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AutomotiveUI Tables of Contents: 091011121314-114-2

AutomotiveUI 2014: International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Adjunct Proceedings

Fullname:Adjunct Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications
Editors:Linda Ng Boyle
Location:Seattle, Washington
Dates:2014-Sep-17 to 2014-Sep-19
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-0725-3; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: AutomotiveUI14-2
Links:Conference Website
  1. AutomotiveUI 2014-09-17 Volume 2
    1. Social, Natural, and Peripheral Interactions: Together and Separate
    2. Cognitive load and In-Vehicle Human-Machine Interaction (CLW)
    3. Pointing towards future automotive HMIs: The potential for gesture
    4. EVIS 2014 3rd Workshop on Electric Vehicle Information Systems
    5. Human Factors Design Principles for the Driver-Vehicle Interface (DVI)
    6. Designing for People: Keeping the User in mind
    7. 2nd Workshop on User Experience of Autonomous Driving at AutomotiveUI 2014
    8. Wearable Technologies for Automotive User Interfaces: Danger or Opportunity?
    9. Work in Progress
    10. Interactive Demos

AutomotiveUI 2014-09-17 Volume 2

Social, Natural, and Peripheral Interactions: Together and Separate

Social, Natural, and Peripheral Interactions: Together and Separate BIBAFull-Text 1
  Andreas Riener; Ignacio Alvarez; Bastian Pfleging; Andreas Löcken; Myhounghoon Jeon; Heiko Müller; Mario Chiesa
A major challenge in the future of traffic is to understand how "socially-aware vehicles" could be making use of their social habitus, formed by any information that can be inferred from past and present social relations, social interactions, and a driver's social state when exposed to other participants in real, live traffic. The aim of this workshop in recognition of this challenge is to advance on a common understanding of the symbiosis between drivers, cars, and the infrastructure. The central objective of the workshop is to provoke an active debate on the adequacy of the concept of social, natural, and peripheral interaction, addressing questions such as "who can communicate what", "when", "how", and "why"? To tackle these questions, we would like to collect different, radical, innovative, versatile, and engaging works that challenge or re-imagine human interactions in the near future automobile space.
Social parking: basic elements and core concepts BIBAFull-Text 2
  Mario Chiesa; Riccardo Toppan; Alessandro Branciforti; Francesco Posca
In this paper we introduce the definition of a concept for a social-based service for the sharing and the exchanging of parking lots in urban areas, in the general context of web-based services for the automotive domain.
Advanced Vehicle Sonification Applications BIBAFull-Text 3
  Myounghoon Jeon
Visual displays are still mainly used in the in-vehicle context, but they may be problematic for providing timely, appropriate feedback to drivers. To compensate for the drawbacks of visual displays, multimodal displays have been developed, but applied to limited areas (e.g., collision warning sounds). The present paper introduces advanced vehicle sonification applications: Two of our on-going projects (fuel efficiency sonification and driver emotion sonification) and a plausible future project (nearby traffic sonification). In addition, applicable sonification techniques and solutions are provided. Sonification applications to these areas can be an effective, unobtrusive means to increase drivers' situation awareness and engagement with driving, which will lead to road safety. To successfully implement these applications, iterative and intensive assessment of driver needs, effectiveness of the application, and its impact on driver distraction and road safety should be conducted.
A Driver-to-Driver Communication Device to Improve Drivers' Interaction BIBAFull-Text 4
  Raphael Lamas; Catherine Harvey; Gary Burnett; Sue Cobb
Driving is a social task where drivers frequently need to communicate with other road users to make their intentions clear and avoid accidents. A study was designed to investigate various communication issues raised while driving. The results of this study indicated important design recommendations for a driver-to-driver communication device. However, the best user interface and interaction type for this device has not yet clearly been determined.
Does The First Officer Concur? Shared Control with Smart Vehicle Systems BIBAFull-Text 5
  David Miller; Wendy Ju
