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AutomotiveUI Tables of Contents: 091011121314-114-2

AutomotiveUI 2014: International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications

Fullname:Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications
Editors:Linda Ng Boyle
Location:Seattle, Washington
Dates:2014-Sep-17 to 2014-Sep-19
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-3212-5; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: AutomotiveUI14-1
Links:Conference Website
  1. AutomotiveUI 2014-09-17 Volume 1
    1. Podium Presentations: Investigating the impacts of novel user interfaces
    2. Podium Presentations: Understanding and designing context-aware user interfaces
    3. Podium Presentations: Knowing the user for automotive user interfaces
    4. Podium Presentations: Measuring the user for automotive user interfaces
    5. Podium Presentations: Methods for design and evaluation
    6. Podium Presentations: Driver emotions and physiological state
    7. Podium Presentations: Learning from evaluations of existing systems and user interfaces
    8. Poster Presentations

AutomotiveUI 2014-09-17 Volume 1

Podium Presentations: Investigating the impacts of novel user interfaces

Personal Navi: Benefits of an Augmented Reality Navigational Aid Using a See-Thru 3D Volumetric HUD BIBAFull-Text 1
  Karlin Bark; Cuong Tran; Kikuo Fujimura; Victor Ng-Thow-Hing
Augmented reality (AR) is an interface that can potentially provide more intuitive and immersive experiences, particularly for automotive applications. In this paper we present the Personal Navi, a vehicular AR navigational aid designed for use with a see-thru 3D volumetric Head Up Display (HUD). In one study, we found that the Personal Navi visuals helped participants recognize turn locations earlier than when provided with conventional navigation aids alone. The interface also helped keep users' eyes up and fixated on the driving environment more. In a second study, we tested participants' depth perception of AR visuals provided with our prototype 3D-HUD. We displayed the same visuals with a fixed focal depth display (2D-HUD) and found that for applications such as Personal Navi, where the spatial location of AR visuals are an important component of the interface, a dynamically adjustable focal plane (3D-HUD) is necessary for proper registration. We argue that AR-based HUD navigational aids should be implemented only with 3D-HUDs because of inferior depth perception with 2D-HUDs.
3D Displays in Cars: Exploring the User Performance for a Stereoscopic Instrument Cluster BIBAFull-Text 2
  Nora Broy; Florian Alt; Stefan Schneegass; Bastian Pfleging
In this paper, we investigate user performance for stereoscopic automotive user interfaces (UI). Our work is motivated by the fact that stereoscopic displays are about to find their way into cars. Such a safety-critical application area creates an inherent need to understand how the use of stereoscopic 3D visualizations impacts user performance. We conducted a comprehensive study with 56 participants to investigate the impact of a 3D instrument cluster (IC) on primary and secondary task performance. We investigated different visualizations (2D and 3D) and complexities (low vs. high amount of details) of the IC as well as two 3D display technologies (shutter vs. autostereoscopy). As secondary tasks the participants judged spatial relations between UI elements (expected events) and reacted on pop-up instructions (unexpected events) in the IC. The results show that stereoscopy increases accuracy for expected events, decreases task completion times for unexpected tasks, and increases the attractiveness of the interface. Furthermore, we found a significant influence of the used technology, indicating that secondary task performance improves for shutter displays.
You've Got the Look: Visualizing Infotainment Shortcuts in Head-Mounted Displays BIBAFull-Text 3
  Felix Lauber; Claudius Böttcher; Andreas Butz
Head-mounted displays (HMDs) have great potential to improve the current situation of car drivers. They provide every benefit of a head-up display (HUD), while at the same time showing more flexibility in usage. We built an infotainment system specifically designed to be displayed in an HMD. With this system, we then conducted a dual task study in a driving simulation, comparing different techniques of content stabilization (head- and cockpit stabilized visualizations). Interaction with the system took place via a physical input device (rotary controller) or indirect pointing gestures. While cockpit-stabilized content generally resulted in a slightly better driving performance, HMD visualizations suffered from technological limitations, partly reflected in the secondary task performance and subjective feedback. Regarding input modality, we found that horizontal gesture interaction significantly influenced the quality of lane keeping. Apparently, horizontal interaction with the one hand caused unintentional steering with the other.
Speech Tactons Improve Speech Warnings for Drivers BIBAFull-Text 4
  Ioannis Politis; Stephen Brewster; Frank Pollick
This paper describes two experiments evaluating a set of speech and tactile driver warnings. Six speech messages of three urgency levels were designed, along with their tactile equivalents, Speech Tactons. These new tactile warnings retained the rhythm of speech and used different levels of roughness and intensity to convey urgency. The perceived urgency, annoyance and alerting effectiveness of these warnings were evaluated. Results showed that bimodal (audio and tactile) warnings were rated as more urgent, more annoying and more effective compared to unimodal ones (audio or tactile). Perceived urgency and alerting effectiveness decreased along with the designed urgency, while perceived annoyance was lowest for warnings of medium designed urgency. In the tactile modality, ratings varied less as compared to the audio and audiotactile modalities. Roughness decreased and intensity increased ratings for Speech Tactons in all the measures used. Finally, Speech Tactons produced acceptable recognition accuracy when tested without their speech counterparts. These results demonstrate the utility of Speech Tactons as a new form of tactile alert while driving, especially when synchronized with speech.

