, which seemed to be independent from the search performance and other subjective appraisals. Then, we discuss these findings in line with prior studies and present future ways of research.
The development of a panorama manifestation virtual reality system for navigation and a usability comparison with a desktop system BIBAFull-Text 133-143
  Fanxing Meng; Wei Zhang; Rui Yang
The virtual reality (VR) system has become popular in the last two decades and is being applied increasingly to navigation studies. This study developed a panorama manifestation (PM) VR system, with six monitors forming a circular display and an interactive chair equipped with rotation sensors and operating knobs. The advantages of the PM system include a large circular display, a body-centred design, body engagement and a low set-up cost. Based on navigation experimental tasks, this system's usability was compared with that of a typical desktop (DT) system. The results showed that participants using the PM system had a significantly higher success rate and required less completion time than participants using the DT system, indicating that the PM system outperforms the DT system in terms of effectiveness and efficiency in some navigation tasks, and also suggesting that the PM system may require lower spatial cognition workload in the navigation tasks. However, the participants' subjective evaluations of task difficulty (TD) failed to reach significance although the PM group did report a lower mean value for TD. Additionally, in the PM system, the participants' spatial ability was more predictive to their navigation performance than that in the DT system, indicating that the PM system offered greater usability for some spatial experiments and could provide more support for participants' navigation tasks.
What you get is what you see: revisiting the evaluator effect in usability tests BIBAFull-Text 144-162
  Morten Hertzum; Rolf Molich; Niels Ebbe Jacobsen
Usability evaluation is essential to user-centred design; yet, evaluators who analyse the same usability test sessions have been found to identify substantially different sets of usability problems. We revisit this evaluator effect by having 19 experienced usability professionals analyse video-recorded test sessions with five users. Nine participants analysed moderated sessions; 10 participants analysed unmoderated sessions. For the moderated sessions, participants reported an average of 33% of the problems reported by all nine of these participants and 50% of the subset of problems reported as critical or serious by at least one participant. For the unmoderated sessions, the percentages were 32% and 40%. Thus, the evaluator effect was similar for moderated and unmoderated sessions, and it was substantial for the full set of problems and still present for the most severe problems. In addition, participants disagreed in their severity ratings. As much as 24% (moderated) and 30% (unmoderated) of the problems reported by multiple participants were rated as critical by one participant and minor by another. The majority of the participants perceived an evaluator effect when merging their individual findings into group evaluations. We discuss reasons for the evaluator effect and recommend ways of managing it.
The impact of two different think-aloud instructions in a usability test: a case of just following orders? BIBAFull-Text 163-183
  Tingting Zhao; Sharon McDonald; Helen M. Edwards
The instructions used in think-aloud studies can range from a simple request to think-aloud, to an explicit instruction to include certain types of content. The present study compared two think-aloud instructions: the classic neutral think-aloud instruction and an explicit instruction requesting explanations and content that is relevant to the user experience. Data from task performance, mental workload, think-aloud protocols and usability problems were collected from 16 participants, equally distributed between the two think-aloud instruction conditions. No differences were found in task performance, however, participants in the explicit instruction condition reported higher mental workload and a focus on finding interface problems. The explicit instruction condition also yielded more utterances about the user experience, expectations and explanations of behaviour than the neutral condition. An analysis of the resultant usability problems revealed that the explicit instruction led to a larger number of dialogue, navigation, layout and functionality problems, but that the problems which were unique to this condition were, in the main, at a low level of severity.
Exploring the Critical Factors Influencing the Quality of Blog Interfaces Using the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) Method BIBAFull-Text 184-194
  Chun-Cheng Hsu; Yi-Shian Lee
Many studies have shown the significance of a good user interface in affecting a blogger's decision to select a platform for their blog and a reader's decision to read one, and so it is vital that both developers and bloggers need a greater understanding of how they can improve user experience through perfecting their blog interfaces. The aim of this research is to explore the critical factors influencing the quality of blog interfaces and the causal relationships between these factors, enabling blog interfaces to be designed more effectively. Using an approach combining a focus group and the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL), this study defined eight factors in four dimensions that influence blog interface quality. The results of the DEMATEL analysis identify the key causal factors and effect factors, as well as the causal relationships between the eight factors via the impact-relations map. The research also indicates the most critical causal factors that bloggers and developers should focus on, in order to most effectively improve the quality and attractiveness of blog interfaces.
Must evaluation methods be about usability? Devising and assessing the utility inspection method BIBAFull-Text 195-206
  Guiðrún Hulda Jónsdóttir Johannessen; Kasper Hornbæk
Whereas research in usability evaluation abounds, few evaluation approaches focus on utility. We present the utility inspection method (UIM), which prompts evaluators about the utility of the system they evaluate. The UIM asks whether a system uses global platforms, provides support infrastructure, is robust, gives access to rich content, allows customisation, offers symbolic value and supports companionship among users and between users and developers. We compare 47 participants' use of UIM and heuristic evaluation (HE). The UIM helps identify more than three times as many problems as HE about the context of activities; HE helps identify 2.5 times as many problems as UIM about the interface. Usability experts consider the problems found with UIM more severe and more complex to solve compared to those found with HE. We argue that UIM complements existing usability evaluation methods and discuss future research on utility inspection.

BIT 2014-03-04 Volume 33 Issue 3

Editorial BIBFull-Text 207-209
  Tom Stewart
Attitudes towards software piracy in South Africa: Knowledge of Intellectual Property Laws as a moderator BIBAFull-Text 210-224
  Bernadette King; Andrew Thatcher
The aims of the study were to describe the relationship between all three of Kohlberg's levels of moral development and attitudes towards software piracy as well as to determine if an individual's Knowledge of Intellectual Property Laws moderated this relationship. The research exploring moral development and attitudes towards software piracy is limited in that the results are inconclusive and often do not assess higher levels of moral development. In this study, we explore some of the early antecedent relationships in the theory of reasoned action. An exploratory, non-experimental, cross-sectional survey design was used and a questionnaire containing three scales (attitudes towards software piracy, levels of moral development and Knowledge of Intellectual Property Laws) were obtained from a sample of 402 respondents from three medium-sized South African organisations and from an online survey on a prominent South African online information technology magazine. The results indicated that there is a significant positive relationship between the respondents' attitudes to software piracy and levels of moral development. Additionally, there are significant relationships between attitudes towards software piracy and each of the levels of moral development. Level 2 moral development predicted the most amount of variance in attitudes towards software piracy. The moderated multiple linear regression revealed that the Knowledge of Intellectual Property Laws did not have a moderating effect on the relationship between attitudes towards software piracy and moral development. These findings provide a more in-depth analysis of the relationship between attitudes and levels of moral development with respect to software piracy.
The study of perceived adverse effects of digital piracy and involvement: insights from adult computer users BIBAFull-Text 225-236
  Mateja Kos Koklic; Irena Vida; Domen Bajde; Barbara Culiberg
In this study, we focus on two sets of expected negative consequences of engaging in digital piracy among the seldom studied adult computer users rather than student population. We delve into the role of perceived risk and moral intensity as drivers of consumers' attitudes and behavioural intentions, and explore the rarely examined moderating effect of issue involvement on the relationship between the attitude and intention to pirate. The dominant attitude-behaviour theory is extended with an ethical decision-making theoretical perspective. The hypotheses are tested via mail survey data from a random sample of adult consumers using structural equations modelling. The results of this cross-sectional study show unfailing support for the relationships proposed in our model. Our findings suggest that, in addition to perceived risk, moral intensity (i.e. the expected consequences for others), has a particularly strong total effect on the intention to pirate, and that consumer involvement in illegally downloading files is a salient factor moderating the relationship between attitudes and behavioural intentions. Based on this pattern of results, we offer theoretical and practical implications.
User preference of cyber security awareness delivery methods BIBAFull-Text 237-248
  Jemal Abawajy
Operating systems and programmes are more protected these days and attackers have shifted their attention to human elements to break into the organisation's information systems. As the number and frequency of cyber-attacks designed to take advantage of unsuspecting personnel are increasing, the significance of the human factor in information security management cannot be understated. In order to counter cyber-attacks designed to exploit human factors in information security chain, information security awareness with an objective to reduce information security risks that occur due to human related vulnerabilities is paramount. This paper discusses and evaluates the effects of various information security awareness delivery methods used in improving end-users' information security awareness and behaviour. There are a wide range of information security awareness delivery methods such as web-based training materials, contextual training and embedded training. In spite of efforts to increase information security awareness, research is scant regarding effective information security awareness delivery methods. To this end, this study focuses on determining the security awareness delivery method that is most successful in providing information security awareness and which delivery method is preferred by users. We conducted information security awareness using text-based, game-based and video-based delivery methods with the aim of determining user preferences. Our study suggests that a combined delivery methods are better than individual security awareness delivery method.
Collective activities in a technology-mediated medical team. An analysis of epidemiological alert management BIBAFull-Text 249-258
  C. Gaudin; N. Bonnardel; L. Pellegrin; H. Chaudet
We conducted an exploratory study of a complex and dynamic medical activity, namely the collective management of an epidemiological alert situation. With a view to improving our knowledge of how this activity is managed, we set up simulated situations of epidemiological alerts. A multidisciplinary medical team was assisted by a decision-support system called ASTER and we recorded a set of systematised observations of human-human and human-machine interactions. Participants were physicians belonging to the Department of Epidemiology at the French Army's Institute of Tropical Medicine. After presenting the epidemiological domain and our theoretical approach, we describe the simulated situation and the communication dataset we collected and analysed, applying the EORCA method. Finally, in our discussion of the results, we suggest how communication could be enhanced between technology-mediated teams in complex and dynamic situations.
Technology-mediated information sharing between patients and clinicians in primary care encounters BIBAFull-Text 259-270
  Onur Asan; Enid Montague
Objective: The aim of this study was to identify and describe the use of electronic health records (EHRs) for information sharing between patients and clinicians in primary-care encounters. This topic is particularly important as computers and other technologies are increasingly implemented in multi-user health-care settings where interactions and communication between patients and clinicians are integral to interpersonal and organisational outcomes. Method: An ethnographic approach was used to classify the encounters into distinct technology-use patterns based on clinicians' interactions with the technology and patients. Each technology-use pattern was quantitatively analysed to assist with comparison. Quantitative analysis was based on duration of patient and clinician gaze at EHR. Findings: Physicians employed three different styles to share information using EHRs: (1) active information sharing, in which a clinician turns the monitor towards the patient and uses the computer to actively share information with the patient; (2) passive information sharing, when a clinician does not move the monitor, but the patient might see the monitor by leaning in if they choose and (3) technology withdrawal, when a clinician does not share the monitor with the patient. Conclusion: A variety of technology-mediated information-sharing styles may be effective in providing patient-centred care. New EHR designs may be needed to facilitate information sharing between patients and clinicians.
Observing the use of an input device for rehabilitation purposes BIBAFull-Text 271-282
  Cristina Manresa-Yee; Pere Ponsa; Iosune Salinas; Francisco J. Perales; Francisca Negre; Javier Varona
We designed and developed a vision-based computer interface which works with head movements. The system was implemented in a centre for users with cerebral palsy and they used it in contexts related with recreation or with education. During this process, it was observed that the continued use of the interface with a set of training tasks may act as a physical and cognitive rehabilitation tool and complement users' rehabilitation therapy. We comment on five case studies of users who have worked with the interface for five months and whose qualitative outcomes, observed by the therapists who accompanied them, were positive; specifically there was improvement in work posture, head control, increased endurance, decreased involuntary movements and improved spatial orientation. The case studies also showed the need to supervise the users' work in order to achieve these aims, along with the importance of motivation and active, voluntary participation of users in the rehabilitation process.
Exploring the potential of virtual worlds in engaging older people and supporting healthy aging BIBAFull-Text 283-294
  Panote Siriaraya; Chee Siang Ang; Ania Bobrowicz
There is an increasing need to find innovative activities to help the older population maintain a healthy life. Virtual worlds, which can provide social engagement, entertainment and creativity as well as useful information and services for older people might offer a solution to this issue. Although emerging studies have begun to look into the benefits of virtual worlds in healthcare, little has been done in the context of older people. Based on semi-structured interviews and previous research on healthy aging, we identified and described in depth four areas in which virtual worlds could be useful to support older people. In general, it was found that virtual worlds could help empower older people to manage their disabilities, facilitate social engagement, provide mental stimulation and productive activities.
Promoting healthy computer use: timing-informed computer health animations for prolonged sitting computer users BIBAFull-Text 295-301
  Sy-Chyi Wang; Ciao Jiang; Jin-Yuan Chern
Accompanying the increase in computer and Internet use worldwide, physical inactivity has become prevalent in most developed and developing countries. Extended computer use may contribute to symptoms such as visual impairment and musculoskeletal disorders. To reduce the risk of physical inactivity and promote healthier computer use, this study tries to develop a timed broadcast of health-related animations for users sitting at computers for prolonged periods. In addition, we examine the effects that the program has on the computer-related health beliefs and behaviour of participants. Before-and-after survey questionnaires were used for data collection. The results show that the animation program indeed had a positive effect when reminding participants to take a break and stretch their bodies. The program influenced the beliefs and behaviours of participants with regard to their health. The development and examination were documented and discussed within the context of health agencies planning the next steps in an effort to promote, develop and evaluate healthy computer use.
Erratum BIBFull-Text 302-303