New computation and sensing capabilities in road vehicles present possibilities for advanced driver assistance systems that can increase safety and efficiency, if the driver will trust them appropriately and use them properly. The two-stage 'trust fall' is a way to study trust in automated systems by testing whether trust established in normal circumstances transfers to trust under extreme circumstances, which will be essential for the successful employment of new automotive systems. Understanding the mental models drivers create of advanced systems, and how they use those mental models to share control with the computer will be crucial to successful design.
The Push vs Pull of Information between Autonomous Cars and Human Drivers BIBAFull-Text 6
  Brian Mok; Wendy Ju
How should information be exchanged between drivers and their cars? What types of information should be exchanged? These questions have become increasingly important as research into autonomous cars interfaces continues to develop. To examine these questions, a varied and complex simulation course has been created for the Stanford Driving Simulator together with a Wizard of Oz Station for operators to manipulate the driving simulation. Outlined in this paper is a Wizard of Oz study that observes/records the effects of "Push vs. Pull" of driving information from the autonomous car, as well as the use of "What vs. Why" information. The objective of this research is to provide a set of psychological principles that will guide the driver-vehicle interface design in providing effective, real-time support for drivers of increasingly autonomous vehicles.
Exploring Mixed Reality Window Concept for Car Passengers BIBAFull-Text 7
  Jonna Häkkilä; Ashley Colley; Juho Rantakari
Due to their large window surfaces and mobile use, cars offer an interesting domain for mixed reality applications. By utilizing the windows as see-through displays, there is a possibility to enhance the physical landscape with location-specific information. In this paper we describe our work-in-progress research exploring the concept of mixed reality user interfaces for cars, focusing on passenger use cases, communication and social nature of the use. In this workshop paper, we present our motivation and an early prototype of the concept.
Social Driving Services: Very Cool, But How To Guarantee Application On Broad-Scale? BIBAFull-Text 8
  Andreas Riener
Social driving services are said to improve road safety, fuel economy or traffic fluidity and throughput, and results of diverse studies suggest that drivers are already willing to use such services when on the road. But for a general agenda on the application of social driving services, more closer attention need to be paid to the results -- as they are often compiled from unrepresentative tech geeks, ignoring more problematic user groups such as persons in stressful jobs. These people use the time in the car as sort of "oasis of calm" for recovery, and would never accept constantly interrupting or disturbing apps.
   Based on the qualitative results from a user study summarized in this paper, I would like to discuss in the workshop what are the main obstacles that could avoid the proliferation of social driving services on large scale and how to redesign these services to also convince the critics.
Using Peripheral Cues to Support Task Resumption BIBAFull-Text 9
  Shadan Sadeghianborojeni; Andreas Löcken; Heiko Müller
Driving is a multi-tasking activity. High cognitive ability is needed to perform different tasks simultaneously. Once the number of tasks or their complexity is increased, multi-tasking is not possible due to the limited cognitive resources. In this case, instead of having multiple tasks proceeding in parallel, they interrupt each other which sometimes cause disruption. In this paper, we present an approach for supporting the user by providing peripheral cues before and after task switch, so he can be reminded on the primary task and resume it.
"Liking" other Drivers' Behavior while Driving BIBAFull-Text 10
  Chao Wang; Jacques Terken; Jun Hu
Driving is a social activity: Drivers need to coordinate with each other to share the road infrastructure. The social relationship between drivers also influences the driving behavior. With everywhere available connectivity and the broad penetration of social network services, the relationship between drivers on the road may gain more transparency, enabling social information to pass through the steel shell of the cars and giving opportunities to reduce anonymity and strengthen empathy. In this paper, we introduce a concept that enables drivers to express their appreciation for other drivers' polite driving behavior through gestural interaction, in order to improve their driving behavior by social awareness.