Podium Presentations: Understanding and designing context-aware user interfaces

Driver Link-up: Exploring User Requirements for a Driver-to-Driver Communication Device BIBAFull-Text 5
  Raphael Lamas; Gary Burnett; Sue Cobb; Catherine Harvey
Driving is a social task, where drivers commonly communicate with other road users (e.g. verbally, through gestures, etc.). This exploratory cross-cultural research sought to investigate various communication issues raised while driving, and how a hypothetical electronic device could address them. Twenty-four participants from the UK and Brazil were asked to give their opinions on how they would react to six different driving scenarios involving communication between drivers. The scenarios varied in who instigated the interaction, the number of vehicles involved, the likelihood of anonymity, the event duration and whether the vehicle was stationary/in motion. Results highlighted various cross-cultural differences between drivers when using traditional means of communication, e.g. use of horn/lights. For the electronic device, results showed how the main driver's reaction to an aggressive message would affect their decision to interact with another driver via the device. The presence of passengers was also believed to have important implications for how the system is likely to be used in practice. The study generated design recommendations for a driver-to-driver communication device, such as the need for non-visual interactions and a set of pre-defined messages to cover the basic communication scenarios.
Subliminal Visual Information to Enhance Driver Awareness and Induce Behavior Change BIBAFull-Text 6
  Andreas Riener; Hannes Thaller
Steering a vehicle has become a challenging task and this is underpinned by the fact that more than ninety percent of vehicle accidents are caused by driver errors. Cautionary, not the classical driving errors lead to this number, but accidents caused by distracted drivers reaching or exceeding their cognitive limits. To address this problem, i.e., to mitigate driving problems caused by excessive information, we propose to induce a non-conscious behavioral change in drivers by employing subliminal techniques. Within a driving simulator study we have demonstrated the feasibility of the approach to support drivers with added information without dissipating available attention resources. In a Lane Change Task (LCT) similar to ISO 26022-2010 we exposed drivers to sequences of briefly flashed visual stimuli (subliminally flashed lane change requests) to change their steering behavior. The results of the study, while mainly not statistically significant, still give support to our hypotheses that there are positive differences between control group (no subliminal messages or negative primes) and test group (exposed to positive subliminal cues). More research and experimentation is needed to improve on the perception of information priming, but we are confident that subliminally driven interfaces will find their way as additional information provider into the cars of the future.
Better Driving and Recall When In-car Information Presentation Uses Situationally-Aware Incremental Speech Output Generation BIBAFull-Text 7
  Casey Kennington; Spyros Kousidis; Timo Baumann; Hendrik Buschmeier; Stefan Kopp; David Schlangen
It is established that driver distraction is the result of sharing cognitive resources between the primary task (driving) and any other secondary task. In the case of holding conversations, a human passenger who is aware of the driving conditions can choose to interrupt his speech in situations potentially requiring more attention from the driver, but in-car information systems typically do not exhibit such sensitivity. We have designed and tested such a system in a driving simulation environment. Unlike other systems, our system delivers information via speech (calendar entries with scheduled meetings) but is able to react to signals from the environment to interrupt when the driver needs to be fully attentive to the driving task and subsequently resume its delivery. Distraction is measured by a secondary short-term memory task. In both tasks, drivers perform significantly worse when the system does not adapt its speech, while they perform equally well to control conditions (no concurrent task) when the system intelligently interrupts and resumes.