BIT 2014-04-03 Volume 33 Issue 4

Editorial BIBFull-Text 305-307
  Tom Stewart
Measuring and evaluating IS expectations and benefit success from B2B electronic trading: a new survey approach BIBAFull-Text 308-317
  Colm Fearon; Heather McLaughlin; Stephen Jackson
This article demonstrates a survey approach for measuring and evaluating IS benefit success from business-to-business (B2B) electronic trading. This article is of significance in demonstrating practical benefit success mechanisms for evaluating complex IS projects. A new survey approach is used to help evaluate the IS benefit success for each participating organisation. Disconfirmation theory and the expectations paradigm are used to justify the overall approach taken. A central tenet of the overall evaluation approach has been the need for a combined evaluation of benefit success based on interpreting or diagnosing two outcomes: (a) the 'realised benefit outcome' (RBO), or the actual number of realised strategic and operational benefits a company has achieved, regardless of initial expectations, as well as (b) the 'benefit state outcome' (BSO), or the extent of benefit planning gap (BPG) experienced within each company relative to their original expectations. This article demonstrates in detail how to measure benefit success from survey data using a perceptual self-assessed rating instrument. The approach will be useful for other academics and practitioners in the development of usable IS benefits evaluation mechanisms.
Realising M-Payments: modelling consumers' willingness to M-pay using Smart Phones BIBAFull-Text 318-334
  Aidan Duane; Philip O'Reilly; Pavel Andreev
It is predicted that significant and ongoing investment in M-Commerce platforms and application development by commercial entities will fundamentally change consumers' shopping and web browsing behaviours. However, the evolving behaviour of Smart Phone users is somewhat tempered by concerns over M-Payments. If Smart Phones are to reach their full M-Commerce potential, the ability of consumers to transact and pay for products/services through these devices in an easy, safe and reliable manner must be addressed. In response, this paper contributes a theoretical model and empirically tests the model to explore Irish consumers' perceptions of using Smart Phones to make M-Payments for products/services. The findings present conclusive evidence that trust is the most powerful factor influencing consumers' willingness to use Smart Phones to make M-Payments. While perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use influence the payment decision, their impact is much lower. Mobile self-efficacy and personal innovativeness have almost no direct impact. The paper concludes that irrespective of individuals' high levels of personal innovativeness or mobile self-efficacy and irrespective of whether Smart Mobile Media Services are perceived as useful and easy to use, consumers will not make M-Payments, until they are convinced that Smart Phone M-Payment systems are safe and reliable.
Attitudes towards mobile banking: are there any differences between users and non-users? BIBAFull-Text 335-344
  M. Sadiq Sohail; Ibrahim M. Al-Jabri
Extant research has focused on monitoring the behaviour of people who use mobile banking (MB) but it has paid little attention to understanding the impact of information technology usage behaviour due to cultural differences. Humans are the weakest link in information technology adoption; past research has shown that not all users are predisposed to change their behaviour radically and adopt new channels of banking. This paper examines the demographic patterns of users and non-users of MB. The paper also investigates the attitudinal influences of users and non-users of MB based on innovation attributes. Using empirical research, the study identifies constructs of innovation attributes that were perceived to be significantly different among the users and non-users of MB. The study provides valuable insights into MB in Saudi Arabia that have not been previously investigated. From a practical point, findings of this study will be particularly useful to banks, financial institutions and telecommunication service providers.
Facebook and socio-economic benefits in the developing world BIBAFull-Text 345-360
  Ewilly J. Y. Liew; Santha Vaithilingam; Mahendhiran Nair
Facebook is becoming increasingly important for the socio-economic development of countries across the globe as stakeholders engage in online social interaction and expand their reach for new products, services and markets to open up new revenue streams. Past studies have examined the environment that supports effective use of social networking technologies in the developed world. This study argues that the enabling environment in developed and developing countries may vary and therefore may impact Facebook adoption and its socio-economic benefits differently. The model integrates the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and revised UTAUT. Using a structured questionnaire on a sample of 367 Facebook users, the results show that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions (affordability and regulatory environment) are important factors that impact Facebook adoption in a developing country such as Malaysia. The study contributes to the literature by identifying that Facebook user's perceived socio-economic benefits act as a mediator between adoption and actual use behaviour (information seeking, socialisation, entertainment and business development). The findings also indicate that religion, ethnicity, language, gender and education are significant factors moderating the adoption-perception-use behaviour of Facebook. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed in the paper.
A comparative study of two wayfinding aids for simulated driving tasks -- single-scale and dual-scale GPS aids BIBAFull-Text 361-371
  Binfeng Li; Keming Zhu; Wei Zhang; Anna Wu; Xiaolong Zhang
Global Positioning System (GPS) is currently the most frequently used wayfinding aid for driving. Yet, GPS is designed to act as a driving guide rather than to help users gain spatial knowledge. Accordingly, GPS might be less usable in situations where such knowledge is required or highly desirable. In this study, we experimentally study the influence of GPS display scales (single-scale vs. dual-scale) using simulated driving tasks in a virtual environment. The single-scale GPS is similar to the regular GPS view. The dual-scale GPS aid is a dual-scale navigation tool that provides two levels of detail, including both detailed and contextual information. The results demonstrate that the dual-scale GPS was more efficient in leading the participants to the destination during the simulated driving and was more useful for the participants to establish spatial awareness and a cognitive map; the dual-scale GPS participants also reported higher subjective evaluations. The proposed dual-scale GPS design and experimental results show some indications for designing new wayfinding aids aimed at increasing wayfinding performance while simultaneously helping users construct a cognitive map.
Experiments on user experiences with recommender interfaces BIBAFull-Text 372-394
  Li Chen; Pearl Pu
Recommender systems have been increasingly adopted as personalisation services in e-commerce. They facilitate users to locate items which they would be interested in viewing or purchasing. However, most studies have emphasised on the algorithm's performance, rather than on in-depth analysis of user experiences with the recommender interface. In this article, we report the results of two studies that compared two recommender interfaces: the organisation-based interface (where recommendations are presented in a category structure via the preference-based organisation method) and the standard ranked list (where recommendations are listed one after the other as ordered by their prediction scores). The first study focuses on evaluating users' eye-movement behaviour in these interfaces. With the help of an eye tracker, we found that the organisation interface (ORG) can significantly attract users' attentions to more recommended items. As a result, more users made product choices in that interface. The second, larger-scale, cross-cultural user survey further shows that the ORG performed significantly better in terms of enhancing users' perceived recommendation quality, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of the system. Hence, these empirical findings suggest that the change of recommender interface design can not only alter users' attention distribution, but also influence their subjective attitudes towards the system.
Factors influencing behavioural intention to patronise restaurants using iPad as a menu card BIBAFull-Text 395-409
  Hsiu-Yuan Wang; Sung-Yeh Wu
Recently, several restaurants have launched mobile technology-based self-services by replacing their printed menus with iPads. To assess the perceived value of the iPad menu from the customers' perspective, this study proposed and tested a new research model which includes both functional and emotional aspects of customers' attitudes. The aim was based on the supposition that an overall value judgement in regard to using the iPad menu to promote dining experience will influence customers' behavioural intention to patronise restaurants that use the new technology; 332 usable data gathered from cyberspace were tested against the research model. The results demonstrated the importance of perceived value. All functional factors (i.e. perceived control, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use) and emotional factors (i.e. perceived enjoyment and perceived novelty) were significantly affecting perceived value. For managers interested in investing in these mobile self-service technologies, the findings provided them with sound advice based on empirical research.
A comparative study of scores on computer-based tests and paper-based tests BIBAFull-Text 410-422
  Hanho Jeong
The use of computer-based tests (CBTs) has spread rapidly in recent years, as such tests offer real-time scoring and immediate feedback, facilitate the use of individualised testing methods, improve test administration and reduce test expenses. Thus, most previous studies have tended to focus on the technical advantages of CBTs and on implementation issues. However, objections to the use of CBTs have begun to surface, and the primary concern is whether the scores of CBTs and those of paper-based tests (PBTs) are equivalent. The aim of this article is to compare the scores of Korean students on computer-based and paper-based versions of the same test. We focus on the differences between the scores of male and female participants and between scores on tests examining different subject matter. Surprisingly, even though the Korean students who participated in this study had more exposure to advanced information technologies such as computers, the Internet and multimedia than did students in other countries, they did not achieve higher CBT scores than PBT scores. This finding shows that familiarity with information technology and adaptation to CBTs are distinct. We also identified a fundamental reason for low CBT scores.

