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AutomotiveUI Tables of Contents: 091011121314-114-2

AutomnotiveUI 2010: International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications
Editors:Anind K. Dey; Albrecht Schmidt; Susanne Boll; Andrew L. Kun
Location:Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Dates:2010-Nov-11 to 2010-Nov-12
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-0437-5; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: AutomotiveUI10
Links:Conference Website
  1. Attention and distraction
  2. Speech and sound
  3. Exploring modes of interaction
  4. Supporting the driver
  5. Connected cars

Attention and distraction

Managing in-vehicle distractions: evidence from the psychological refractory period paradigm BIBAFull-Text 4-11
  Daz L. Hibberd; Samantha L. Jamson; Oliver M. J. Carsten
Driver distraction by in-vehicle tasks has a negative impact on driving performance and crash risk. This paper describes a study investigating the effect of interacting with a surrogate in-vehicle system task -- requiring a two-choice speeded response -- in close temporal proximity to a subsequent lead vehicle braking event. The purpose of the study was to determine the 'task-free' interval required before a braking event to ensure safe braking performance. Drivers (N = 48) were split into six groups and randomly assigned an in-vehicle task defined by stimulus (three levels) and response modality (two levels). Four blocks of intermixed single- and dual-task trials were presented. The time interval between the two tasks was varied on dual-task trials. Slower braking responses on dual-task trials relative to single-task trials indicated dual-task interference. Driver braking performance demonstrated the psychological refractory period effect -- an increase in reaction time with decreasing temporal separation of the two tasks. The impact of in-vehicle task stimulus and response modality on performance is discussed in relation to predictions based on Multiple Resource Theory. This study demonstrates a fundamental human performance limitation in the real-world driving context and has implications for driver response speeds when distracted. Specifically, the presentation of an in-vehicle task in the 350 milliseconds before a braking event could have severe safety consequences. The use of the findings to manage in-vehicle stimulus presentation is discussed. Problems with implementation of the results are reported.
The importance of task duration and related measures in assessing the distraction potential of in-vehicle tasks BIBAFull-Text 12-19
  Peter Burns; Joanne Harbluk; James P. Foley; Linda Angell
The issue of task duration in the assessment of driver distraction has been a controversial topic. In the development of J2364 Navigation and Route Guidance Function Accessibility While Driving, task duration and a related criterion were the most difficult parts of achieving consensus. The current discussion is restricted to a few key criticisms of task duration and duration-related measures of driving performance. We provide data-driven reasons why criticisms of duration-related measures, though important, are not sufficient to negate the value of these measures. Further, we point to naturalistic driving research that indicates it is glances away from the road scene prior to critical events that predominate in real-world crashes and near-misses. Rather than suggesting duration-related measures be abandoned, naturalistic driving research underscores the importance of using driver metrics like total eyes-off-road time as well as single glance durations. Finally, task length is an attribute of a task and HMI design, which can be modified through re-design and therefore will influence duration-related performance. We argue that duration is particularly important as a tool to assess where interventions to limit distraction might be applied.
Enhancing assessment of in-vehicle technology attention demands with cardiac measures BIBAFull-Text 20-21
  John K. Lenneman; Richard W. Backs
In this paper, the differences between driving performance and cardiac measures in attention assessment research are discussed, particularly with regard to evaluating in-vehicle technology design. A number of ways to enhance a set of measures for the purposes of attention assessment are discussed. Finally, the benefits of including cardiac measures as part of a set of IVT attention assessment tools are discussed.
Effect of emotional speech tone on driving from lab to road: fMRI and ERP studies BIBAFull-Text 22-28
  Li Hsieh; Sean Seaman; Richard Young
Evoked Response Potential (ERP) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) recordings in this study shed light on underlying neural mechanisms for higher cognitive processes and attention allocation during multitasking of cell phone conversations and driving. Behavioral results indicated that hands-free cellular phone conversations caused statistically significant but small reaction time effects for visual event detection during simulated and on-road driving. The validated Static Load driving paradigm gives rise to high correlations of red light reaction times between lab and on-road. Both ERP and fMRI findings suggested that cognitive distractions are correlated with increased cognitive load and attentional distribution. The novel contribution of this ERP and fMRI study is that adding an angry emotional valence to the speech increased the alertness level, resulting in reduced driver distraction, likely via increases in right frontoparietal networks and dampened or desynchronized left frontal activity.