Podium Presentations: Knowing the user for automotive user interfaces

User Authentication for Rotary Knob Controlled In-car Applications BIBAFull-Text 8
  Jan Gugenheimer; Florian Schaub; Gregory M. Neiswander; Eromi Guneratne; Michael Weber
In recent years, the automobile has become more connected and has started offering drivers a variety of services and applications for in-car use, such as Facebook, Twitter, and mobile payment. Many such services require user authentication. We have investigated the requirements and potential of authenticating users with a rotary control knob, which constitutes the central control entity (CCE) in many modern cars. In a user-centered design approach we adapted three established authentication schemes for in-car usage with consideration to driver distraction. We performed extensive user experiments in a driving simulator focusing on usability, security and driver distraction. The results of our experiments provide relevant insights for integrating user authentication methods into the automotive context solely based on present hardware components.
Real-Time Driver Activity Recognition with Random Forests BIBAFull-Text 9
  Lijie Xu; Kikuo Fujimura
In this work, we introduce a real-time driver activity recognition method which takes a sequence of depth images as input and outputs an activity class among a predetermined set of driver activities. A classification algorithm called Random Forests is employed and further enhanced by a unique state based inference system to reduce initial classifier errors. For example, frequent changes in driver activities are penalized so as to stabilize the output. The cost of activity change is decided by a state inference system which takes both temporal and spatial coherence into account. The paper will introduce the training system, explain the state inference system and the cost based penalty calculation. Finally we will discuss the results and future work.
A Model of Anticipation in Driving: Processing Pre-event Cues for Upcoming Conflicts BIBAFull-Text 10
  Patrick Stahl; Birsen Donmez; Greg A. Jamieson
The ability to anticipate future events in the traffic environment is an important competence in driving. This paper extends our prior work: 1) to show potential benefits resulting from anticipatory competence in driving, and 2) to collate characteristics of anticipatory competence from a theoretical point of view. The reviewed literature is foundational to our understanding of anticipation as a high-level cognitive competence, allowing for the prediction of future traffic situations on a tactical level. We conceptualize anticipation as relying on the identification of stereotypical traffic situations based on indicative cues, and stress that the impacts of this competence are dependent on the driver's individual goals. Thus, anticipation enables a number of potential benefits, such as safety and fuel-efficiency, but the realization of these potential benefits depends on the goals of the driver. Further, we argue that the superior anticipatory competence of experienced drivers observed in an earlier simulator study can be explained via their heightened ability both to identify indicative cues, and interpret those cues relative to similar, memorized situations. We then capture anticipatory driving in a model inspired by the classical theory of information processing to describe the various steps necessary to process indicative cues from the environment, anticipate a future traffic situation, and take appropriate action or achieve a state of cognitive readiness.
Towards Autonomous Cars: The Effect of Autonomy Levels on Acceptance and User Experience BIBAFull-Text 11
  Christina Rödel; Susanne Stadler; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; Manfred Tscheligi
Surveys [8] show that people generally have a positive attitude towards autonomous cars. However, these studies neglect that cars have different levels of autonomy and that User Acceptance (UA) and User Experience (UX) with autonomous systems differ with regard to the degree of system autonomy. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) defines five degrees of car autonomy which vary in the penetration of cars with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and the extent to which a car is taken over by autonomous systems. Based on these levels, we conducted an online-questionnaire study (N = 336), in which we investigated how UA and UX factors, such as Perceived Ease of Use, Attitude Towards using the system, Perceived Behavioral Control, Behavioral Intention to use a system, Trust and Fun, differ with regard to the degree of autonomy in cars. We show that UA and UX are highest in levels of autonomy that already have been deployed in modern cars. More specifically, perceived control and fun decrease continuously with higher autonomy. Furthermore, our results indicate that pre-experience with ADAS and demographics, such as age and gender, have an influence on UA and UX.