Cognitive load and In-Vehicle Human-Machine Interaction (CLW)

CLW 2014: The Fourth Workshop on Cognitive Load and In-Vehicle Human-Machine Interaction BIBAFull-Text 11
  Andrew L. Kun; W. Thomas, III Miller; Peter Froehlich; Ivan Tashev; Paul A. Green; Shamsi Iqbal; Bryan Reimer; Thomas M. Gable; Peter A. Heeman
Interactions with in-vehicle electronic devices can interfere with the primary task of driving and increase crash risk. Interactions with in-vehicle interfaces draw upon visual, manipulative and cognitive resources, with this workshop focusing on cognitive resources for which measurement processes are less well known or established. This workshop will focus on two methods of measuring cognitive load, the Decision Response Time Task and collecting eye fixation data. The workshop will describe and demonstrate how they are collected, and discuss how the resulting data are reduced and analyzed. The focus will be on practical aspects of collecting and analyzing data using these methods, not on reporting research results.
The MIT AgeLab n-back: a multi-modal android application implementation BIBAFull-Text 12
  Bryan Reimer; Chuck Gulash; Bruce Mehler; James P. Foley; Stephen Arredondo; Alexander Waldmann
This paper briefly describes the background of the MIT AgeLab implementation of a delayed digit recall or n-back task, and the capabilities of an android application developed to implement a multi-modal version. The MIT AgeLab n-back task is a well-established methodology for inducing graded levels of cognitive workload. It has been adopted for broad use as a multi-modal surrogate demand and calibration task, and recently introduced as a driver and pedestrian distraction education tool.
Cognitive Workload and Driver Glance Behavior BIBAFull-Text 13
  Joanne L. Harbluk
Drivers' cognitive workload can be difficult to assess. Here one method based on drivers' visual behavior is examined and various approaches are presented.
Using an OpenDS Driving Simulator for Car Following: A First Attempt BIBAFull-Text 14
  Paul A. Green; Te-Ping Kang; Heejin Jeong
This paper describes the modifications to free, open-source driving simulator software to simulate a car-following task resembling that in the NHTSA driver distraction protocol. In brief, the peak-to-peak amplitudes of the lead vehicle were sharply reduced (to 70% of the specified values) and made more uniform. In addition, the mean speed was reduced by 10 ft/s to reduce the time to get up to speed (and collect data). Finally, modifications were made to the Logitech G27 interface commonly used with OpenDS. Wooden blocks were mounted on the foot pedals to make the configuration more car-like and the accelerator and brake pedal springs were replaced with stiffer springs (Hillman #49). With stiffer pedals, there were fewer instances of excessive speeding and braking g levels were closer to those in real driving, correcting problems that commonly occur with fixed base driving simulators.
Effect of cognitive load in autonomous vehicles on driver performance during transfer of control BIBAFull-Text 15
  Mishel Johns; Srinath Sibi; Wendy Ju
Present study on cognitive workload in driving focuses on reduction of workload for better driving performance. In this paper, we talk about the cognitive load in drivers of autonomous cars and their performance under multiple cognitive loads. Our previous studies have indicated that low to no workload is likely to induce drowsiness in drivers of autonomous vehicles. We hypothesize that there is an optimal cognitive load for a driver during autonomous driving for best performance after transfer of control from autonomous to manual. We propose an experiment to study the cognitive load on the driver of a simulated autonomous car and the effects on manual driving performance. We also describe our use of biometric devices to obtain physiological measures indicative of cognitive workload.

Pointing towards future automotive HMIs: The potential for gesture

Pointing Towards Future Automotive HMIs: The Potential for Gesture Interaction BIBAFull-Text 16
  Yu Zhang; Linda Angell
Gesture provides a new design space for in-vehicle human-machine interaction. It could potentially mitigate emerging conflicts between the increasing functionality of today's vehicles and the very limited space that is available for implementing these functions within the driver's reach. However, because gesture requires manual input, it may cause unintended consequences for drivers rather than supporting concurrent driving tasks as it is meant to do. This workshop will explore the potential of in-vehicle gesture interaction, as well as the cautions that must be exercised during its implementation. Participants will contribute to the discussion of design guidelines for gesture interaction; discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of gesture interaction based on properties of secondary tasks; will propose promising uses of gesture for in-vehicle interaction; and will advise systematic approaches for guiding the development of gesture interactions that will minimize the impact to or even facilitate primary driving tasks. The discussion within this workshop will also consider the different phases of automation as a design factor and discuss how to adapt gesture interactions to the changing demands in manual driving control.
Applying Popular Usability Heuristics to Gesture Interaction in the Vehicle BIBAFull-Text 17
  Thomas M. Gable; Keenan R. May; Bruce N. Walker
Recent technological advances have led to the ability to reliably track the human body at low cost, allowing for the proliferation of Air Gesture (AG) interfaces. It has been proposed that AGs may be a safe and effective way to interact with in-vehicle technologies. However, designers do not presently have a well developed/adapted set of heuristics, which they can consult to ensure their designs are suitable for the driving environment. This paper aims to address this by discussing how a popular set of human-computer interaction heuristics can be applied to AGs in the vehicle.
The Steering Wheel as a Touch Interface: Using Thumb-Based Gesture Interfaces as Control Inputs While Driving BIBAFull-Text 18
  Steffen Werner
Different types of gesture interfaces have been investigated in the context of human vehicle interaction. This paper highlights the differences among current approaches and introduces a new interface using a small set of thumb-based gestures on the steering wheel in conjunction with explicit mode selection.