BIT 2014-05-04 Volume 33 Issue 5

Editorial BIBFull-Text 423-425
  Tom Stewart
Using OWL-VisMod through a decision-making process for reusing OWL ontologies BIBAFull-Text 426-442
  Francisco J. García-Peñalvo; Patrica Ordónez de Pablos; Juan García; Roberto Therón
Knowledge representation (KR) can be defined as a set of ontological commitments, provided with the capabilities of performing inference. The knowledge can be represented using an ontology, which provides a shared insight into a certain domain. The use of ontologies to represent knowledge also allows interoperation among knowledge-based systems. The process of building ontologies can be tedious and sometimes exhaustive. A possible solution in order to avoid this problem would be to reuse the ontologies previously created by others. This paper describes a case study of reusability using OWL-VisMod, a tool designed for developing ontological engineering based on visual conceptual modelling for OWL ontologies. A workflow performed with OWL-VisMod is described; including a decision-making process in order to decide whether or not it could be desirable to reuse an ontology, according to the requirements of a certain project.
Ontology engineering step in design science research methodology: a technique to gather and reuse knowledge BIBAFull-Text 443-451
  Lukasz Ostrowski; Markus Helfert; Nelson Gama
Design science (DS) is an emerging research paradigm in the information systems field. One of its challenges is to systematically structure knowledge for business solution artefacts. In this paper, we address this challenge by presenting an ontology engineering process. It structures gathered knowledge based on domain-specific concepts and relations. Application of the process results in an improvement in DS artefacts in terms of representational information quality. The goal of the paper is to place the ontology engineering process in the DS research methodology and provide pragmatic steps to follow the process.
Adoption of the Internet for knowledge acquisition in R&D processes BIBAFull-Text 452-469
  Iris Reychav; Miguel Ignacio Aguirre-Urreta
This research investigated Internet-based knowledge search patterns of engineers and scientists working in R&D for companies in the pharmacological and information technology sectors in Israel. Building on earlier work that considers the multidimensional nature of the relative advantage construct, we examine how perceptions of learning, informational convenience, and trust affected intentions to use the Internet to acquire new knowledge. In particular, these perceptions were studied with regard to both active and passive modes of interaction. We also considered here which types of technological knowledge are acquired by researchers, and how that differs across two professional communities of practice -- scientists and engineers. This study sheds light on how R&D workers perceive the relative advantage of acquiring necessary knowledge through passive and active modes of communication with other researchers that are facilitated by the Internet. Findings are of interest to the literature on knowledge spillover because the capability of an organisation to acquire, disseminate, and exploit knowledge is crucial to R&D efforts.
An application framework for developing collaborative handheld decision-making tools BIBAFull-Text 470-485
  Pedro Antunes; Gustavo Zurita; Nelson Baloian
This paper describes an application framework supporting collaborative handheld decision-making (CHDM). The main characteristics of the framework are: (1) extensive usage of visual elements and gestures; and (2) independence from specific decision-making methods, processes and tasks. The research departed from the analysis and systematisation of several CHDM scenarios, highlighting repeatable behaviour across multiple decision-making contexts. From these scenarios, we distilled a coherent set of common functional requirements organised in three main categories: process, macro- and micro-functionality. The proposed framework has been validated at length through the development of several CHDM tools. Six different tools are described in the paper. The main contribution of this work is a common foundation for developing CHDM tools.
Knowledge processes in virtual teams: consolidating the evidence BIBAFull-Text 486-501
  Yulin Fang; Ron Chi-Wai Kwok; Andreas Schroeder
This article takes stock of the current state of research on knowledge processes in virtual teams (VTs) and consolidates the extent research findings. Virtual teams, on the one hand, constitute important organisational entities that facilitate the integration of diverse and distributed knowledge resources. On the other hand, collaborating in a virtual environment creates particular challenges for the knowledge processes. The article seeks to consolidate the diverse evidence on knowledge processes in VTs with a specific focus on identifying the factors that influence the effectiveness of these knowledge processes. The article draws on the four basic knowledge processes outlined by Alavi and Leidner (2001) (i.e. creation, transferring, storage/retrieval and application) to frame the investigation and discuss the extent research. The consolidation of the existing research findings allows us to recognise the gaps in the understanding of knowledge processes in VTs and identify the important avenues for future research.
Examining the role of perceived value in virtual communities continuance: its antecedents and the influence of experience BIBAFull-Text 502-521
  Chun-Ming Chang; Meng-Hsiang Hsu; Cheng-Se Hsu; Hsiang-Lan Cheng
Although perceived value has long been recognised as an influential means of affecting continuance intention in information systems (IS), little attention has been devoted to explore its antecedents, which constitutes an important research issue. This study, building on prior literature on continued usage in IS as well as the resource-based view, proposed a model to address this gap. Our model suggests that perceived value, a major driving force for members' satisfaction and continuance intention, is affected by four kinds of resources embedded in virtual communities, which are relationship resources, technology infrastructure, knowledge resources and human resources. To provide additional insights on the pivotal role of perceived value, we also postulate that experience moderates the link between perceived value and its antecedents. Data collected from 235 members of a professional virtual community provide strong support for the research model. It was found that perceived value exerts a great effect on both satisfaction and continuance intention. In addition, when different levels of experience are taken into consideration, relationship resources, knowledge resources and human resources were found to be more salient to high-experience members, whereas technology infrastructure was found to be more salient to low-experience members. Finally, this study discusses the implications of these findings and offers direction for future research.
Determinants of knowledge seeking in professional virtual communities BIBAFull-Text 522-535
  Hui-Min Lai; Chin-Pin Chen; Yung-Fu Chang
As knowledge management systems within organisations, professional virtual communities (PVCs) are popular knowledge-seeking tools, which bring together geographically dispersed members from outside of the organisations. An increasing number of employees use PVCs for knowledge seeking, knowledge exchange and problem solving at work. Why do members choose to receive knowledge from other community members in PVCs needs to be understood. This paper extends Ajzen's [1991. The theory of planned behaviour. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50 (2), 179-211] theory of planned behaviour to elicit external beliefs in terms of personal motivation, as well as technological and social factors, and to examine the relative importance of these factors. According to this study's online survey of 323 members in three PVCs, the results show that the significance of beliefs, such as system quality, compatibility, trust, knowledge growth and knowledge quality, in creating positive attitudes towards knowledge seeking. Community identification is shown as a salient belief for the subjective norms of knowledge seeking. System quality and resource availability are revealed as important determinants for perceived behavioural control of knowledge seeking. Knowledge-seeking intention is based on the attitude towards knowledge seeking and the subjective norm of knowledge seeking, whereas knowledge-seeking behaviour is solely determined by knowledge-seeking intention. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Social virtual world continuance among teens: uncovering the moderating role of perceived aggregate network exposure BIBAFull-Text 536-547
  Matti Mäntymäki; A. K. M. Najmul Islam
Engagement in virtual worlds has become pervasive, particularly among the young. At the same time, the number of virtual environments has increased rapidly. Due to intensifying competition, promoting sustained usage, i.e. continuance, has become a top priority for virtual world operators. Prior research has shown that network externalities play a key role in the adoption of communication technologies. However, a small amount of research has examined the role of network externalities in continued IT usage in general or with respect to the virtual world participation in particular. To fill in this gap, we examine how perceived network externalities affect the continuance of social virtual worlds. To this end, we introduce the concept of perceived aggregate network exposure (PANE). We extend the original information systems (IS) continuance model with perceived enjoyment and position PANE as a moderator. We test the model with data collected from 2134 Finnish Habbo Hotel users and employ structural equation modelling in the analysis. The results demonstrate that PANE moderates the influence of motivational factors on continued use intention and satisfaction.

BIT 2014-06-03 Volume 33 Issue 6

Editorial BIBFull-Text 549-551
  Tom Stewart
Older adults' use of smart phones: an investigation of the factors influencing the acceptance of new functions BIBAFull-Text 552-560
  Jia Zhou; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Gavriel Salvendy
After adopting mobile phones, most older adults use them only for calling and SMS. The purpose of this study is to extend their usage of mobile phones to new functions. To understand older adults' requirements of mobile phones, a questionnaire was constructed and 351 Chinese older adults were recruited to complete the questionnaires. Data collected through the questionnaires were analysed using explorative factor analysis. The results revealed that older adults' requirements were composed of 10 factors: Find a Specific Function, Awareness and Attractiveness, Readability, Personal Concern, Soft Keys and Multi-tap, Hardware Capacity, Touch Screen, Concern of Learning, Connectivity, and Social Influence. Then, from the above 10 factors, the 6 most important factors were revealed using multiple linear regression analysis. The results imply that accepting new functions is different from accepting a product. Readability and Find a Specific Function, which are critical for older adults' acceptance of feature phones, are not determinants of their acceptance of new functions in smart phones.
Redesigning websites for older adults: a case study BIBAFull-Text 561-573
  Evelina Patsoule; Panayiotis Koutsabasis
Website redesign is a complex task that requires the organised use of design methods and guidelines as well as meaningful assessments. An important reason for website redesign is to enhance the usability and accessibility for 'non-traditional' user groups like the older population. The paper presents a case study of the redesign of a touristic web portal in order for it to be senior-friendly. The redesign process involved: (a) identification of a set of 7 principles and 45 guidelines (7p/45g) for web design for older adults; (b) heuristic evaluation of the original website on the basis of the identified 7p/45g set; (c) redesign of the website in an interactive online prototype; and (d) comparative summative usability evaluation, which involved 12 older users and post hoc interviews and questionnaires. The results showed that the redesigned website was significantly more usable and acceptable than the original. This study makes two contributions in the field: first, it outlines a web redesign process for older adults, which is effective in terms of time and cost, making use of various assessments of experts and users; second, it presents the application of this process in a manner that can be adopted and repeated in other redesign cases.
Can ICT improve the quality of life of elderly adults living in residential home care units? From actual impacts to hidden artefacts BIBAFull-Text 574-590
  Marc-Eric Bobillier Chaumon; Christine Michel; Franck Tarpin Bernard; Bernard Croisile
In a context of progressive loss of intellectual and interactional capacities for the elderly, the goal of this article is to examine to what extent a new technological environment can improve their quality of life. In this study, we examine the very elderly (mean age 87) who have experienced a loss in functional capacities and are dependent on managed care such as residential home care units. Using qualitative methods amongst a group of 17 residents (semi-structured interviews and longitudinal observations), we examine whether new social practices form and whether subjects feel more socially recognised. Our study shows that information and communications technologies may, to some extent, play an instrumental role in interconnectedness and social stimulation, and can also be seen as a 'boundary object' that communicates between the residents' world (who are rather isolated) and their families' world (including grandchildren).
Effects of perceptual complexity on older and younger adults' target acquisition performance BIBAFull-Text 591-605
  Min-Ju Liao; Ying Wu; Ching-Fan Sheu
The present study evaluated the effects of the three perceptual complexity factors: number of elements, colour variety, and graphical background clutter level, on older and younger adults' target acquisition time within a computer display. Experiment 1 manipulated the total number of icons, Experiment 2 manipulated the variety of icon colours, and Experiment 3 manipulated the clutter level of the graphical background on the display. In each experiment, 12 older and 12 younger adults were asked to move a cursor to a target icon on the display as quickly and accurately as possible. Target size and distance to the cursor were also manipulated to yield different difficulties of targets. Target acquisition time and Fitts' law slope were analysed. Results showed that target acquisition time increased for more difficult targets under all the three complexity factors. The amount of increase was more evident for the factors of colour variety and graphical background clutter than for the number of icons. Older participants performed more slowly than younger participants did, particularly for more difficult targets. However, the impact of the three complexity factors on acquisition time appeared to be comparable for both age groups. The results suggest that implementations of colour varieties and graphical backgrounds on interfaces should be restricted, especially when icon acquisition is a common activity involved in interacting with an interface.
Promoting in-depth reading experience and acceptance: design and assessment of Tablet reading interfaces BIBAFull-Text 606-618
  Kuo-Liang Huang; Kuo-Hsiang Chen; Chun-Heng Ho
This study employs an interface design on a Tablet to facilitate in-depth reading for learners and allow them to apply better strategies and skills when reading; thereby cultivating their positive attitude towards reading and improving their willingness to use Tablets. Using human-centred design, we first investigated the Tablet functions within learner wants and needs based on their reading experiences, analysed each function and its correlation to reading satisfaction, and obtained a basis for evaluation. We next employed the 10 functions demonstrating the highest importance to complete a prototyping design. Finally, based on the technology acceptance model, we employed experimental methods to verify the prototype using the post-test-only control group design. The results of the study indicate that for perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, reading and using attitudes, and behaviour intentions, the average scores for the improved Tablet were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those for the original version.
Facilitating shared understanding of work situations using a tangible tabletop interface BIBAFull-Text 619-635
  Stefan Oppl; Christian Stary
As work is an inherently cooperative phenomenon, it requires a common understanding of the nature of collaboration for all involved parties. In this way, explicit articulation work becomes an integral and essential part of collaboration. Implicit aspects of collaboration have impact on the quality of work results, mainly through social norms and observations of working together. Eliciting those aspects interactively helps in avoiding (mutual) misrepresentations and lack of understanding. Tangible articulation support systems allow aligning mental models of how work should be carried out. Stakeholders can develop a common understanding of collaboration in a semantically open and non-intrusive way. They are not burdened by explication features and diagrammatic notations. We have utilised experiences with model-centred learning theory to support explicit articulation work. According to our field studies, the resulting models can be fed back to current work practices and help in preventing problematic work situations.
The importance of interface complexity and entropy for online information sharing BIBAFull-Text 636-645
  Sarah Spiekermann; Jana Korunovska
In this paper, we describe two experiments that show the powerful influence of interface complexity and entropy on online information-sharing behaviour. One hundred and thirty-four participants were asked to do a creativity test and answer six open questions against three different screen backgrounds of increasing complexity. Our data show that, as an interface becomes more complex and has more entropy users refer less to themselves and show less information-sharing breadth. However, their verbal creativity and information-sharing depth do not suffer in the same way. Instead, an inverse U-shaped relationship between interface complexity and creativity as well as information-sharing depth can be observed: users become more creative and thoughtful until a certain tipping point of interface complexity is reached. At that point, creativity and thinking suffer, leading to significantly less disclosure. This result challenges the general HCI assumption that simplicity is always best for computers' interface design, as users' creativity and information-sharing depth initially increases with more interface complexity. Our results suggest that the Yerkes-Dodson Law may be a key theory underlying online creativity and depth of online disclosures.
A comparative study using an autostereoscopic display with augmented and virtual reality BIBAFull-Text 646-655
  Juan-J. Arino; M-Carmen Juan; Jose-Antonio Gil-Gómez; Ramón Mollá
Advances in display devices are facilitating the integration of stereoscopic visualisation in our daily lives. However, autostereoscopic visualisation has not been extensively exploited. In this paper, we present a system that combines augmented reality (AR) and autostereoscopic visualisation. We also present the first study that compares different aspects using an autostereoscopic display with AR and virtual reality (VR), in which 39 children from 8 to 10 years old participated. In our study, no statistically significant differences were found between AR and VR. However, the scores were very high in nearly all of the questions, and the children also scored the AR version higher in all cases. Moreover, the children explicitly preferred the AR version (81%). For the AR version, a strong and significant correlation was found between the use of the autostereoscopic screen in games and seeing the virtual object on the marker. For the VR version, two strong and significant correlations were found. The first correlation was between the ease of play and the use of the rotatory controller. The second correlation was between depth perception and the game global score. Therefore, the combinations of AR and VR with autostereoscopic visualisation are possibilities for developing edutainment systems for children.
Testing Einstein's faux formula: fast computers+slow humans=creative brilliance BIBAFull-Text 656-662
  Gary M. Kern; Steven M. Dunphy
An experiment was designed for the purpose of testing the proposition that creative decision-making can be greatly improved by making use of the personal computer to solve a set of word anagrams serving as hints to a surprise phrase. The authors hypothesised that the experimental condition of students using various unscramble word jumble websites would significantly outperform the control group of students who attempted to unscramble the words and solve the surprise answer by hand. Results were mixed and the authors conclude that certain types of creative problem solving exercises might benefit more from the innate abilities and talents of the participants rather than the speed and accuracy of the computer.