Podium Presentations: Measuring the user for automotive user interfaces

Measuring Inhibitory Control in Driver Distraction BIBAFull-Text 12
  Liberty Hoekstra-Atwood; Huei-Yen Winnie Chen; Wayne Chi Wei Giang; Birsen Donmez
Driver distraction research primarily focuses on voluntary distraction. Little known research explicitly evaluates driver susceptibility to involuntary distractions. This paper investigates the relationships between glance behavior in response to irrelevant stimuli in a driving simulator and measures of inhibitory control assessed through a modified flanker task. Overall, inhibitory control appears to be a mechanism that relates to number of glances and average glance duration. Data from 16 participants show that smaller flanker compatibility effects (i.e., better inhibitory control) are significantly associated with fewer glances and shorter average glance durations to irrelevant stimuli in the simulator. No significant relation was found between time fixation on the irrelevant stimulus after its onset and the size of the flanker compatibility effect.
A Pilot Study Measuring the Relative Legibility of Five Simplified Chinese Typefaces Using Psychophysical Methods BIBAFull-Text 13
  Jonathan Dobres; Bryan Reimer; Bruce Mehler; Nadine Chahine; David Gould
In-vehicle user interfaces increasingly rely on screens filled with digital text to display information to the driver. As these interfaces have the potential to increase the demands placed upon the driver, it is important to design them in a way that minimizes attention time to the device and thus keeps the driver focused on the road. Previous research has shown that even relatively subtle differences in the design of the on-screen typeface can influence to-device glance time in a measurable and meaningful way. Here we outline a methodology for rapidly and flexibly investigating the legibility of typefaces in glance-like contexts, and apply this method to a comparison of 5 Simplified Chinese typefaces. We find that the legibility of the typefaces, measured as the minimum presentation time needed to read character strings and respond to a yes/no lexical decision task, is sensitive to differences in the typeface's design characteristics. The most legible typeface under study could be read 33.1% faster than the least legible typeface in this glance-induced context. Benefits and limitations of the methodology are discussed.
Mobility Tracking System for CO2 Footprint Determination BIBAFull-Text 14
  Maria Kugler; Sebastian Osswald; Christopher Frank; Markus Lienkamp
Tracking the mobility behavior of participants with smartphones to determine the CO2 emissions is an overcharging task for researchers. In a fleet test with 52 participants, 9968 datasets were generated, making the manual analysis a long-lasting endeavor. With our work, we are attempting to reduce the analysis time of the generated data and provide in the same way immediate feedback to the participants. We propose an automated mobility tracking system that makes use of a track analyzer that identifies the mode of mobility to calculate CO2 emissions. We will describe the system functions, how the datasets are collected, processed and led back to the users. Based on the setup, calculation accuracy and the feedback from the participants, benefits for user studies in the automotive context are identified. This system will influence the setup of future large data user studies with smartphones.

Podium Presentations: Methods for design and evaluation

Critical Analysis on the NHTSA Acceptance Criteria for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices BIBAFull-Text 15
  Tuomo Kujala; Annegret Lasch; Jakke Mäkelä
We tested a commercial in-car navigation system prototype against the NHTSA criteria for acceptance testing of in-vehicle electronic devices, in order to see what types of in-car tasks fail the acceptance test and why. In addition, we studied the visual demands of the driving scenario recommended by NHTSA for task acceptance testing. In the light of the results, NHTSA guidelines and acceptance criteria need to be further developed. In particular visual demands of the driving scenario and for different simulators need to be standardized in order to enable fair testing and comparable test results. We suggest the visual occlusion method for finding a driving scenario that corresponds better with real-life driving in visual demands as well as for standardizing the visual demands of the scenario when applied to different driving simulators. Furthermore, the acceptance criteria need to be re-evaluated. Especially the TEORT limit's applicability to a variety of test tasks needs to be validated and exceptions for certain task types considered. The utility of the average glance duration criterion should be reconsidered.
The Periscope: An Experience Design Case Study BIBAFull-Text 16
  Sebastian Loehmann; Marc Landau; Moritz Koerber; Doris Hausen; Patrick Proppe; Maximilian Hackenschmied
The Periscope is an interactive device supporting passengers in a car to explore the outside environment. Following an experience design process, we trigger positive emotions by addressing psychological needs: (a) The exploration of interesting places around the car addresses the need for stimulation. (b) When passing the Periscope on to others, discoveries can be shared and discussed, creating a feeling of relatedness among the group. We provide insights on the importance of the experience story throughout the design process and details on the interaction concept for the Periscope. Based on the story and a storyboard, we built three hardware prototypes at different early stages of the process, allowing to evaluate whether the story can be experienced during the interaction with the Periscope. Results show that early experience prototypes, implemented with regards to the story, are essential to maintain the designed experience throughout the development. With this case study, we continue the quest of introducing the car as a design space to create meaningful experiences.
Balancing Privacy and Safety: Protecting Driver Identity in Naturalistic Driving Video Data BIBAFull-Text 17
  Sujitha Martin; Ashish Tawari; Mohan M. Trivedi
Naturalistic driving dataset is at the heart of automotive user interface research, detecting/measuring driver distraction, and many other driver safety related studies. Recent advances in the collection of large scale naturalistic driving data include the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP2) consisting of more than 3000 subjects and the 100-Car study. Public access to such data, however, is made difficult due to personal identifiable information and protection of privacy. We propose de-identification filters for protecting the privacy of drivers while preserving sufficient details to infer driver behavior, such as the gaze direction, in naturalistic driving videos. Driver's gaze estimation is of particular interest because it is a good indicator of driver's visual attention and a good predictor of driver's intent. We implement and compare de-identification filters, which are made up of a combination of preserving eye regions, superimposing head pose encoded face mask and replacing background with black pixels, and show promising results.