EVIS 2014 3rd Workshop on Electric Vehicle Information Systems

EVIS 2014: 3rd Workshop on Electric Vehicle Information Systems BIBAFull-Text 19
  Sebastian Osswald; Ronald Schroeter; Sebastian Loehmann; Andreas Butz; Anders Lundström; Markus Lienkamp
The effort to push the electric vehicle development worldwide is continuously rising. Production sites for electric vehicle components are built, billions are invested to create new battery electric vehicle concepts (BEV) and new players are entering the market. The information systems of electric vehicles (EVIS) need to cope with a variety of new features that are related to changes of vehicle components and driving behavior, but also with changes and new systems that are silently introduced into the vehicles. Sustainability, mobility concepts and smart mobility are just a few points out of many that can be attributed to the "silent" category. With this workshop, we continue to bring together researchers, designers and practitioners to explore the related field and generate a state of the art perspective on EVIS.
Energy Flow: A Multimodal 'Ready' Indication For Electric Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 20
  Marc Landau; Sebastian Loehmann; Moritz Koerber
The lack of sound and vibration while starting the drive system of an electric vehicle (EV) is one of the major differences compared to a conventional car with a combustion engine. Most EVs provide a visual feedback about the energy level to the driver. With Energy Flow (see Figure 1), we test if there will be a benefit in terms of attractiveness through adding audible or haptic feedback. First results show a positive effect by addressing several senses -- but disprove the hypothesis "the more the merrier".
Using Augmented Video to Test In-Car User Experiences of Context Analog HUDs BIBAFull-Text 21
  Alessandro Soro; Andry Rakotonirainy; Ronald Schroeter; Sabine Wollstädter
Automotive interactive technologies represent an exemplar challenge for user experience (UX) designers, as the concerns for aesthetics, functionality and usability add up to the compelling issues of safety and cognitive demand. This extended abstract presents a methodology for the user-centred creation and evaluation of novel in-car applications, involving real users in realistic use settings. As a case study, we present the methodologies of an ideation workshop in a simulated environment and the evaluation of six design idea prototypes for in-vehicle head up display (HUD) applications using a semi-naturalistic drive. Both methods rely on video recordings of real traffic situations that the users are familiar with and/or experienced themselves. The extended abstract presents experiences and results from the evaluation and reflection on our methods.
Having a Lead Foot? Exploring how to Visualize Energy Consumption and Driving in Electric Cars BIBAFull-Text 22
  Anders Lundström; Cristian Bogdan
In this paper we present a visualization of estimated and real energy consumption while driving, as a tool to compare the driving to what might be considered "typical" driving. This is particularly relvant to cases where the driver wants to be aware of the energy consumption in order to reach a particular destination and avoid a "lead foot", or otherwise when learning to drive efficiently.
Prototyping Automotive Cyber-Physical Systems BIBAFull-Text 23
  Sebastian Osswald; Stephan Matz; Markus Lienkamp
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) in the automotive engineering process address the challenge of focusing on the interaction with physical processes rather than to cope with limited computational resources. The aim is to understand the joint dynamic of software, networks and physical processes, including the human in a vehicle. In the interplay between software and hardware, the user is an integral component and needs to be kept in the loop to understand, validate and control automotive prototypes. With the focus on information systems, this becomes particularly challenging with an increase of information sources. We define four categories to assess the effort for CPS prototyping to point out challenges and potential related to human-in-the-loop requirements.

Human Factors Design Principles for the Driver-Vehicle Interface (DVI)

Human Factors Design Principles for the Driver-Vehicle Interface (DVI) BIBAFull-Text 24
  John L. Campbell; Zachary R. Doerzaph; Christian M. Richard; L. Paige Bacon
The purpose of the Human Factors Design Principles for the Driver-Vehicle Interface (DVI) is to provide a set of principles, based on the best-available research and established concepts, for DVI designers, developers, manufacturers, and any other individuals that have responsibilities related to DVI design. The design principles cover a range of topics including auditory, visual, and haptic interfaces, design of controls, driver information needs, system integration, and performance metrics. This workshop will provide an overview of the process used to develop the design principles, the format and content of the design principles, and give workshop participants opportunity to provide feedback on the design principles.

Designing for People: Keeping the User in mind

Designing For People: Keeping The User In Mind BIBAFull-Text 25
  John Robert Wilson; Jenny Le
When designing systems that will be used by people, it is paramount that everyone involved remembers the key point; the system is to be used by a person, the user. This is at the core of User Centered Design, but how exactly do we accomplish this?
   The workshop will focus on various User Centered Design processes. There is an emphasis on hands-on techniques for identifying key insights about users, and using those to inform decision making processes throughout the development process.
   Key to this will be participant analysis of these processes with the goal of comparison, refinement, and improvement to these processes that can be used during the coming year.