Speech and sound

Speech recognition interface design for in-vehicle system BIBAFull-Text 29-33
  Zhang Hua; Wei Lieh Ng
This paper aims to provide a framework of guidelines for the design of an in-vehicle speech recognition interface. In the first section, a background of speech recognition technology is introduced to explain why it is necessary to provide specific guidelines for in-vehicle speech recognition interfaces. The second session reviews two parts of previous research work; existing guidelines on general speech recognition interface design and physical and cognitive performances during driving and using speech recognition. However, the current research results do not conclude on how to design a speech recognition interface for in-vehicle systems, thus for the third section, an actual case-study from our organization was evaluated to identify usability issues. It describes how to apply general speech recognition guidelines into an in-vehicle speech recognition interface and introduces new solutions to solve the found usability issues.
Language pattern analysis for automotive natural language speech applications BIBAFull-Text 34-41
  Ute Winter; Tim J. Grost; Omer Tsimhoni
Natural language speech user interfaces offer a compelling choice of user interaction for the automotive market. With the increasing number of domains in which speech applications are applied, drivers must currently memorize many command words to control traditional speech interfaces. In contrast, natural language interfaces demand only a basic understanding of the system model instead of memorizing keywords and predefined patterns. To utilize natural language interfaces optimally, designers need to better comprehend how people utter their requests to express their intentions. In this study, we collected a corpus of utterances from users who interacted freely with an automotive natural language speech application. We analyzed the corpus by employing a corpus linguistic technique. As a result, natural language utterances can be classified into three components: information data, context relevant words, and non context relevant vocabulary. Applying this classification, users tended to repeat similar utterance patterns composed from a very limited set of different words. Most of the vocabulary in longer utterances was found to be non context restrictive providing no information. Moreover, users could be distinguished by their language patterns. Finally, this information can be used for the development of natural language speech applications. Some initial ideas are discussed in the paper.
Voice interfaced vehicle user help BIBAFull-Text 42-49
  Ignacio Alvarez; Aqueasha Martin; Jerone Dunbar; Joachim Taiber; Dale-Marie Wilson; Juan E. Gilbert
Manuals were designed to provide support and information about the usage and maintenance of the vehicle. In many cases user's manuals are the driver's only guidance. However, lack of clarity and efficiency of manuals lead to user dissatisfaction. In vehicles this problem is even more crucial given that driving a motor vehicle is, for many people, the most complex and potentially dangerous task they will perform during their lifetime. In this paper we present a voice interfaced driver manual that can potentially fix the deficiencies of its alternatives. In addition we aim to provide a case for the integration of such technology in a vehicle to reduce driver distraction, increase driver satisfaction, and manual usability, while also benefiting Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) in lowering costs and reducing the documentation process.
Auditory messages for speed advice in advanced driver assistance systems BIBAFull-Text 50-56
  Qonita Shahab; Jacques Terken; Berry Eggen
Simple tones in in-car systems are mostly used for status indication or warning and alerting purposes. We argue that simple tones can also be used for the purpose of advising drivers through an Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS). Our ADAS application is called Cooperative Speed Assistance (CSA), where drivers receive advice to slow down or speed up to coordinate their speed with the speed of other vehicles in the traffic. Two concepts of auditory messages are presented: Looping messages are played as long as the advice applies, while Toggle messages mark the beginning and the end of an advice. For each concept, two prototypes of simple-tone signals were designed based on existing guidelines about sound characteristics affecting urgency and evaluation by users. The temporal characteristics of the signals indicated how much or how fast drivers should adapt their speed. The concepts were evaluated by having users drive in a driving simulator. Objective measurements indicated that there was no difference in effectiveness between the two concepts. Subjective evaluation indicated that users preferred the Toggle concept.
Spoken tasks for human-human experiments: towards in-car speech user interfaces for multi-threaded dialogue BIBAFull-Text 57-63
  Andrew L. Kun; Alexander Shyrokov; Peter A. Heeman
We report on the design of spoken tasks for a study that explored how people manage spoken multi-threaded dialogues while one of the conversants is operating a simulated vehicle. Based on a series of preliminary studies we propose a set of considerations that researchers should take into account when designing such tasks. Using these considerations, we discuss two spoken tasks, the parallel twenty questions game and the last letter game, and discuss the successful utilization of these tasks in a study exploring human-human dialogue behavior.