Podium Presentations: Driver emotions and physiological state

If You're Angry, Turn the Music on: Music Can Mitigate Anger Effects on Driving Performance BIBAFull-Text 18
  Seyedeh Maryam Fakhrhosseini; Steven Landry; Yin Yin Tan; Saru Bhattarai; Myounghoon Jeon
Research has focused on music's negative effects on a driver's attention, whereas little research has addressed the possibility of using music to reduce emotional effects on driving. In the present study, we investigate how music can mitigate the degenerated driving performance associated with angry driving. To this end, fifty-three drivers participated in a simulated driving study either with or without induced anger. Three groups of participants with induced anger drove in a simulator while listening to happy or sad instrumental pieces, or without music. In the control group, anger was not induced and they did not listen to music during driving. The results show that participants who listened to either happy or sad music had significantly fewer driving errors than those who did not listen to music. However, no significant differences were found between happy and sad music conditions. Results are discussed with an affect regulation model and future research.
Heartbeat: Experience the Pulse of an Electric Vehicle BIBAFull-Text 19
  Sebastian Loehmann; Marc Landau; Moritz Koerber; Andreas Butz
Electric Vehicles (EVs) are an emerging technology and open up an exciting new space for designing in-car interfaces. This technology enhances driving experience by a strong acceleration, regenerative breaking and especially a reduced noise level. However, engine vibrations and sound transmit valuable feedback to drivers of conventional cars, e.g. signaling that the engine is running and ready to go. We address this lack of feedback with Heartbeat, a multimodal electric vehicle information system. Heartbeat communicates (1) the state of the electric drive including energy flow and (2) the energy level of the batteries in a natural and experienceable way. We enhance the underlying Experience Design process by formulating working principles derived from an experience story in order to transport its essence throughout the following design phases. This way, we support the design of a consistent experience and resolve the tension between implementation constraints (e.g., space) and the persistence of the underlying story while building prototypes and integrating them into a technical environment (e.g., a dashboard).
Estimating Drivers' Stress from GPS Traces BIBAFull-Text 20
  Sudip Vhaduri; Amin Ali; Moushumi Sharmin; Karen Hovsepian; Santosh Kumar
Driving is known to be a daily stressor. Measurement of driver's stress in real-time can enable better stress management by increasing self-awareness. Recent advances in sensing technology has made it feasible to continuously assess driver's stress in real-time, but it requires equipping the driver with these sensors and/or instrumenting the car. In this paper, we present "GStress", a model to estimate driver's stress using only smartphone GPS traces. The GStress model is developed and evaluated from data collected in a mobile health user study where 10 participants wore physiological sensors for 7 days (for an average of 10.45 hours/day) in their natural environment. Each participant engaged in 10 or more driving episodes, resulting in a total of 37 hours of driving data. We find that major driving events such as stops, turns, and braking increase stress of the driver. We quantify their impact on stress and thus construct our GStress model by training a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) on our data. We evaluate the applicability of GStress in predicting stress from GPS traces, and obtain a correlation of 0.72. By obviating any burden on the driver or the car, we believe, GStress can make driver's stress assessment ubiquitous.

Podium Presentations: Learning from evaluations of existing systems and user interfaces