2nd Workshop on User Experience of Autonomous Driving at AutomotiveUI 2014

2nd Workshop on User Experience of Autonomous Driving BIBAFull-Text 26
  Alexander Meschtscherjakov; Rabindra Ratan; Manfred Tscheligi; Roderick McCall; Dalila Szostak; Ioannis Politis; Sven Krome
Autonomous Driving has gained attention from academia and industry over the last decades. Research organizations and companies have developed (semi-) autonomous vehicles and first in-situ studies have been conducted. This workshop follows last year's first AUI workshop on user experience (UX) and autonomous driving (AD). We would like to widen the conversation on UX and AD based on the results from last year. The focus lies in an in-depth discussion on challenges and potentials for UX and AD among experts and researchers. We will explore various areas such as methodological issues, human factors, entertainment, social driving, and novel user interface approaches. The overall aim of the workshop is to discuss the future landscape for research within and across each these areas.
Approaching A Design Space For Gameful Interactions In The Context Of Piloted Driving BIBAFull-Text 27
  Sven Krome; Jussi Holopainen; Steffen P. Walz
In this paper, we portray ongoing work aiming to define a design space for enjoyable, playful interactions in the context of a piloted driving situation. Towards this purpose, we identify constraints in the general context of piloted driving, the car's interior and controls as well as the car manufacturer's safety recommendations. Furthermore, we align the identified constraints with proposed stresslessness-strategies for rear-seat passengers in order to anticipate conflicts and choices in the design of gameful interactions for an enjoyable and stress-less piloted driving experience.
Who cares about trust, grade of traveling & quality of user experience in a world of autonomous cars? BIBAFull-Text 28
  Andreas Riener
Autonomous, driverless, or self-driving cars have an incredible presence in news today. Even if much of the announcements is speculative and 'hyped', my expectation for the future of transport is, that autonomous cars will become the mainstream of individual mobility. Until the actual day come, a lot of problems have to be solved as two different parties clash: Proponents of driverless cars suggest that they will allow for throughput/economic optimization, safety improvements, and more leisure time for the drivers while the antagonists argue against as driving will be boring and driving experience will be low, cars will not address individual driving behavior, and the system (network of cars, backbone infrastructure) is susceptible to faults and abuse.
   In this position paper, I summarize -- from my point of view -- the "grand challenges" that could permit or prevent proliferation of driverless cars on large scale.
Quantitative Measures of User Experience in Autonomous Driving Simulators BIBAFull-Text 29
  Hillary Page Ive; Wendy Ju; Kirstin Kohler
As autonomous cars gain popularity, the importance of studying user experience (UX) in autonomous cars becomes increasingly important. Because validated UX measures specific to autonomous driving have not been developed, we identified several factors of interest common to researchers working at the intersection of autonomous driving, driving simulators, and user experience. We have collected corresponding validated questionnaires to create a comprehensive inventory. We based our selection on attributes such as length of the questionnaires, validation, and prevalence of use such that our work may contribute to an easy and fast setup of high quality questionnaires for the study of UX in autonomous cars. In this extended abstract, we recap the factors we have inventoried.
Dashboard Design for an Autonomous Car BIBAFull-Text 30
  Nikhil Gowda; Kirstin Kohler; Wendy Ju
In a fully autonomous car -- steering, deceleration and acceleration are completely controlled by the intelligence built into it. This leads to a major change in user experience as the driver needs different information and is less involved in the driving itself. We are working on redesigning the user experience of the autonomous car from a holistic user experience perspective of the driver. Our design was driven by a more anthropomorphic view of the car. The driving metaphor being that an autonomous car and the driver are travelling companions. Our work currently is geared towards emulating the key characteristics of this friendship and formulating a design scheme to design each device (and modality within). In this paper we introduce this idea and exemplify some design decisions by referring to a new dashboard for the autonomous car simulator at Stanford. This paper will underline our position that we strongly believe user experience design for autonomous cars needs a tremendous shift towards a more elaborated understanding of user interactions as well as new approaches in order to address the challenges given by the changed experience of the autonomous driving.

Wearable Technologies for Automotive User Interfaces: Danger or Opportunity?

Wearable Technologies for Automotive User Interfaces: Danger or Opportunity? BIBAFull-Text 31
  Maurizio Caon; Michele Tagliabue; Leonardo Angelini; Paolo Perego; Elena Mugellini; Giuseppe Andreoni
Wearable technologies are spreading into human's everyday life. Smart bracelets, watches and glasses promise to provide us with ready-at-hand access to several information and interaction possibilities. What happens when these technologies enter the car? Are they a mere danger or can also offer information and interaction opportunities that can improve the vehicle inhabitants' user experience and safety? This workshop aims to discuss all the opportunities and dangers that such technologies not only are already bringing in nowadays vehicles, but could also bring in future semi-autonomous and autonomous vehicles.