Exploring modes of interaction

Where to turn my car?: comparison of a tactile display and a conventional car navigation system under high load condition BIBAFull-Text 64-71
  Amna Asif; Susanne Boll
Tactile displays are an actively studied means to convey large amount of spatial information in the car. Their advantage compared to conventional car navigation systems is their ability to free the driver's visual and auditory senses. Previously the tactile displays were integrated into the seat of a car to present multiple direction information to the driver. However, in the commercial cars the seat is used to provide the vibro-tactile warning signals, so driver might not differentiate between navigation and warning information. Furthermore, the amount of information presented with tactile displays can cause significant cognitive workload, performance degradation and distraction to the driver. In this paper, we explore different methods of encoding multiple directions information with a tactile belt in the car. We compare the vibro-tactile presentation of spatial turn-by-turn information with a conventional car navigation system to measure cognitive workload, performance and distraction of the driver. We found that drivers showed better orientation performance on the tactile display than with the conventional car navigation system. At the same time there was no difference in cognitive workload, performance, and distraction. Thus, a tactile interface can be useful to present more information than simple left or right directions in high load driving conditions in which drivers are required to observe the traffic situation with their visual and auditory senses.
HapTouch and the 2+1 state model: potentials of haptic feedback on touch based in-vehicle information systems BIBAFull-Text 72-79
  Hendrik Richter; Ronald Ecker; Christopher Deisler; Andreas Butz
Haptic feedback on touch-sensitive displays provides significant benefits in terms of reducing error rates, increasing interaction speed and minimizing visual distraction. This particularly holds true for multitasking situations such as the interaction with mobile devices or touch-based in-vehicle systems. In this paper, we explore how the interaction with tactile touchscreens can be modeled and enriched using a 2+1 state transition model. The model expands an approach presented by Buxton. We present HapTouch -- a force-sensitive touchscreen device with haptic feedback that allows the user to explore and manipulate interactive elements using the sense of touch. We describe the results of a preliminary quantitative study to investigate the effects of tactile feedback on the driver's visual attention, driving performance and operating error rate. In particular, we focus on how active tactile feedback allows the accurate interaction with small on-screen elements during driving. Our results show significantly reduced error rates and input time when haptic feedback is given.
Visual cues supporting direct touch gesture interaction with in-vehicle information systems BIBAFull-Text 80-87
  Ronald Ecker; Verena Broy; Katja Hertzschuch; Andreas Butz
Recent in-vehicle information systems are increasingly equipped with touch screens. While classic (i.e. point-based) direct touch interaction has known benefits in non-automotive environments, it primarily relies on visual attention, which makes it a bad candidate for interaction in the car, where visual attention should be on the road. We have designed an interaction scheme for IVIS based on touch gestures and pie menus and implemented several versions of it featuring visual cues as improvements to the original idea. In an extensive user study with a primary driving task, we were able to show that our interaction scheme is significantly faster than classic touch interaction and that it demands shorter gesture using visual cues.
Effects of varying haptic feedback on driver distraction during vehicular window adjustment BIBAFull-Text 88-91
  John K. Holmen; Mehrdad Hosseini Zadeh
Haptic-enabled rotary control knobs are increasingly being integrated within vehicles to manage vehicular instrumentation. By doing so, driver safety and performance is increased as a result of the distraction reductions associated with such a system. The integration of window adjustment within such a vehicular instrumentation management system is examined through human factors studies for the purpose of reducing driver distraction. Additional focus is placed on examining the ability of haptic feedback alone to eliminate reliance on visual feedback when adjusting window height. Results indicate that eliminating such reliance is possible by means of a rotary control knob providing varying intermediate haptic feedback as the window is adjusted.
Subliminal vibro-tactile based notification of CO2 economy while driving BIBAFull-Text 92-101
  A. Riener; A. Ferscha; P. Frech; M. Hackl; M. Kaltenberger
A general reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is an important topic currently discussed by both society and government -- lower allowed emission values would strongly affect automotive manufacturers as road transport produces, for example, about one fifth of the CO2 emissions in the European Union. But that's not all, also the individual driver could be affected from regulatory mechanisms as it is feasible, not least due to the broad availability of wireless and information technology in cars, to demand the assembly of a "personal carbon dioxide profile" including all the emissions accumulating from operating vehicles, traveling by plane, and even from using public transport, and in succession to charge a person based on its effective CO2 consumption. One problem arising in this field is that an individual usually is not aware about his/her CO2 consumption, neither about which means of transportation produces what amount of carbon dioxide (what is the personal fraction of CO2 for a large plane with 250 passengers traveling 5,000km?), nor how exactly to drive a vehicle economic or wasting with respect to CO2 emission or what the difference between these two extreme values (in terms of cost) is. To counteract the issue of driving economy, which is the only the driver can directly control, we propose a inattentive operating vibro-tactile notification system integrated into the car (safety belt or seating), helping the driver in his/her (i) subjective CO2 valuation and (ii) reduction of CO2 emissions while driving.
   Results from real driving experiments have shown that drivers tend to drive more economic with regard to carbon dioxide emission when perceiving tactile feedback about their current driving efficiency compared to baseline tests without technology assistance.
Evaluating informative auditory and tactile cues for in-vehicle information systems BIBAFull-Text 102-109
  Yujia Cao; Frans van der Sluis; Mariët Theune; Rieks op den Akker; Anton Nijholt
As in-vehicle information systems are increasingly able to obtain and deliver information, driver distraction becomes a larger concern. In this paper we propose that informative interruption cues (IIC) can be an effective means to support drivers' attention management. As a first step, we investigated the design and presentation modality of IIC that conveyed not only the arrival but also the priority level of a message. Both sound and vibration cues were created for four different priority levels and tested in 5 task conditions that simulated possible perceptional and cognitive load in real driving situations. Results showed that the cues were quickly learned, reliably detected, and quickly and accurately identified. Vibration was found to be a promising alternative for sound to deliver IIC, as vibration cues were identified more accurately and interfered less with driving. Sound cues also had advantages in terms of shorter response time and more (reported) physical comfort.
Making use of drivers' glances onto the screen for explicit gaze-based interaction BIBAFull-Text 110-116
  Dagmar Kern; Angela Mahr; Sandro Castronovo; Albrecht Schmidt; Christian Müller
Interaction with communication and infotainment systems in the car is common while driving. Our research investigates modalities and techniques that enable interaction with interactive applications while driving without compromising safety. In this paper we present the results of an experiment where we use eye-gaze tracking in combination with a button on the steering wheel as explicit input substituting the interaction on the touch screen. This approach combines the advantages of direct interaction on visual displays without the drawbacks of touch screens. In particular the freedom of placement for the screen (even out of reach from the user) and that both hands remain on the steering wheel are the main advantages. The results show that this interaction modality is slightly slower and more distracting than a touch screen but it is significantly faster than automated speech interaction.