The Musical Road: Interacting with a Portable Music Player in the City and on the Highway BIBAFull-Text 21
  Andrew L. Kun; Duncan P. Brumby; Zeljko Medenica
It is well established that driving while interacting with a secondary in-car device, such as a portable music player, is distracting and can lead to a decline in driver safety and performance. One aspect that has not received as much attention though is the extent to which drivers adapt their interactions with an in-car device to the changing demands of the road. Do drivers adopt compensatory strategies or tactics when driving in more demanding settings? We investigate this question by conducting a driving simulator study in which participants were required to drive either in a city or a highway environment. During these drives, participants were asked to interact with an MP3 music player and make a series of either easy or difficult selections. It was found that participants who drove in the city made shorter glances to the in-car iPod than those that drove on the highway. As a result of this tactical change, participants had better lane keeping performance in the city, which was important given the narrower traffic lanes. As expected, we also replicate the well-known effect that more complex secondary in-car tasks are more distracting than simpler in-car tasks. The contribution this paper makes to the automotive UI community is that it provides evidence that drivers adapt to the demands of the driving environment even when interacting with secondary devices.
Using a Parking Assist System Over Time: Insights on Acceptance and Experiences BIBAFull-Text 22
  Sandra Trösterer; Daniela Wurhofer; Christina Rödel; Manfred Tscheligi
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, such as parking assist systems, are designed to support the driver in his/her driving task. To date, only a few studies exist that investigate the driver's experiences and acceptance while using such systems over time. In this paper, we present the results from a long-term study regarding drivers' experiences with and acceptance of a parking assist system in a newly bought car. We found that there is a change of the drivers' experiences in terms of trust and of certain acceptance factors such as performance expectancy, effort expectancy, attitude towards technology, and social influence over time, highly depending on how certain characteristics of the system (e.g., the auditive signals) are perceived by the driver. Our study confirms the need to take expectations of the drivers, concerning the usefulness of the system, into account when designing parking assist systems. We further conclude that assistance should be given only in situations that really need assistance. Therefore, the situational context (e.g., the size of the parking slot), but also the capabilities of the driver (e.g., his parking skills), should be taken into account.
Effects of an 'Expert Mode' Voice Command System on Task Performance, Glance Behavior & Driver Physiology BIBAFull-Text 23
  Bryan Reimer; Bruce Mehler; Jonathan Dobres; Hale McAnulty; Alea Mehler; Daniel Munger; Adrian Rumpold
Multi-function in-vehicle interfaces are an increasingly common feature in automobiles. Over the past several years, these interfaces have taken on an ever-greater number of functions and the ways in which drivers interact with information have become more complex. Parallel with these technical developments, interest in ensuring that these systems minimize demand placed upon the driver has also increased. Voice command capability has become a popular and desirable feature, as interacting with a vehicle interface through auditory/vocal interactions is often hypothesized to allow the driver to keep their eyes on the road and hands on the wheel. However, research has shown that production level voice command systems may still impart considerable visual demands on the driver [18]. These demands might be due in part to screen displays associated with extensive confirmatory dialogue and the driver's desire for visual confirmation that commands were accurately recognized. This study extends this work by comparing the default mode of a production voice system with an "Expert" mode which streamlines tasks by removing several confirmatory steps. We found that, although the use of the Expert mode significantly reduces overall task completion time, it has no appreciable effect on the amount of visual engagement; drivers still glance off the road for durations that are consistent with the Default mode. Implications for interface design and driver safety are discussed.