BIT 2014-07-03 Volume 33 Issue 7

Editorial BIBFull-Text 663-665
  Tom Stewart
Continual use of microblogs BIBAFull-Text 666-677
  Wesley Shu
Some studies show that the Twitter's growth is leveling off and that its marketing has become ineffective. The purpose of this paper is to analyse what is needed for microblogs' perpetuation. Factors such as message quality, source credibility, perceived usefulness, perceived interactivity, perceived playfulness, confirmation, and satisfaction were tested for their impact on continuance intention. A post-acceptance model of microblog continuance was proposed based on information system continuance model. We found that continuance intention to use microblogs is greatly affected by satisfaction, which in turn is affected by perceived interactivity and perceived usefulness, but satisfaction is not affected by confirmation or perceived playfulness. Although confirmation has no direct effect on satisfaction, it affects perceived interactivity and perceived usefulness, which in turn affect satisfaction.
Continuance use intention of enterprise instant messaging: a knowledge management perspective BIBAFull-Text 678-692
  Haya Ajjan; Richard Hartshorne; Yingxia Cao; Michael Rodriguez
Instant messaging has been widely utilised by a variety of types of organisations to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of internal communication and knowledge management (KM). To date, though, the continuance use of enterprise instant messaging (EIM) and its impact on KM outcomes have not been well understood in both academia and practice. This paper uses the decomposed theory of planned behaviour to explore factors that influence continual usage of EIM applications within organisations, as well as the impact of the continuance use decisions on knowledge creation, transfer, and retention within organisations. Our results are useful in developing guidelines and strategies to increase the likelihood of the continuance use of EIM and to improve the potential outcome of its use within organisations.
Mobile phone purchase and usage behaviours of early adopter groups in Korea BIBAFull-Text 693-703
  Min-Jeong Kim; Jonghun Park
Recent mobile phones known as smartphones offer a variety of applications, such as Web browsing, entertainment tools, and personal calendar and contact management applications of the type that traditionally run on desktop computers. Some of the reasons why smartphones became popular rapidly in Korea may be related to the adoption by the type of user known as the early adopter. Because the early adopter group played a more crucial role in the area of mass consumption and because the mass market is changing more rapidly than before, this study examines mobile phone purchase and usage behaviours of early adopter groups in Korea in order to gain vital insights into establishing marketing strategies for early adopter groups. In this study, segmentation by means of a factor analysis and cluster analysis is conducted to classify early adopter groups in accordance with their activities, interests, and opinion. Specifically, factor analysis is employed to identify the common characteristics among lifestyle variables, and cluster analysis is then adopted for those factors to classify early adopter groups according to their lifestyles. In addition, we analyse the mobile phone purchase and usage behaviours of early adopter groups in Korea. The results of this study can contribute to the effort to classify early adopter groups while also having implications pertaining to mobile phone vendors and mobile service providers who target early adopters depending on their different characteristics.
Testing the moderating role of need for cognition in smartphone adoption BIBAFull-Text 704-715
  Hichang Cho; Byungho Park
While numerous studies have identified various cognitive and social factors affecting the adoption of new technologies and innovations, the role of individual differences has not yet received full research attention. In this study, we focused on the need for cognition (NFC; Cacioppo, J.T. and Petty, R.E., 1982. The need for cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 116-131) and examined the implications of this personality variable relative to smartphone use. The results based on the survey data (N=411) provided support for our hypotheses that NFC is an important motivational personality construct that distinguishes between adopters and non-adopters of smartphones. We also found that NFC moderates the linkages between instrumental beliefs, social influence factors, and behavioural intentions (BI). Specifically, perceived usefulness had a stronger effect on BI for high-NFC people, whereas perceived ease of use and subjective norms had stronger effects for low-NFC people. The findings reveal possible important variations in technology adoption and the role of NFC in governing these alternative decision-making processes. Implications for theory, product design, as well as for managers are discussed.
Predicting the use of online information services based on a modified UTAUT model BIBAFull-Text 716-729
  Jong-Chul Oh; Sung-Joon Yoon
There is a growing consensus that the conventional technology acceptance model should be modified and expanded to provide a better understanding of the behaviour related to Internet services. Recognising this need, this study re-evaluates the utility of Venkatesh et al.'s [2003. User acceptance of information technology: toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, 27 (3), 425-478] Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. First, this study proposes a new modified model of technology acceptance by adding the concepts of trust and flow experience to the original UTAUT model. Second, the study investigates how the model's explanatory power changes for different types of Internet services. For this, this study considers two services -- 'e-learning' and 'online gaming' -- for their utilitarian and hedonic characteristics, respectively. The results of this study suggest that the proposed model can better explain behavioural intentions towards Internet services than the original model. The two variables -- flow experience and trust -- contributed to the overall significance of the model. Furthermore, the type of Internet service moderated the effects of the independent variables on behavioural intentions and use behaviour.
Understanding consumers' continuance intention towards mobile advertising: a theoretical framework and empirical study BIBAFull-Text 730-742
  Wei-Hung Hsiao; Tsung-Sheng Chang
While issues regarding mobile advertising have captured the interest and attention of both practitioners and academics, in practice success stories are rare. An understanding of the continuance intention to use such services can provide insights into failed mobile marketing campaigns, and help to improve the implementation of future ones. Therefore, it is important to examine the underlying drivers of loyalty with regard to mobile advertising. This study uses the expectation-confirmation model in conjunction with the perspectives of value and trust to derive an integrated model to better understand the motivations behind consumers' continued use of mobile advertising. We conducted an empirical study consisting of an online survey of 508 consumers who had experience with mobile advertising. The results show that perceived value, perceived usefulness, and satisfaction all directly influence continuance intention. Furthermore, consumer satisfaction has a crucial intervening role in the relationships that perceived value, perceived usefulness, and confirmation have with continuance intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. One key limitation of this research is that the majority of respondents were students, although this group is the chief user of mobile advertising. Future research could be extended to consider other drivers of loyalty in this context, such as cultural differences and personal behavioural characteristics.
Gender, culture and determinants of behavioural intents to adopt mobile commerce among the Y Generation in transition economies: evidence from Kazakhstan BIBAFull-Text 743-756
  Kim-Choy Chung
This study investigates perceived risk and trust in relationship to the Diffusion of Innovation Theory [Rogers, E.M., 1962. Diffusion of innovations. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press; 1983. Diffusion of innovations. 3rd ed. New York: The Free Press] from a cultural perspective to understand the determinants of behavioural intent to adopt mobile commerce among the Y Generation in Kazakhstan. Surveys from 345 university-level students and subsequent structural equation modelling revealed perceived risk, trustworthiness and Rogers' five innovation characteristics are important determinants. Perceived risk and trustworthiness are important determinants because of the high uncertainty avoidance characteristics of the Kazakh society. This study advances theory regarding culture- and generation-based characteristics to transition economies by verifying theoretical proposition regarding the behavioural intent towards mobile commerce adoption, resulting in a greater understanding of mobile commerce adoption among the Y Generation in transition economies. Marketing implications are discussed.
Prevalence of internet addiction in the general population: results from a German population-based survey BIBAFull-Text 757-766
  Kai W. Müller; Heide Glaesmer; Elmar Brähler; Klaus Woelfling; Manfred E. Beutel
Despite a growing number of publications, there is still no generally agreed-upon definition and assessment procedure for Internet addiction, and there is a lack of representative data on its prevalence in the general population. Based on a reliable and valid scale of Internet addiction, the purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of the general population of Internet addiction with psychometric evidence and to identify associated psychosocial and health consequences. Out of a representative survey of the German population (N=2512) the leisure time Internet users (n=1382) were queried by standardised questionnaires on Internet addiction, depression, anxiety (HADS) and depersonalisation (CDS-2). According to strict criteria of the Assessment of Internet and Computer Game Addiction (AICA-S), 2.1% of the sample was characterised as addicted by meeting criteria of craving, withdrawal symptoms, tolerance, etc. These reported daily Internet use, excessive online times. The majority reported additional adverse psychosocial and health consequences. Risk factors were male gender and social factors (unmarried, unemployment, students, low income). Online gambling, social networks, gaming chats and pornography were preferentially used by Internet addicts. Assessment of Internet addiction requires a multifaceted approach; the AICA-S is an instrument suitable for further epidemiological study.
Do broadband adoption rates impact a community's health? BIBAFull-Text 767-779
  Brian Whitacre; Lara Brooks
As broadband Internet access becomes more common, researchers have focused on the ways that it might improve society. As part of this effort, we seek to determine whether increasing levels of broadband adoption have impacted actual health outcomes by assessing changes in aggregate health measures over time. We use data from 92 metropolitan/micropolitan statistical areas in the USA over the time period 2002-2009 and incorporate a first-differenced approach to uncover the relationship between levels of broadband adoption and various self-reported health outcomes. The results show that higher rates of broadband adoption play a statistically significant role in explaining changes in 9 of the 24 health measures considered. In some cases, higher levels of online activity are related to improved health outcomes. This suggests that policies to increase broadband adoption rates may have significant externalities related to health.