Work in Progress

Collective Data Sharing to Improve on Driving Efficiency and Safety BIBAFull-Text 32
  Andreas Riener; Johann Reder
Traffic is a social system in which road users have their own personality and steer their cars based on learned behavior, experience, and familiarity with situations or street sections. The assumption of this work is, that traffic efficiency and safety could be enhanced when the more competent road users support the less competent ones by sharing data about specific road characteristics and providing steering recommendations. This information should help the latter to move its vehicle in a more efficient and safe way. We thus designed, prototyped, and tested a "Social driving app" that allows experienced drivers to collect and share driving data (speed, gear, brake force, etc.) and that generates, based on the aggregated driving profiles of experts, steering recommendations for the lay drivers. By introducing a ranking system to motivate the individual drivers to follow the instructions from the system, the project further examined the influence of social pressure on driving performance.
Taxi Checker: A Mobile Application for Real-Time Taxi Fare Analysis BIBAFull-Text 33
  Sebastian Osswald; Niklas Brueckel; Carsten Brickwedde; Markus Lienkamp; Martin Schoell
Taxi customers tend to use their smartphone to call and manage their taxi and even store details about their favorite taxi driver. Nevertheless, they often do not have the possibility to comprehend how the taxi fare is calculated and if it is correct. In our approach, we developed a smartphone application to track the taxi ride and calculate the fare in real time. At the end of the ride, mean cost calculations for three different sources are presented to the user and the tracked data contributes for community-based fare calculation. The application was tested by experts and will be evaluated in a user study to improve the fare calculation pattern.
'To See or Not to See?' How Do Eye Movements Change Within Immersive Driving Environments BIBAFull-Text 34
  Diana Reich; Rainer Stark
Highly realistic driving environments will help to provide reliable and valid findings to ensure safety and usability of advanced in-car cockpits. Nevertheless, real car driving studies are difficult to standardize, more time consuming and expensive. Thus, one economizing suggestion is the implementation of immersive driving environments within simulator studies to provide users with a more realistic awareness of the situation. This paper discusses research investigating the influence of immersive driving environments during dual-tasks regarding eye movements. The results of the driving simulator study (N=20) suggest more visual availability for driving when high immersive driving environments were applied to the text entry task.
Evaluation of Driver Stress while Transiting Road Tunnels BIBAFull-Text 35
  Marcel Manseer; Andreas Riener
According to the reported numbers of fatal crashes, road tunnels on highways pose a severe safety risk. Based on our own experience and observations, it is supposed that one substantial reason is an increased level of anger or stress, observable through elevated levels of cognitive demand. To confirm these assumptions, we conducted an on-road experiment aimed at revealing how the human mind is affected (in terms of stress levels) when traveling through tunnels compared to driving on the open road. Test subjects were continuously monitored with an ECG device and had to steer the vehicle on a 100km long highway segment with 24 tunnel passages. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation reveals that individuals in fact experience an elevated stress level, while feeling uncomfortable with the situation. A combination of these two circumstances suggests that, in critical situations, the body might react with tonical immobility as part of its acute stress response, having devastating consequences on the road. Future work is therefore strongly encouraged to identify major stressors, so to alleviate increased stress and, thus, to increase traffic safety.
Integrating User Experience Validation into a New Engineering Development Process for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems BIBAFull-Text 36
  Maik Auricht; Rainer Stark; Claas Blume
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems play a leading role in the revolution of cars; it has become a high priority for the automotive industry and now is no longer reserved for only premium cars. In this paper, a process is to be introduced, which allows to capture the User Experience (UX) already on the Model-in-the-Loop level (where only abstract models exist) to be fed back directly into the development process. This process allows for a more efficient work relationship between system development engineers and test & validation engineers. Furthermore the work in progress of a new tool is shown: MINARGUS. It allows a connection between a simulation model and the measurement of physiological data in one environment. The Advanced Active Cruise Control (Advanced ACC) system is used as a continuous example to support the paper.
PapAR: Paper Prototyping for Augmented Reality BIBAFull-Text 37
  Felix Lauber; Claudius Böttcher; Andreas Butz