Supporting the driver

Enabling micro-entertainment in vehicles based on context information BIBAFull-Text 117-124
  Florian Alt; Dagmar Kern; Fabian Schulte; Bastian Pfleging; Alireza Sahami Shirazi; Albrecht Schmidt
People spend a significant amount of time in their cars (US: 86 minutes/day, Europe: 43 minutes/day) while commuting, shopping, or traveling. Hence, the variety of entertainment in the car increases, and many vehicles are already equipped with displays, allowing for watching news, videos, accessing the Internet, or playing games. At the same time, the urbanization caused a massive increase of traffic volume, which led to people spending an ever-increasing amount of their time in front of red traffic lights. An observation of the prevailing forms of entertainment in the car reveals that content such as text, videos, or games are often a mere adaptation of content produced for television, public displays, PCs, or mobile phones and do not adapt to the situation in the car. In this paper we report on a web survey assessing which forms of entertainment and which types of content are considered to be useful for in-car entertainment by drivers. We then introduce an algorithm, which is capable of learning standing times in front of traffic lights based on GPS information only. This, on one hand, allows for providing content of appropriate length, on the other hand, for directing the attention of the driver back to-wards the street at the right time. Finally, we present a prototype implementation and a qualitative evaluation.
Influences on user acceptance: informing the design of eco-friendly in-car interfaces BIBAFull-Text 125-128
  David Wilfinger; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; Martin Murer; Manfred Tscheligi
In order to design in-car interfaces in a user-centered way it is necessary to understand users' experiences (UX). Therefore it is beneficial to gain early insight on the user acceptance (UA) of the system under development as a part of a holistic understanding of UX in the car. This paper describes a pre-study on the influence of drivers' characteristics (such as gender, self-concept, opinion) on the UA of eco-friendly in-car interfaces. Five interfaces that support environmental friendly driving were presented in an online questionnaire. No influences of socio-demographic variables and the self-concept components of the driver were found on UA. In opposition to that it is shown that users' wish for technology support and the general attitude towards technology have an influence on UA.
Interaction weaknesses of personal navigation devices BIBAFull-Text 129-136
  Markus Hipp; Florian Schaub; Frank Kargl; Michael Weber
Automotive navigation systems, especially portable navigation devices (PNDs), are gaining popularity worldwide. Drivers increasingly rely on these devices to guide them to their destination. Some follow them almost blindly, with devastating consequences if the routing goes wrong. Wrong messages as well as superfluous and unnecessary messages can potentially reduce the credibility of those devices. We performed a comparative study with current PNDs from different vendors and market segments, in order to assess the extent of this problem and how it is related to the interaction between device and driver. In this paper, we report the corresponding results and identify multiple interaction weaknesses that are prevalent throughout all tested device classes.
Managing speed in inclement conditions using an in-vehicle interface BIBAFull-Text 137-138
  Jane Barrow; David Cades; David Kidd; Erik Nelson; Daniel Roberts
This paper briefly describes a system which provides suggested safe speeds for travel during inclement weather conditions. A user study was conducted to evaluate the interpretability of the interface and its effectiveness in influencing drivers' speed choices in inclement conditions. The results indicated that even naïve users were able to correctly interpret interface and adjusted their speed accordingly.
Semi-autonomous virtual valet parking BIBAFull-Text 139-145
  Arne Suppé; Luis E. Navarro-Serment; Aaron Steinfeld
Despite regulations specifying parking spots that support wheelchair vans, it is not uncommon for end users to encounter problems with clearance for van ramps. Even if a driver elects to park in the far reaches of a parking lot as a precautionary measure, there is no guarantee that the spot next to their van will be empty when they return. Likewise, the prevalence of older drivers who experience significant difficulty with ingress and egress from vehicles is nontrivial and the ability to fully open a car door is important. This work describes a method and user interaction for low cost, short-range parking without a driver in car. This will enable ingress/egress without the doors being blocked by neighboring cars.