Poster Presentations

Information Management for Adaptive Automotive Human Machine Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 24
  Andreas Heigemeyr; Andreas Harrer
Adaptive Human Machine Interfaces (HMI) provide a substantial contribution to avoid information overload of the driver. This paper presents novel concepts for context-aware information management in the sector of adaptive automotive HMI. In particular, we describe an architectural design which supports an easy integration of multiple strategies to manipulate and to adapt the in-vehicle information flow depending on the current driving context. The presented architecture follows the blackboard design pattern and enables opportunistic reasoning in the automotive domain. We further present a novel fusion strategy for messages based on a taxonomic message model. The fusion strategy allows to combine two or more low-level messages and to replace them with a higher-level message in order to reduce the information load for the driver. The described concepts have been evaluated with the help of a driving simulator study with N = 41 test persons. The results show a significant reduction of the subjective workload if the information manager is applied.
Affective Robot Influence on Driver Adherence to Safety, Cognitive Load Reduction and Sociability BIBAFull-Text 25
  Kenton Williams; José Acevedo Flores; Joshua Peters
Humans can be deeply influenced by affective behaviors during social interaction. Specifically, emotional cues from others can be a powerful way to persuade people to modify their behaviors. With this motivation in mind, we explore how a social robot called AIDA (Affective Intelligent Driving Agent) can better persuade drivers to adhere to road safety guidelines as compared to existing technologies, and AIDA's persuasiveness as compared to a human passenger. An Android smartphone, which mounts in the robot's head, serves as AIDA's main computational unit. Because the smartphone contains personal information about the driver (e.g. contacts, calendar and music preferences), leveraging this device can create a more deeply personalized experience. We conducted a user study in which participants completed tasks in a driving simulator with the help of: 1) a smartphone alone, 2) AIDA as a static-mounted agent, 3) AIDA as an expressive robot, or 4) a smartphone plus a human passenger. AIDA was able to promote safe driving behaviors and reduce cognitive load better than a smartphone alone. Overall, the AIDA robot paralleled in performance as compared to the human passenger. The AIDA robot also facilitated more sociability with the driver than the smartphone or static agent. Further, AIDA's proactive launching of the driver's favorite music better promoted overall enjoyment.
Differentiated Driving Range: Exploring a Solution to the Problems with the "Guess-O-Meter" in Electric Cars BIBAFull-Text 26
  Anders Lundström
Electric cars may be an important alternative to combustion engine cars in the process towards a more sustainable transportation system. However, the short and varying driving range communicated by what has become known as the "guess-o-meter" on the dashboard of current electric car models is known to sometimes cause confusion for electric car drivers. In this paper, we analyze this issue and propose alternative solutions to the current way of presenting the remaining driving range to the driver. We do this by exploring a concept that we call differentiated driving range. The concept aims to reveal the relationship between factors related to driving and the estimated driving range. Starting from this concept we explore different ways of giving it a concrete form and eventually reach a fully testable interactive design. We believe that this is of interest to a wider audience and reflect on some issues with our current instantiation and directions for future work.
"Dad, Stop Crashing My Car!": Making Use of Probing to Inspire the Design of Future In-Car Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 27
  Magdalena Gärtner; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; Bernhard Maurer; David Wilfinger; Manfred Tscheligi
In order to envision novel in-car user interfaces, it is important to investigate driver and passenger behavior as well as to identify relevant context factors that influence this behavior. Automotive user interfaces are often concentrated on drivers and their needs, whereas passengers and their needs are paid little attention to. In this paper we report on a probing study, which aimed at revealing novel design ideas for interfaces for both, car drivers and passengers. The overall goal of the study was to get inspired by actual driver and passenger behavior. In particular, we investigated past behaviors and what we can learn from these episodes for automotive interface design. We illustrate the user-centered process of generating innovative design concepts for the automotive domain based on the results of the probing study. Additionally, we introduce three resulting design concepts by means of design sketches and textual descriptions to provide insights on the concrete results of our efforts. We discuss probing as a method to generate novel design ideas for the automotive UI community and reflect on the three emerged design concepts which focus on collaboration, behavior change, and entertainment in the car.
A Simulation Study Examining Smartphone Destination Entry while Driving BIBAFull-Text 28
  Daniel Munger; Bruce Mehler; Bryan Reimer; Jonathan Dobres; Anthony Pettinato; Brahmi Pugh; Joseph F. Coughlin
A driving simulation study was performed to compare visual-manual (touch screen based) destination entry using a Samsung Galaxy S4 smartphone with the standard voice command based interface and a voice based "Hands-Free mode" that appears to be intended for use while driving (i.e. has a steering wheel icon adjacent to the mode selection menu and the voice interface menu screen is visually austere when compared with the standard voice mode). The performance of 24 drivers on an alphanumeric street address entry task was assessed with respect to subjective workload, task duration, standard deviation of lateral lane position, response to a detection response task (DRT), and heart rate. With the exception of heart rate, all evaluation measures indicate that the voice interfaces provide significant advantages over the touch interface. Furthermore, subjective workload ratings and task duration measures imply that the "Hands-Free" voice based mode may have some costs relative to the standard voice command based interface. Lastly, all destination entry methods were associated with an increased DRT reaction time and higher miss-rates compared to a baseline driving condition.
Interactive Car Owner's Manual User Study BIBAFull-Text 29
  Tomáš Macek; Martin Labský; Jan Vystrcil; David Luksch; Tereza Kašparová; Ladislav Kunc; Jan Kleindienst