Paper prototyping is a well-established technique in traditional user interface design as it supports design teams in early development phases to communicate and discuss their ideas. Unfortunately, there is no equivalent technique for the development of augmented reality (AR) applications. We developed PapAR, a prototyping technique with the same simplicity as using pen and paper but taking into account important specifics of AR applications. By drawing on two layers instead of one, with PapAR it is possible to represent the dynamic behavior of different content stabilization techniques as well as the interplay of virtual content and the underlying real world (Fig. 1). We used PapAR in the early design phase of a user interface, which is specifically designed to be displayed in a head-mounted display (HMD) in the car. In this paper we first present the PapAR technique itself and then discuss our first experiences of using it.
NERVteh 4DOF motion car driving simulator BIBAFull-Text 38
  Matej Vengust; David Mozina; Nika Pušenjak; Luka Zevnik; Jaka Sodnik; Boštjan Kaluza; Aleš Tavcar
This paper describes the basic structure and functionalities of a novel car driving simulator for a realistic simulation of various road and traffic conditions, and realistic car behavior on different terrains. Its main and most innovative component is a powerful and fast responsive 4DOF motion platform consisting of four electro motors. The proposed platform also includes a set of technologies and tools for biometrical and biomechanical evaluation of the driving performance and anomalies. The simulator, which is currently in the work-in-progress stage, is expected to be available as a prototype by the end of 2014.
An Automotive HMI Architecture Based on a Mobile Operating System BIBAFull-Text 39
  Sebastian Osswald; Markus Lienkamp
Integrating a mobile operating system (OS) into the vehicle as foundation for the vehicle's information system is limited to the capabilities of original manufactures, as it is an integral part of the engineering process. Taking advantage of designing and engineering an electric vehicle from scratch, we built up the HMI system architecture based on Android from the early design phase on. We designed the architecture in a way that it gives access to third party developers during the overall engineering process and beyond. In this paper we discuss the engineering process, the features of the system, the difficulties we struggled with and emphasize the advantages of this setup for lower- and medium-class vehicles.
Shared Gaze in the Car: Towards a Better Driver-Passenger Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 40
  Bernhard Maurer; Sandra Trösterer; Magdalena Gärtner; Martin Wuchse; Axel Baumgartner; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; David Wilfinger; Manfred Tscheligi
Many automotive tasks can potentially be seen as a collaborative activity between driver and front seat passenger. Nevertheless, the position of both passengers sitting in the front seat hinders a natural face to face communication. An assisting co-driver can thus lead to more distraction and misunderstanding because pointing out things becomes difficult. We want to add a natural way of communication and present a prototype that captures the co-driver's gaze and visualizes it for the driver. With this setup we try to create a possibility for passengers to collaborate and share information e.g., during navigational tasks or to provide hints about upcoming hazards. We developed a prototype in a car simulator to explore the concept in a first explorative study setup. In this paper we describe our concept of using shared gaze in the car, the technical setup of the prototype as well as possible application scenarios and future studies.
Experience Maps: Experience-Enhanced Routes for Car Navigation BIBAFull-Text 41
  Bastian Pfleging; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; Stefan Schneegass; Manfred Tscheligi
People spend a considerable time per day driving a car. Navigation technology helps the driver to find a location, to see traffic details, or to estimate the arrival time. Selecting a certain route influences the driving experience (i.e., the user experience while driving) through factors such as traffic density, landscape, or road type. However, current navigation systems mainly optimize routes regarding time, distance, or fuel efficiency -- neglecting important driving experience factors: The fastest route might still be packed with traffic which stresses drivers or negatively influence their mood. In contrast, a slightly slower route could for instance offer a better driving experience with less traffic and scenic views. In this paper, we propose a concept that allows for experience-optimized routing to make driving more joyful and pleasurable. We also present the results of a web survey with 114 participants that we conducted to explore the users' preferences and opinions regarding taking the experience into account for route guidance.
Clarity of View: An Evaluation Framework for 360-degree Awareness Systems in Heavy Vehicles BIBAFull-Text 42
  Dee Kivett; Fei He; David J. Smith
Several emerging technologies hold great promise to improve the 360-degree awareness of the heavy vehicle driver. However, current industry-standard evaluation methods do not measure all the comprehensive factors contributing to the overall effectiveness of such systems. As a result, industry is challenged to evaluate new technologies in a way that is objective and allows the comparison of different systems in a consistent manner. This research aims to explore the methods currently in use, identify relevant factors not presently incorporated in standard procedures, and recommend best practices to accomplish an overall measurement system that can quantify performance beyond simply the field of view of a driver visibility system. We introduce a new metric, "Clarity of View," that incorporates several important factors for visibility systems including: gap acceptance, response time, and behavior accuracy. This paper provides an outline of the theoretical framework for our Clarity of View metric that prefaces an experimental approach to follow. The resulting work will allow recommendation of guidelines for design parameters for acceptable performance of visibility systems specifically designed for heavy vehicles.