BIT 2014-08-03 Volume 33 Issue 8

Thinking beyond the box: designing interactive TV across different devices BIBFull-Text 781-783
  Jan Hess; Hendrik Knoche; Volker Wulf
User interface guidelines for the control of interactive television systems via smart phone applications BIBAFull-Text 784-799
  Regina Bernhaupt; Michael M. Pirker
There are a growing number of smart phone applications allowing the user to control their television, set-top box or other entertainment devices. The success of these applications is limited. Based on findings from media studies in Austria and France focusing on how people currently use their TV and iTV systems and associated devices, this article describes recommendations for the design of a smart phone application enabling users to control Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) systems including all connected entertainment devices. Recommendations include the need to allow users to control devices that are related to the IPTV experience (not only the set-top box or television set) and the focus on scenarios of usage like supporting listening to music, enjoying a movie or controlling the connected home. Based on similarities and differences found in the two samples, future smart phone applications for controlling TV will only succeed if they provide meaningful functionalities that satisfy the (varying) user needs, support personalisation and personal usage and respect the limitations of mobile phones with respect to possible parallel activities performed.
Extending the field of view: a human-centred design perspective on 360° TV BIBAFull-Text 800-814
  Lizzy Bleumers; Wendy Van den Broeck; Bram Lievens; Jo Pierson
Omnidirectional video (ODV) is a type of video that presents viewers with a new type of interactivity. It enables people to look around in a 360° view of the recorded dynamic scene as if they are controlling the camera themselves. ODV presents opportunities for new interactive television formats. The development of such new formats, however, is accompanied by challenges in terms of user experience and technical and creative development. In this article, we discuss issues and opportunities tied to televising ODV from a user perspective. These findings are the result of a human-centred design study. In this study, we introduced 20 potential users to ODV, as this was new to them. We gathered their feedback on the demonstration, and then encouraged them to envision suitable ODV-based enhancements of television genres. This article offers a discussion of both the methodology (including a form of laddering) applied in the study and the user research findings. We found that people see an added value in ODV under certain conditions (e.g. enabling exploration), but that there are also a number of bottlenecks such as the concern to miss key parts of a television programme while looking around.
Impacts of new technologies on media usage and social behaviour in domestic environments BIBAFull-Text 815-828
  Benedikt Ley; Corinna Ogonowski; Jan Hess; Tim Reichling; Lin Wan; Volker Wulf
Technological infrastructure at home is changing continuously and is becoming increasingly interconnected. Media devices, including the TV set, provide access to the Internet and offer manifold opportunities to consume media on demand. Additionally, personal devices, such as smartphones, also enable flexible consumption and sharing of media. Questions about how these technologies change the user's media usage and how these changes affect the social structure of a household, however, remain largely unanswered. In order to gain insight into the adoption of new technologies into daily routines, we explored these changes in respect of people's media usage in a qualitative long-term Living Lab study. We will present findings regarding personal routines, flexible integration of new devices into existing practices, influences on households as social systems and related issues in device access and collective use. We will highlight potentials and conflicts regarding device shifts and roles; restrictions in device access; social influences in the living room; and individual changes in media consumption.
PalmRC: leveraging the palm surface as an imaginary eyes-free television remote control BIBAFull-Text 829-843
  Niloofar Dezfuli; Mohammadreza Khalilbeigi; Jochen Huber; Murat Özkorkmaz; Max Mühlhäuser
User input on television (TV) typically requires a mediator device such as a handheld remote control. While this is a well-established interaction paradigm, a handheld device has serious drawbacks: it can be easily misplaced due to its mobility and in case of a touch screen interface, it also requires additional visual attention. Emerging interaction paradigms such as 3D mid-air gestures using novel depth sensors (e.g. Microsoft Kinect), aim at overcoming these limitations, but are known to be tiring. In this article, we propose to leverage the palm as an interactive surface for TV remote control. We present three user studies which set the base for our four contributions: We (1) qualitatively explore the conceptual design space of the proposed imaginary palm-based remote control in an explorative study, (2) quantitatively investigate the effectiveness and accuracy of such an interface in a controlled experiment, (3) identified user acceptance in a controlled laboratory evaluation comparing PalmRC concept with two most typical existing input modalities, here conventional remote control and touch-based remote control interfaces on smart phones for their user experience, task load, as well as overall preference, and (4) contribute PalmRC, an eyes-free, palm-surface-based TV remote control. Our results show that the palm has the potential to be leveraged for device-less eyes-free TV remote interaction without any third-party mediator device.
Composition and role of convergent technological repertoires in audiovisual media consumption BIBAFull-Text 844-858
  Cédric Courtois; Lieven De Marez; Pieter Verdegem
This mixed-method research focuses on the growing appropriation of multiple screen devices for audiovisual media consumption. Based on survey measures, we distinguish three patterns: (a) maintaining the status quo, by mainly drawing upon television, (b) broadening up the repertoire, by extending television with computers and mobile devices, or (c) even replacing television by a computer. Next, we draw upon insights from niche theory, rationalising media choices in terms of competing gratifications. This perspective is however too one-sided, as our results indicate that habit is a much stronger explanatory variable, especially when a broad range of devices are appropriated. In a follow-up qualitative study, based on Q-methodology, we found that the orientations towards what people seek in audiovisual technologies are only mildly contingent with specific technology appropriation. This problematises the very substance of niches in the audiovisual: as technologies are capable of the same benefits, their discriminating power is declining. Hence, in future applications of niche theory, gratifications and habits of communication modes (what people do with media technologies) should be taken into account, rather than media as tied to a specific technology. Niche theory's core remains, but its applications should be updated to theoretical insights matching the evolving media environment.
New interaction modes for rich panoramic live video experiences BIBAFull-Text 859-869
  Louise Barkhuus; Goranka Zoric; Arvid Engström; Javier Ruiz-Hidalgo; Nico Verzijp
The possibilities of panoramic video are based on the capabilities of high-resolution digital video streams and higher bandwidth's opportunities to broadcast, stream and transfer large content across platforms. With these opportunities also come challenges such as how to focus on sub-parts of the video stream and interact with the content shown on a large screen. In this paper, we present studies of two different interaction modes with a large-scale panoramic video for live experiences; we focus on interactional challenges and explore if it is (1) possible to develop new interactional methods/ways of approaching this type of high-resolution content and (2) feasible for users to interact with the content in these new ways. We developed prototypes for two different interaction modes: an individual system on a mobile device, either a tablet or a mobile phone, for interacting with the content on the same and a non-touch gesture-based system for the home or small group interaction. We present pilot studies where we explore the possibilities and challenges with these two interaction modes for panoramic content.