Connected cars

Supporting unplanned activities through cross-device interaction BIBAFull-Text 146-147
  Timothy Sohn; Agathe Battestini; Hiroshi Horii; Elizabeth Bales; Vidya Setlur; Koichi Mori
People interact with numerous personal devices on a daily basis. Sharing content among these devices is often done depending on the device capabilities and context of use; following turn-by-turn directions is more appropriate when mobile. Although several solutions exist to share content among one's devices, these solutions rely on the user planning ahead for the data he may need on another device. In this paper, we describe a system that addresses the unplanned activities, by automatically extracting addresses and points of interest that users view in their web browser and making those readily available through an in-car interface.
Terminal mode: transforming mobile devices into automotive application platforms BIBAFull-Text 148-155
  Raja Bose; Jörg Brakensiek; Keun-Young Park
Mobile devices such as smart phones have enabled consumers to gain access to a growing number of interactive and useful applications, anytime anywhere. However, once a user enters his/her vehicle the availability of such applications and their user experience degrades drastically -- either because of being restricted to using the few applications available on the In-Vehicle Infotainment (IVI) system or due to the challenges of interacting with a tiny mobile device screen attached to a car dock. In this paper, we present Terminal Mode -- a technology which transforms mobile devices into automotive application platforms and seamlessly integrates them into vehicle infotainment systems. This technology not only enables consumers to access their favorite mobile services and applications in a safe manner while traveling in a vehicle but also provides top quality user experience consistent with high-end IVI systems.
Journey: General Motors' move to incorporate contextual design into its next generation of automotive HMI designs BIBAFull-Text 156-161
  Andrew W. Gellatly; Cody Hansen; Matthew Highstrom; John P. Weiss
This paper describes the first of five Contextual Design projects undertaken by the General Motors User Experience (UX) Design Team. The project, titled "Journey," focused on gaining a deeper understanding of how drivers interact with today's entertainment, communication, navigation, and information systems in their vehicles. In addition, we wanted to learn how drivers balanced interacting with these systems with the primary task of driving in situ. The results of this effort helped the General Motors team to concept and create the next generation of infotainment systems that support and extend these in-vehicle experiences, creating delight for customers of new GM vehicles. The first vehicles to include this new generation of driver-centered infotainment systems design are scheduled to be introduced in future model years. In addition, the team learned several valuable lessons about applying contextual research methods in an automotive environment.
Service and user interface transfer from nomadic devices to car infotainment systems BIBAFull-Text 162-165
  Jan Sonnenberg
Many of the emerging software applications for nomadic devices are useful in the car as well. In order to use these applications safely in the car, it is necessary to couple them with the vehicle's infotainment system and its user interface which is optimized for use by the driver. This paper describes a new approach to exchange services and user interfaces between cars and nomadic devices. Services are exchanged through dynamically generated Web Services. HTML 5 based user interface descriptions are used to access shared vehicle software interfaces as well as the remote application's logic with the help of additional mechanisms for device communication. Make and model specific design is ensured by Stylesheets that are specific for the car model. Our solution combines in-vehicle infotainment systems with external applications in a safe and secure way. Especially, there is no need for pre-defined service specific interfaces, because all interfaces are exchanged dynamically. The paper starts with a motivation, an overview of related work and outstanding challenges followed by a presentation of our approach for in-vehicle device coupling. The user interface exchange is described in detail in the third paragraph. The paper finishes with an example scenario and a conclusion.