We present results of a user study with a prototype of an interactive speech-enabled car owner's user manual assistant. Its purpose is to help the driver learn about various car features and related procedures. The study focused on two scenarios -- when parked and while driving. We also used the Leap Motion gesture recognizer as an alternative to buttons. During the experiment we collected both objective driving data and subjective feedback. Results indicate that the users preferred the electronic user manual to the paper form, although they proposed numerous improvements. One particular concern was discoverability of content. The acceptance of Leap Motion gestures was low when driving, possibly impacted by short time allowed for practicing. Driver's distraction caused by interacting with the multimodal user manual was similar to that of receiving and reading text messages.
Interactive Displays in Vehicles: Improving Usability with a Pointing Gesture Tracker and Bayesian Intent Predictors BIBAFull-Text 30
  Bashar I. Ahmad; Patrick M. Langdon; Simon J. Godsill; Robert Hardy; Eduardo Dias; Lee Skrypchuk
Interactive displays are becoming an integrated part of the modern vehicle environment. Their use typically entails dedicating a considerable amount of attention and undertaking a pointing gesture to select an interface item/icon displayed on a touchscreen. This can have serious safety implications for the driver. The pointing gesture can also be highly perturbed due to the road and driving conditions, resulting in erroneous selections. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic intent prediction approach that facilitates establishing the targeted icon on the interface early in the pointing gesture. It employs a 3D vision sensory device to continuously track the pointing hand/finger in conjunction with suitable Bayesian prediction algorithms. The introduced technique can significantly reduce the pointing task completion time, the necessary associated visual, cognitive and movement efforts as well as enhance the selection accuracy. The substantial furnished gains and the pointing gesture characteristics are demonstrated using data collected in an instrumented vehicle.
Gesturing on the Steering Wheel: a User-elicited taxonomy BIBAFull-Text 31
  Leonardo Angelini; Francesco Carrino; Stefano Carrino; Maurizio Caon; Omar Abou Khaled; Jürgen Baumgartner; Andreas Sonderegger; Denis Lalanne; Elena Mugellini
"Eyes on the road, hands on the wheel" is a crucial principle to be taken into account designing interactions for current in-vehicle interfaces. Gesture interaction is a promising modality that can be implemented following this principle in order to reduce driver distraction and increase safety. We present the results of a user elicitation for gestures performed on the surface of the steering wheel. We asked to 40 participants to elicit 6 gestures, for a total of 240 gestures. Based on the results of this experience, we derived a taxonomy of gestures performed on the steering wheel. The analysis of the results offers useful suggestions for the design of in-vehicle gestural interfaces based on this approach.
AR and Gamification Concepts to Reduce Driver Boredom and Risk Taking Behaviours BIBAFull-Text 32
  Ronald Schroeter; Jim Oxtoby; Daniel Johnson
Young males are over-represented in road crashes. Part of the problem is their proneness to boredom, a hardwired personality factor that can lead to risky driving. This paper presents a theoretical understanding of boredom in the driving context and demonstrates convincing arguments to investigate the role of boredom further. Specifically, this paper calls for the design of innovative technologies and applications that make safe driving more pleasurable and stimulating for young males, e.g., by applying gamification techniques. We propose two design concepts through the following questions: A. Can the simulation of risky driving reduce actual risky driving? B. Can the replacement of risky driving stimuli with alternative stimuli reduce risky driving? We argue that considering these questions in the future design of automotive user-interfaces and personal ubiquitous computing devices could effectively reduce risky driving behaviours among young males.
A First Approach to Understanding and Measuring Naturalness in Driver-Car Interaction BIBAFull-Text 33
  Simon Ramm; Joseph Giacomin; Duncan Robertson; Alessio Malizia
With technology changing the nature of the driving task, qualitative methods can help designers understand and measure driver-car interaction naturalness. Fifteen drivers were interviewed at length in their own parked cars using ethnographically-inspired questions probing issues of interaction salience, expectation, feelings, desires and meanings. Thematic analysis and content analysis found five distinct components relating to 'rich physical' aspects of natural feeling interaction typified by richer physical, analogue, tactile styles of interaction and control. Further components relate to humanlike, intelligent, assistive, socially-aware 'perceived behaviours' of the car. The advantages and challenges of a naturalness-based approach are discussed and ten cognitive component constructs of driver-car naturalness are proposed. These may eventually be applied as a checklist in automotive interaction design.
What Are You Talking About While Driving?: An Analysis of In-car Conversations Aimed at Conversation Sharing BIBAFull-Text 34
  Kohei Matsumura; Yasuyuki Sumi
In this study, we propose an in-car conversation sharing system. People frequently converse in a car. In these conversations, people often talk about points of interest that they have just passed. Because we believe that they contain useful information, the aim of our study is to share the conversations. To develop such a system, we needed to know about the characteristics of in-car conversations. Consequently we collected 120 in-car conversations with their locations over a 10-month period. Our analysis showed that many types of conversation take place in a car; but of the greatest interest is when the subject of conversation is a specific location or area. We discuss the requirements for an in-car conversation sharing system to guide our on-going research.
Comparing the User Experience of Touchscreen Technologies in an Automotive Application BIBAFull-Text 35
  Matthew J. Pitts; Lee Skrypchuk; Alex Attridge; Mark A. Williams
Touchscreen interfaces are increasingly used on a daily basis in both mobile devices and in cars. The majority of vehicles use resistive touchscreens which, while reliable and inexpensive, may not perform as well as alternative touchscreen technologies. A simulator-based user-centred study was conducted to compare the User Experience of resistive touchscreens against capacitive and infra-red variants in a range of automotive use cases. This paper details an initial treatment of the data focusing on touchscreen task performance and subjective usability measures. Findings identified that the resistive display was clearly least preferred, with capacitive offering the best overall performance.