BIT 2014-09-02 Volume 33 Issue 9

Experiments and studies BIBFull-Text 871-873
  Tom Stewart
The effects of a computer malfunction on subsequent task performance BIBAFull-Text 874-881
  Nichole K. Zimmerman; Everett Sambrook; Jonathan S. Gore
Although previous research has examined the effects of computer malfunctions on employee frustration, to our knowledge no research has explored computer malfunction's effect on subsequent task performance. It was hypothesised that participants who experience a malfunction would perform worse on a subsequent task than those who experience no malfunction. Participants (n=204) were randomly assigned to experience either a computer malfunction or not during the first task. Participants then completed a subsequent task. The results confirmed that the Malfunction group performed worse than the Control group on both tasks. Implications for workplace performance are discussed.
Maintaining intimacy at a distance: an exploration of human-computer interaction's approach to mediating intimacy BIBAFull-Text 882-891
  V. Rooney
An analysis of information and communication technology designed to support communication between intimates at a geographic distance is carried out via a framework that consists of five themes. This framework was developed by considering what has emerged from human-computer interaction's (HCI) research on supporting mediated intimacy. Themes are: (1) drawing on existing practices, (2) a focus on the capability of technology, (3) increasing levels of contact, (4) idealising intimacy, and (5) prescribing what constitutes intimacy. The HCI research on intimacy is explored thematically in light of the social psychology of intimate relationships. The tensions that are reported in HCI research on intimacy can be interpreted as emanating from a tendency to fragment what is necessarily a holistic experience. Intimate relationships are complex and delicately balanced, thus a reductionist approach to mediating intimacy may be undermining HCI's potential to address the challenge of supporting intimates living at a geographic distance. While a fragmentation of the experience of intimacy can be methodologically productive for HCI, a more holistic approach to intimate relationships may enhance technological support for communication between geographically distant intimates.
Personalised and dynamic image precompensation for computer users with ocular aberrations BIBAFull-Text 892-904
  Jian Huang; Armando Barreto; Peng Ren; Malek Adjouadi
Most of the computer users with ocular aberrations such as myopia, hyperopia and other high-order aberrations are subject to visual blurring, which may impede the efficient interactions with the computers. Conventional methods used to counter visual blurring include spectacles and contact lenses. In this paper, we introduce an image preprocessing method that is designed to counteract the visual blurring caused by the aberration of the eye. In this method, the presented images are preprocessed by performing personalised compensation according to the ocular aberration of the computer user. In order to overcome the mismatch between the aberration used to generate the precompensation and the actual aberrations at the time of viewing, dynamic ocular aberrations are derived from the resizing of the initial aberration data measured by the wavefront analyzer. The dynamic ocular aberrations are used to update the image precompensation in real time. Results of human subject experiment show that the image recognition accuracy was significantly increased after the dynamic precompensation was applied. Subjective impressions from the participants confirmed the effectiveness of the method.
A comparison of image inspection modes for a visual search and rescue task BIBAFull-Text 905-918
  James Mardell; Mark Witkowski; Robert Spence
Visual inspection and search are important tasks in many fields, including quality control, security surveillance and medical diagnosis. We investigate whether it is better to visually inspect a moving image as opposed to a series of equivalent static images using the challenging problem of locating individuals lost in a wilderness. Wilderness search and rescue may be approached with a systematic aerial search assisted by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) whose camera relays the terrain below for human inspection. We investigated two presentation modes of simulated UAV video feeds. The first mimics the live video from the downward facing camera. In the second, 'serial visual presentation' (SVP) mode, a static image remains in view until replaced by a new image at a rate equivalent to the live video mode. We established a statistically significant improvement in the number of detected targets in the SVP mode when compared to the Moving mode. However, these improvements were accompanied by an increase in the number of incorrectly identified targets in SVP mode. UAV speed has a significant effect on target identification in both modes, presumably due to the extra time available for viewing at lower speeds. We found no significant interaction between speed and presentation mode.
Investigating the effects of sound masking on the use of audio CAPTCHAs BIBAFull-Text 919-928
  Abiodun Olalere; Jinjuan Heidi Feng; Jonathan Lazar; Tim Brooks
The SoundsRight Audio Completely Automated Public Turing tests to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) was developed with the goal of providing a usable and secure audio CAPTCHA for people with visual impairments. Its design requires users to repeatedly identify a specific sound from a group of different sounds (e.g. baby crying and bird chirping) in real time. Adding background noise (sound masks) to the sounds may make it more difficult for automated software to recognise the sounds and therefore, improve security. However, the sound masks may also make it more challenging for human users to recognise the sound. We conducted a user study involving 20 blind participants and 20 sighted participants to investigate the effect of sound masks on the usability of the SoundsRight CAPTCHA. The results suggest that sound masks do have a significant impact on the failure rate and response time. Sighted participants had significantly a higher failure rate than blind participants and were more vulnerable to the negative effect of sound masks.
Effect of driving experience on collision avoidance braking: an experimental investigation and computational modelling BIBAFull-Text 929-940
  Shi Cao; Yulin Qin; Xinyi Jin; Lei Zhao; Mowei Shen
Information technologies have been developed to facilitate driving performance and improve safety. However, there is a lack of computational methods that can take into account drivers' adaptation to driving. That is, how behaviour changes with experience. Modelling the effect of driving experience on driver behaviour is important to the development of in-vehicle information technologies, because drivers at different skill levels may need different types or levels of assistance. Cognitive-architecture-based human performance modelling is a valuable method that can integrate different cognitive aspects underlying human behaviour such as skill levels and support quantitative simulation of behaviour. The study reported in this paper tested and examined computational models built in ACT-R (Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational) to account for the effect of driving experience on collision avoidance braking behaviour. The modelling results were compared with human data collected from a simulated driving experiment. The models produced braking behavioural results similar to the human results. Moreover, model predictions of three other emergent-braking scenarios were generally similar to and in the same order with the empirical results reported in previous studies. Future research can further integrate the method and results into intelligent driver assistance systems such as collision warning systems to better adjust the systems to the need of different drivers with different skill levels.
Attitudes towards robots suitability for various jobs as affected robot appearance BIBAFull-Text 941-953
  James E. Katz; Daniel Halpern
An opinion survey of 878 college students examined attitudes about the suitability of robots for various occupations in society and how these attitudes varied by the robots' appearance. Factor analyses revealed three primary attitudes: Robot-Liking, Robotphobia and Cyber-Dystopianism, and three occupational niches: social-companionship, surveillance and personal assistants. Attitudes varied depending on subjects' gender, religion, perceived competence with technologies and engagement with virtual reality environments and avatars. The analysis of relationships between subjects' attitudes and perception of suitable occupations indicated that Robot-Liking is positively related with social companionship and surveillance occupations, whereas Robotphobia is negatively correlated with the three occupational niches.
Traces and activity: a case study of a joint writing process mediated by a digital environment BIBAFull-Text 954-967
  Magali Ollagnier-Beldame; Christian Brassac; Alain Mille
The interdisciplinary research presented in this article is part of the study of collective human activities supported by technical devices. We begin by stating the objectives of the study and the type of activity observed, i.e. joint mediated writing. Then, we describe our procedure by (i) justifying our methodological choices, which are grounded in a psycho-ergonomic approach of ethnographical inspiration, (ii) detailing the setup of the study and (iii) describing the modes used to present the observables. Next, we present our analysis of a session, while revealing some intermediate results related to the properties of computer traces of interaction and their use in the course of the session. We end with a discussion of the results and limitations of the study followed by the conclusion, which opens up some pathways for designing 'tracing systems' capable of supporting joint mediated activities.
Design requirements for persuasive technologies to motivate physical activity in adolescents: a field study BIBAFull-Text 968-986
  Helen M. Edwards; Sharon McDonald; Tingting Zhao; Lynne Humphries
Technology probes were used to investigate what adolescents would find persuasive in digital devices supporting opportunistic (unstructured/unplanned) exercise. The probes comprised pedometers, handheld consoles with an exercise game and a customised social website with an exercise focus. Three groups of six adolescents participated in the field study. To contextualise the study their attitudes to exercise, and exercise behaviours, were collected at the start and end of the study. The participants logged their daily exercise and noted any barriers that they encountered over six weeks. They reflected on these experiences and took part in innovation activities to identify requirements for motivational exercise technology. Analysis of the results revealed that they desired individual customisation of devices that can capture a wide range of physical activity data. Moreover, social interaction is expected within digital media and positive messages reinforcing goal attainments are valued, whereas negative feedback demotivates. These findings support those reported in other studies of both children and adults. More specific to this age group was their openness to sharing information beyond their friendship groups, although this was counterbalanced by their lack of autonomy in the physical world. This highlights issues that could constrain the effective design of technology for this age group.
Identifying emotion by keystroke dynamics and text pattern analysis BIBAFull-Text 987-996
  A. F. M. Nazmul Haque Nahin; Jawad Mohammad Alam; Hasan Mahmud; Kamrul Hasan
Emotion is a cognitive process and is one of the important characteristics of human beings that makes them different from machines. Traditionally, interactions between humans and machines like computers do not exhibit any emotional exchanges. If we could build any system that is intelligent enough to interact with humans that involves emotions, that is, it can detect user emotions and change its behaviour accordingly, then using machines could be more effective and friendly. Many approaches have been taken to detect user emotions. Affective computing is the field that detects user emotion in a particular moment. Our approach in this paper is to detect user emotions by analysing the keyboard typing patterns of the user and the type of texts (words, sentences) typed by them. This combined analysis gives us a promising result showing a substantial number of emotional states detected from user input. Several machine learning algorithms were used to analyse keystroke timing attributes and text pattern. We have chosen keystroke because it is the cheapest and most available medium to interact with computers. We have considered seven emotional classes for classifying the emotional states. For text pattern analysis, we have used vector space model with Jaccard similarity method to classify free-text input. Our combined approach showed above 80% accuracies in identifying emotions.

BIT 2014-10-03 Volume 33 Issue 10

Editorial BIBFull-Text 997-999
  Tom Stewart
Evaluation of the interactivity of students in virtual learning environments using a multicriteria approach and data mining BIBAFull-Text 1000-1012
  Angel Cobo; Rocio Rocha; Carlos Rodríguez-Hoyos
This work seeks to provide a new multicriteria approach to evaluate and classify the level of interactivity of students in learning management systems (LMS). We describe, step by step, the complete methodological development process of the evaluation model as well as detailing the results obtained when applying it to a higher education teaching experience. This research demonstrates that the combined use of multicriteria decision methodologies and data mining prove to be particularly suitable for identifying behavioural patterns of the users through the analysis of records generated in LMS. The results reveal that the behavioural patterns in LMS offer certain indicators as to students' academic performance, although the study does not permit to state that those students who adopt passive attitudes in these spheres may necessarily produce low academic performance.
Computers and types of control in relation to work stress and learning BIBAFull-Text 1013-1026
  Karolus O. Kraan; Steven Dhondt; Irene L. D. Houtman; Ronald S. Batenburg; Michiel A. J. Kompier; Toon W. Taris
Traditional machine-paced work shows adverse effects on worker health and learning. It is hardly known whether technological pacing shows the same effects in computer work. Hypotheses on work stress and learning were formulated regarding the effects of technological pacing, in the context of computer work performed during at least half of the working day, especially. Further, method-order (m-o) autonomy was conceived as another control and standardisation mechanism and taken into account as a potentially important modifier of the effects. As hypothesised, this study's secondary analyses of a European survey of 18,723 employees revealed that the level of adverse work stress for technological pacing among computer workers was almost equal to the level found for 'traditionally machine-paced' workers. Distinct interactions with m-o autonomy were also shown. For instance, lack hereof was especially problematic for work stress among technologically paced computer workers. Software's flexible nature and its relatively easy adaptability to chosen work organisation modes may explain this. Lastly, in technologically paced work, m-o autonomy appeared to reinforce learning. In sum, many hypotheses were supported especially on the main and interaction effects regarding work stress, but less so regarding learning. Recommendations for future research and practical implications are discussed.
Empirical study on continuance intentions towards E-Learning 2.0 systems BIBAFull-Text 1027-1038
  Bing Wu; Chenyan Zhang
Although E-Learning 2.0 has played a significant role in training and development within the organisational environment, after an initial acceptance, its use is frequently discontinued. Prior studies offered insights into participation in E-Learning; however, there is limited research on continuance intention towards E-Learning 2.0 systems in organisational contexts. Furthermore, the most widely used research models, such as technology acceptance model (TAM), neglect the interactive social processes in E-Learning 2.0. Therefore, this study proposes a unified model integrating the TAM, the information system success model and social motivation theories to investigate continuance intentions towards E-Learning 2.0 in an organisational context. A sample of 284 participants from companies in China that have already implemented E-Learning 2.0 systems took part in this study. Structural equation modelling was conducted to test the research hypotheses. The results show that the unified model provides a more comprehensive understanding of the cognitive processes and behaviours related to this context: (1) perceived usefulness and attitude were critical to the continuance intention towards an E-Learning 2.0 system; (2) perceived usefulness was a significant mediator of the effects from perceived ease of use, information quality and social influence on continuance intention; (3) perceived ease of use, information quality and social influence were found to play important roles in predicting the continuance intention; (4) system quality played an important role in affecting the perceived ease of use; and (5) unexpectedly, social motivations had no significant effect on attitude.
The effect of levels of processing with navigation design types on recall and retention in e-learning environments BIBAFull-Text 1039-1047
  Emel Dikbas Torun; Arif Altun
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of levels of processing (LOP) and various navigation design types (NDTs) on high school students' recall and retention performances in e-learning environments. The participants' (N=90) performances of free recall, title recognition, location memory and their retentions were measured in two different navigational layout design types by giving participants the instructional tasks which were designed in shallow, medium and deep LOP. Results are in accordance with the main argument of LOP; deeply processed elements are remembered better and the strength of the encoded memory trace depends on the mental processes carried out with different types of tasks. Results show that the main effects of LOP and NDT on memory performance are significant.
Exploring determinants of adoption intentions towards Enterprise 2.0 applications: an empirical study BIBAFull-Text 1048-1064
  Tao Wang; Chul-Ho Jung; Ming-Hui Kang; Young-Soo Chung
Enterprise 2.0 is identified as one of the most promising technological innovations in the business domain, with immense potential for enriching communication, enabling collaboration and facilitating learning. Although organisations are increasingly implementing Enterprise 2.0 as a useful means of knowledge sharing and collaboration, no empirical research has been performed to identify individuals' motivations to participate in Enterprise 2.0 activities. The high practical relevance and dearth of research indicate the importance of the present study. This study aims to apply the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology to propose a research model that incorporates context-specific variables as enhancing constructs to predict individuals' adoption intentions towards Enterprise 2.0 applications. We also categorise Enterprise 2.0 users into silent and social users and conduct a comparative analysis to examine whether differences exist in factors predicting users' adoption intentions towards Enterprise 2.0 applications. To test the model, structural equation modelling is employed to analyse data collected from respondents working in seven Chinese companies conducting trial operations of an Enterprise 2.0 platform. The findings of this research provide managers with effective methods to promote individuals' participation in Enterprise 2.0 activities. This research also provides a theoretical foundation for academics and practical implications for the development of Enterprise 2.0.
Factors affecting the performance of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems in the post-implementation stage BIBAFull-Text 1065-1081
  Young Mok Ha; Hyung Jun Ahn
Despite the widespread adoption of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems, many companies struggle to achieve the expected benefits from ERP. It has been especially observed that many companies fail to gain significant benefits from ERP in the post-implementation stage, regardless of their initial implementation success. This paper focuses on this post-implementation stage and empirically studies the factors that influence the performance of ERP in this stage. Through the review of related literature and a pilot study of Korean firms, the following six were identified as the influential factors: top management support, competency of an internal ERP team, user training, inter-department collaboration and communication, continuous process improvement and continuous systems integration/extension. The factors were used to build a comprehensive model that aims to explain how to successfully use ERP in the post-implementation stage. The model was tested with the data collected by questionnaires given to Korean companies using the partial least-square method. The results show that continuous improvement efforts and on-going organisational support have positive influence on the performance of ERP in the post-implementation stage.
Distinguishing the adoption of business intelligence systems from their implementation: the role of managers' personality profiles BIBAFull-Text 1082-1092
  Hui-Chih Wang
For decades, the marketing guidelines of enterprise software providers have focused on those managers who are likely to be more innovative in adopting new information systems. The current study argues that this approach demands improvements for two reasons: (1) this tactic may be biased, since past studies have only examined the single trait of innovativeness and its impact on an individual adoption intention and (2) the organisational implementation intention might be more important than the individual adoption intention, but the former has been largely ignored in the existing literature. Based on the case of business intelligence (BI) systems and data from 62 senior managers, this study is a pioneer in that it empirically reveals that managers' individual adoption intention is distinct from their organisational implementation intention. Further, while managers' innovativeness may be a significant determinant of their individual adoption intention towards BI systems, the issue of whether managers actually implement BI systems in their organisations is dominated by their involvement characteristics. Fruitful suggestions are proposed for practitioners and scholars.
CRUDi framework proposal: financial industry application BIBAFull-Text 1093-1110
  Jorge Pereira; José Martins; Vítor Santos; Ramiro Gonçalves
The alignment of information systems with the business goals of an organisation, although a topic of great importance, is not always properly valued or taken into consideration. In general, managers have different opinions to chief information officers (CIOs) in relation to IS, especially with regard to their importance and value to the business and also in terms of investment needs. Here, we discuss and study new approaches to methods and tools for assessing the relative importance of each information system to business, focusing on the financial sector including banks and insurance companies. We suggest the introduction of new key indicators for better decision support and to identify investment priorities, and present results regarding the relative importance of each process to support the business strategy. The primary goal for the inherent research project is to analyse the main problems and difficulties encountered by IS and IT managers, featuring different players and how they relate. The main contributions of this work are the CRUDi framework as a tool to improve alignment between business and IS strategies and the CRUDi survey and its results qualifying the financial sector's opinion regarding the relative importance of processes and investments.