Eye Tracking in the Car: Challenges in a Dual-Task Scenario on a Test Track BIBAFull-Text 43
  Sandra Trösterer; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; David Wilfinger; Manfred Tscheligi
In our research, we aim at developing and enhancing an approach that allows us to capture visual, cognitive, and manual distraction of the driver while operating an In-Vehicle Infotainment System (IVIS) under most preferable real conditions. Based on our experiences in three consecutive studies conducted on a test track, we want to point out and discuss issues and challenges we had to face when applying eye tracking in this context. These challenges include how to choose the right system, integrate it into the vehicle, set it up for each participant, and gather data on in-car tasks with an acceptable workload for the researcher. The contribution of this paper is to raise awareness for eye tracking issues in the automotive UI community and to provide lessons learned for AUI researchers when applying eye tracking methods in comparable setups.
Dash Designer: A Multi-Modal Design Tool for Vehicle Interactivity BIBAFull-Text 44
  Andreas Kasprzok; J. David Smith
We present Dash Designer: a mixed-reality design tool for vehicle interiors. The tool consists of a tablet and projector that can be used to create and organize new interactive components for vehicle dashboards. A user can use a freehand sketching interface to draw a new interactive element on the tablet, and a simple set of gestures to motion the created item onto a real dashboard. A simple interface is provided to connect the created components to vehicle data published by an integrated driving simulator. The system is currently a work in progress, and future work will include integration with real vehicle dashboards, autonomous vehicles, and support for participatory design sessions.
Relationship between Drivers' Self-Reported Health and Technology Perceptions Across the Lifespan BIBAFull-Text 45
  Chaiwoo Lee; Bruce Mehler; Alea C. Mehler; Joseph F. Coughlin; Bryan Reimer
This study examined relationships between individual user characteristics and perceptions about technology -- experience, adoption, ability to learn, and trust. Based on responses from a diverse sample of 610 individuals with driving experience, it was found that perceived health and well-being were strongly associated with experience and perceptions around technology, including attitudes toward established and new vehicle technologies. A comparison of results from a correlation analysis showed the effects of perceived health and well-being to be stronger and more significant compared to demographic characteristics and medical conditions. The findings suggest a need for a better understanding of user characteristics, rather than relying on observable traits.
A Multimodal Air Gesture Interface for In Vehicle Menu Navigation BIBAFull-Text 46
  Keenan R. May; Thomas M. Gable; Bruce N. Walker
Multimodal and visual-only air gesture systems for navigating menus in the vehicle were developed and compared to a conventional direct touch system in a driving simulator using various distraction metrics. Participants using the multimodal air gesture system exhibited safer secondary task dwell patterns, but took longer to complete tasks and reported higher workload compared to the touch system.
Context-aware in-car advertising: the role of message composition and service type BIBAFull-Text 47
  Peter Fröhlich; Jürgen Rehak
The emerging "connected car", with its ability to extract user needs from realtime contextual data streams, provides novel application and business opportunities. For example, service providers along the driver's route can advertise their services and products (such as refilling fuel or engine cooling water) in the exact situation that a driver requires them. We conducted a scenario-based lab interview study that investigated the likelihood that drivers would be interested in obtaining such offers and we explored related user experience aspects. We found that the mere presentation of an advertisement does not provide considerable willingness to follow up an offer. However, when information about the car's status (such as low fuel or tire air level) is provided, drivers appear to be more interested in the offer. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed, and further work is outlined.

Interactive Demos

EyeVIUS: Intelligent Vehicles in Intelligent Urban Spaces BIBAFull-Text 48
  Mohammad Mehdi Moniri; Christian Müller
Drivers' focus-of-attention is a key factor to be considered for building novel, intuitive user interactions and enhancing the current infotainment and safety applications. For this purpose, EyeVIUS extracts and merges relevant information about the eye-gaze and head-pose of the driver. In addition, it analyzes this information in a very realistic environment to gain the best possible results for analysis and interactive applications. EyeVIUS consists of a core module and several plug-in applications, which can be used in a simulator or real traffic. It also provides an interface for third party applications in order to be able to integrate it in their own platforms.