Book Review

"Human Factors in Lighting," by Peter R. Boyce BIBFull-Text 1111-1113
  Ahmet Çakir

BIT 2014-11-02 Volume 33 Issue 11

Editorial BIBFull-Text 1115-1117
  Tom Stewart
Informal feedback rather than performance measurements -- user-centred evaluation in Scrum projects BIBAFull-Text 1118-1135
  Marta Lárusdóttir; Åsa Cajander; Jan Gulliksen
The main features of the Scrum process are intense communication between different stakeholders, and rapid feedback based on regular delivery of working software. The integration of traditional user-centred evaluation activities in this context is challenging. Hence, this paper presents an interview study of 21 informants, categorised in four different professional roles. The main contribution of the paper is an overview of the types of user-centred evaluation conducted by information technology professionals in various Scrum projects. Results show that various forms of feedback are indeed gathered on the usability and user experience of the software, system or service being developed. However, the user-centred evaluations conducted typically are informal with few users, gathering empirical qualitative data and performed during short unplanned sessions. Performance measurements gathering quantitative data are seldom used. The informants in the business specialist role merely ask users about their opinion, whereas the other roles use several user-centred evaluation activities to gather feedback on their design. Generally, feedback is gathered throughout the whole project, but often evaluation is conducted early in the project or even before the actual development starts. Finally, these results are discussed in relation to previous studies in the area.
Towards a contingency approach with whitelist- and blacklist-based anti-phishing applications: what do usability tests indicate? BIBAFull-Text 1136-1147
  Linfeng Li; Eleni Berki; Marko Helenius; Saila Ovaska
In web browsers, a variety of anti-phishing tools and technologies are available to assist users to identify phishing attempts and potentially harmful pages. Such anti-phishing tools and technologies provide Internet users with essential information, such as warnings of spoofed pages. To determine how well users are able to recognise and identify phishing web pages with anti-phishing tools, we designed and conducted usability tests for two types of phishing-detection applications: blacklist-based and whitelist-based anti-phishing toolbars. The research results mainly indicate no significant performance differences between the application types. We also observed that, in many web browsing cases, a significant amount of useful and practical information for users is absent, such as information explaining professional web page security certificates. Such certificates are crucial in ensuring user privacy and protection. We also found other deficiencies in web identities in web pages and web browsers that present challenges to the design of anti-phishing toolbars. These challenges will require more professional, illustrative, instructional, and reliable information for users to facilitate user verification of the authenticity of web pages and their content.
Barefoot usability evaluations BIBAFull-Text 1148-1167
  Anders Bruun; Jan Stage
Usability evaluations provide software development teams with insights on the degree to which a software application enables a user to achieve his/her goals, how fast these goals can be achieved, how easy it is to learn and how satisfactory it is in use. Although usability evaluations are crucial in the process of developing software systems with a high level of usability, their use is still limited in the context of small software development companies. Several approaches have been proposed to support software development practitioners (SWPs) in conducting usability evaluations and this paper presents two in-depth empirical studies of supporting SWPs by training them to become barefoot usability evaluators. Findings show that the SWPs after 30 hours of training obtained considerable abilities in identifying usability problems and that this approach revealed a high level of downstream utility. Results also show that the SWPs created relaxed conditions for the test users when acting as test monitors but experienced problems with making users think aloud. Considering the quality of problem descriptions, we found that the SWPs were better at providing clear and precise problem descriptions than at describing the impact, cause, user actions and providing data support for observations.
Studying the effect of perceived hedonic mobile device quality on user experience evaluations of mobile applications BIBAFull-Text 1168-1179
  Dimitrios Raptis; Eleftherios Papachristos; Jesper Kjeldskov; Mikael B. Skov; Nikolaos Avouris
When people interact with digital artefacts they perceive their pragmatic and hedonic qualities. In the case of interacting with mobile devices and applications, users seek utility as they try to satisfy certain needs, but at the same time they have certain feelings and emotions when, for example, they feel attached to their personal phone and/or trust its brand. Due to this strong relation between users and mobile devices a significant problem occurs when researchers want to evaluate the user experience of a mobile application in laboratory settings: the selection of an appropriate mobile device. Towards this end, this paper aims to unveil the effect of perceived hedonic quality of a mobile device on the user experience evaluation results of an application. Our results show that the perceived hedonic quality of a mobile device significantly affected the perceived pragmatic quality of the application, but not the hedonic one.
Expressive and classical aesthetics: two distinct concepts with highly similar effect patterns in user-artefact interaction BIBAFull-Text 1180-1191
  Andreas Sonderegger; Juergen Sauer; Janine Eichenberger
This study examined the utility of the concept of expressive aesthetics by testing websites that did or did not match this concept. A website scoring highly on this concept was created and was then compared to websites that were either non-aesthetic or corresponded to the concept of classical aesthetics. Sixty website users of a broad age range (18-60 years) were allocated to three experimental groups (expressive, classical, and non-aesthetic) and asked to complete a series of information search tasks. During the experiment, measures were taken of performance, perceived usability, perceived aesthetics, emotion, and trustworthiness. The results showed that expressive aesthetics can be considered a distinct concept. It also emerged that the website scoring high on expressive aesthetics shows a similar pattern of results to classical aesthetics. Both aesthetically appealing websites received higher ratings of perceived usability and trustworthiness than the non-aesthetic website. The effects of website aesthetics on subjective measures were not moderated by age.
Revisiting the two-stage choice model: an empirical study of consumer choice on brand website visits BIBAFull-Text 1192-1207
  Jiyao Xun
In consumer choice behaviour literature, a two-stage choice model serves as a base theory where choice behaviour is decomposed into a consideration stage plus a choice stage. Yet, this default model has been increasingly challenged by the 'limited consumer search' school of thought because consumers do not necessarily review all products in a choice set before making decisions, but frequently draw on external information as mental short cuts. Methodologically, the choice behaviour in stage 1 has traditionally been latent because data that directly observe how consumers form their consideration sets by eliminating alternatives are lacking. This study continues the 'limited consumer search' line of reasoning and proposes an aided non-compensatory process in choice stage 1, where consumers reduce brand website alternatives by using online ratings to arrive at a consideration set. We use observed Web analytics data to unveil the stage 1 choice process and also the transition from stage 1 to stage 2, which is in need of further research based on extant literature. Lastly, we cross-validate our model with two types of websites (i.e. search vs. experience/credence) and find our model is contingent on the type of website content, where consumers' inclination to use online ratings for decision-making varies.
See you on Facebook: exploring influences on Facebook continuous usage BIBAFull-Text 1208-1218
  Yi-Fen Chen
Facebook is a computer-mediated social network site (SNS) that has become a popular communication medium. Facebook permits individuals to construct a public profile within a bounded system, articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and view their list of connections within the system. This study examines influences on Facebook continuous usage in Taiwan. An online survey was performed on a sample of 409 Facebook users. Structural equation models are used to examine hypotheses within the theoretical framework. Analytical results indicate that personal innovativeness, attachment motivation, and subjective norm (SN) positively affect perceived enjoyment (PE) and user attitude (ATT) towards Facebook. PE is positively related to user ATT. Furthermore, users are willing to continuously use Facebook when SN, PE, and user ATT are high.
Does confirmation always matter? Extending confirmation-based theories BIBAFull-Text 1219-1230
  Jack S. Hsu; Tung-Ching Lin; JiaJin Tsai
Related theories have highlighted how important confirmation is to satisfaction. However, in their examinations of the effect of confirmation, all past studies viewed consumption experience from an overall perspective only. Given that the utilisation of online services may generate more than one type of benefits to customers, there is a need to decompose the overall concept into different dimensions and re-examine the importance of confirmation from different perspectives. In this study, based on goal-directed and experiential concepts, we separated the benefits provided by online social network services into two types: utilitarian and hedonic. Then, through confirmations, we tested their direct and indirect impacts on satisfaction. Data collected from 653 student-based Facebook users showed that perceived hedonic benefit is more strongly correlated with satisfaction than is perceived utilitarian benefit. In addition, the insignificant path coefficient hints that confirmation of hedonic benefits is not as important as indicated by related theories. We believe that our results generate interesting implications towards both academia and practitioners.
The acceptance of information technology innovations in hospitals: differences between early and late adopters BIBAFull-Text 1231-1243
  Tomás Escobar-Rodríguez; Mercedes Romero-Alonso
The increasing maturity of information technologies (IT) in hospitals and their infrastructure development is improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services. In these circumstances, an investigation of the diffusion of IT in this context would provide some insight into adopters' behaviours and further the diffusion of IT in the near future. The purpose of this paper is to conduct an investigation of the diffusion of IT's innovations in hospitals. Technology acceptance model and innovation diffusion theory have been applied in this research trying to find factors that permit an effective discrimination between early and late adopters. The differences in characteristics between these two categories are assessed and implications based on the research findings are discussed.

BIT 2014-12-02 Volume 33 Issue 12

Editorial BIBFull-Text 1245-1247
  Tom Stewart
The significance of attitudes towards evidence-based practice in information technology use in the health sector: an empirical investigation BIBAFull-Text 1248-1260
  Christos D. Melas; Leonidas A. Zampetakis; Anastasia Dimopoulou; Vassilis S. Moustakis
The article investigates the relationship between attitudes towards evidence-based practice (EBP) and the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in practice and demonstrates that the poor correlation reported in the literature is a methodological artifact rather than a substantive fact. Results are based on structured surveying of 1015 medical and nursing staff, drawn from 15 Greek hospitals. We used unfolding item response theory models to demonstrate that by placing the statements assessing attitude towards EBP and ICT self-reported use on a single attitude-behaviour continuum, behaviour statements have a systematically different location on the attitude-behaviour continuum from the attitude statements. Based on the latent probabilistic relation among attitudes towards EBP and ICT use, the practical implications of the study are discussed.
Night optimised care technology for users needing assisted lifestyles BIBAFull-Text 1261-1277
  J. Augusto; M. Mulvenna; H. Zheng; H. Wang; S. Martin; P. McCullagh; J. Wallace
There is growing interest in the development of ambient assisted living services to increase the quality of life of the increasing proportion of the older population. We report on the Night Optimised Care Technology for UseRs Needing Assisted Lifestyles project, which provides specialised night time support to people at early stages of dementia. This article explains the technical infrastructure, the intelligent software behind the decision-making driving the system, the software development process followed, the interfaces used to interact with the user, and the findings and lessons of our user-centred approach.
Formal verification of collaboration patterns in healthcare BIBAFull-Text 1278-1293
  Petros Papapanagiotou; Jacques D. Fleuriot
We propose a computer-based framework for the formal verification of collaboration patterns in healthcare teams. In this, the patterns are constructed diagrammatically as compositions of keystones that are viewed as abstract processes. The approach provides mechanisms for ensuring that safety properties are enforced and exceptional events are handled systematically. Additionally, a fully verified, executable model is obtained as an end product, enabling a simulation of its associated collaboration scenarios.
Are mobile phone conversations always so annoying? The 'need-to-listen' effect re-visited BIBAFull-Text 1294-1305
  Brendan Norman; Daniel Bennett
According to Monk et al. (2004a. Why are mobile phones annoying? Behaviour and Information Technology, 23 (1), 33-42), mobile phone conversations are annoying to overhear due to an involuntary need-to-listen in order to predict the inaudible half of the conversation. However, previous support for this need-to-listen explanation of annoyance has failed to consider the confound that mobile phone conversations also have less predictable acoustic patterns and has only investigated 'neutral' conversations. By staging mobile and face-to-face conversations in public, this study further supports the need-to-listen explanation. By removing the need-to-listen to the content of a mobile conversation through introducing foreign speech, bystanders no longer perceived the conversation as more annoying than a conversation between two co-present individuals, supporting the need-to-listen explanation over unpredictable acoustics. In two further experiments manipulating conversational content ('neutral' vs. 'intriguing'), findings suggest that the need-to-listen to mobile phone conversations is not inherently annoying; it can be annoying or possibly even 'interesting' depending on the conversational content.
The drivers of consumers' intention to redeem a push mobile coupon BIBAFull-Text 1306-1316
  Naquita Maria-Jose Achadinha; Lindiwe Jama; Petrus Nel
A modern-day marketing tool that has caught the industry's attention is the use of mobile coupons (m-coupons). Despite the attractiveness of this new marketing tool, a high level of consumer resistance is reported. To therefore ensure the successful implementation of an m-coupon strategy, customer buy-in is a prerequisite. The research on which this article is based, aimed to explore the factors that contribute to consumers' intention to ultimately redeem m-coupons. A hypothesised model proposes economic benefit, convenience benefit, positive consumer attitude, perceived control and social benefit as constructs that either directly or indirectly influence consumers' intention to redeem an m-coupon. A survey of 204 respondents revealed that a consumer's positive attitude is the main driving force behind m-coupon redemption intentions. Results reflected that businesses should emphasise convenience and economic benefits in order to assist in the development of a positive attitude amongst potential m-coupon users. Consumers value their privacy and are resistant towards push-based m-coupons. If businesses incorporate these aspects into their m-couponing strategy, it will allow them to reach their audience in an entirely new manner and in doing so, potentially trigger purchase behaviour or increase store foot count.
Tactful calling: investigating asymmetric social dilemmas in mobile communications BIBAFull-Text 1317-1332
  Ohad Inbar; Gesche Joost; Fabian Hemmert; Talya Porat; Noam Tractinsky
Recipients of phone calls face a constant dilemma between ignoring calls at the possible expense of offending the caller, missing business opportunities or neglecting family members on one hand; and answering them at the expense of interrupting their train of thought or appearing rude and impolite towards others with whom they share a social activity on the other hand. We studied people's attitudes regarding these dilemmas, with emphasis on their social aspects. In a cross-cultural study, conducted in Israel and in Germany, we surveyed both caller and recipient attitudes towards answering mobile phone calls in various circumstances. The study also assessed the aspects of providing contextual information about a call prior to it being answered, including types of information deemed most valuable. The results emphasise the importance of social norms in affecting respondents? attitudes towards making or accepting phone calls regardless of role (caller or recipient), gender or culture. We also found that the norms in the physical context (e.g. being in a meeting) prevailed over norms in the virtual context (e.g. the phone call). Cultural and gender differences did not affect the degree to which people were frustrated by insufficient information regarding the other party's context. However, these factors did affect the suggested design solutions to this problem. The research provides insight into the social aspects of the problem of interruptive mobile phone calls and towards designing applications that help users maintain politeness while handling the caller-recipient dilemma.
A framework for mobile SNS advertising effectiveness: user perceptions and behaviour perspective BIBAFull-Text 1333-1346
  Young Wook Ha; Myeong-Cheol Park; Euehun Lee
This study develops and empirically tests a framework for mobile social network service (SNS) advertising effectiveness. The study sets the advertising value, attitude towards advertising, and behavioural intentions as the key variables for the assessment of advertising effectiveness. Regarding antecedents of advertising effectiveness, the study identifies the salient attributes of mobile SNS advertising as social, mobile convenience, and active control; the main sub-values of mobile SNS advertising as informativeness, entertainment, and irritation.
Always connected, but are smart mobile users getting more security savvy? A survey of smart mobile device users BIBAFull-Text 1347-1360
  James Imgraben; Alewyn Engelbrecht; Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo
Smart mobile devices are a potential attack vector for cyber criminal activities. Two hundred and fifty smart mobile device owners from the University of South Australia were surveyed. Not surprisingly, it was found that smart mobile device users in the survey generally underestimated the value that their collective identities have to criminals and how these can be sold. For example, participants who reported jail-breaking/rooting their devices were also more likely to exhibit risky behaviour (e.g. downloading and installing applications from unknown providers), and the participants generally had no idea of the value of their collective identities to criminals which can be sold to the highest bidder. In general, the participants did not understand the risks and may not have perceived cyber crime to be a real threat. Findings from the survey and the escalating complexities of the end-user mobile and online environment underscore the need for regular ongoing training programs for basic online security and the promotion of a culture of security among smart mobile device users. For example, targeted education and awareness programmes could be developed to inform or educate smart mobile device users and correct misconceptions or myths in order to bring about changes in attitudes and usage behaviour (e.g. not taking preventative measures such as strong passwords to protect their devices). Such initiatives would enable all end users (including senior University management who use such devices to access privileged corporate data and accounts) to maintain current knowledge of the latest cyber crime activities and the best cyber security protection measures available.
The influence of cognitive conflict on the result of collaborative editing in Wikipedia BIBAFull-Text 1361-1370
  Qiu Jiangnan; Wang Chunling; Cui Miao
Different levels of cognitive conflict widely exist in the process of collaborative editing, affecting the result of editing. This can be seen especially in Wikipedia, the free-content encyclopedia edited by users collaboratively. Here, we used the method of exploratory case study to explore the influence of wiki-based cognitive conflict on the result of collaborative editing. Page quality was considered as the result of co-editing. By measuring cognitive conflict and calculating page quality of 'Hong Kong MRT' featured article, we found that different levels of conflict had different influence on page quality and the influence was changing with time variation. Our findings are concluded into four propositions, which highlight the role of cognitive conflict in affecting page quality. This paper provides the foundation for further revising and develops the theory by using the methods of verification research and statistical analysis.
The reasons why people continue editing Wikipedia content -- task value confirmation perspective BIBAFull-Text 1371-1382
  Cheng-Yu Lai; Heng-Li Yang
Recently, Wikipedia has garnered increasing public attention. However, few studies have examined the intentions of individuals who edit Wikipedia content. Furthermore, previous studies ascribed a 'knowledge sharing' label to Wikipedia content editors. However, in this work, Wikipedia can be viewed as a platform that allows individuals to show their expertise. This study investigates the underlying reasons that drive individuals to edit Wikipedia content. Based on expectation-confirmation theory and expectancy-value theory for achievement motivations, we propose an integrated model that incorporates psychological and contextual perspectives. Wikipedians from the English-language Wikipedia site were invited to survey. Partial least square was applied to test our proposed model. Analytical results indicated and confirmed that subjective task value, commitment, and procedural justice were significant to satisfaction of Wikipedians; and satisfaction significantly influenced continuance intention to edit Wikipedia content.
Crowdsourcing contests: understanding the effect of competitors' participation history on their performance BIBAFull-Text 1383-1395
  Hanieh Javadi Khasraghi; Abdollah Aghaie
Crowdsourcing contests have become increasingly important and prevalent with the ubiquity of the Internet. Designing efficient crowdsourcing contests is not possible without the deep understanding of the factors affecting individuals' continuous participation and their performance. Prior studies have mainly focused on identifying the effect of task-specific, environment-specific, organisation-specific, and individual-specific factors on individuals' performance in crowdsourcing contests. And to our knowledge, there are no or very few studies on evaluating the effect of individuals' participation history on their performance. This paper aims to address this research gap using a data set from TopCoder. This study derives competitors' participation history factors, such as participation frequency, participation recency, winning frequency, winning recency, tenure, and last performance to construct models depicting effects of these factors on competitors' performance in online crowdsourcing contests. The research findings demonstrate that most of competitors' participation history factors have significant effect on their performance. This paper also indicates that competitors' participation frequency and winning frequency moderate the relationship between last performance and performance, and relationship between tenure and performance positively. On the other hand, individuals' participation recency and winning recency moderate relationship between last performance and performance negatively, but have no significant effect on the relationship between tenure and performance.