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AVI Tables of Contents: 9496980002040608101214

Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces

Fullname:AVI'94 Workshop on Advanced Visual Interfaces
Editors:Maria F. Costabile; Tiziana Catarci; Stefano Levialdi; Giuseppe Santucci
Location:Bari, Italy
Dates:1994-Jun-01 to 1994-Jun-04
Standard No:ISBN 0-89791-733-2; ACM Order Number 209940; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: AVI94
Data structures for dynamic queries: an analytical and experimental evaluation BIBAFull-Text 1-11
  Vinit Jain; Ben Shneiderman
Dynamic Queries is a querying technique for doing range search on multi-key data sets. It is a direct manipulation mechanism where the query is formulated using graphical widgets and the results are displayed graphically preferably within 100 milliseconds.
   This paper evaluates four data structures, the multilist, the grid file, k-d tree and the quad tree used to organize data in high speed storage for dynamic queries. The effect of factors like size, distribution and dimensionality of data on the storage overhead and the speed of search is explored. Analytical models for estimating the storage and the search overheads are presented, and verified to be correct by empirical data. Results indicate that multilists are suitable for small (few thousand points) data sets irrespective of the data distribution. For large data sets the grid files are excellent for uniformly distributed data, and trees are good for skewed data distributions. There was no significant difference in performance between the tree structures.
Managing metaphors for advanced user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 12-18
  Aaron Marcus
User interface design includes designing metaphors, the essential terms, concepts, and images representing data, functions, tasks, roles, organizations, and people. Advanced user interfaces require consideration of new metaphors and repurposing of older ones. Awareness of semiotics principles can assist researchers in developing more efficient and effective ways to communicate to more diverse user groups.
Randomized graph drawing with heavy-duty preprocessing BIBAFull-Text 19-33
  David Harel; Meir Sardas
We present a graph drawing system for general undirected graphs with straight-line edges. It carries out a rather complex set of preprocessing steps, designed to produce a topologically good, but not necessarily nice-looking layout, which is then subjected to Davidson and Harel's simulated annealing beautification algorithm. The intermediate layout is planar for planar graphs and attempts to come close to planar for nonplanar graphs. The system's results are significantly better, and much faster, than what the annealing approach is able to achieve on its own.
Integrating computer technology, people technology and application technology: strategies and case studies from Georgia Tech's Graphics, Visualization and Usability Center BIBFull-Text 34-43
  Jim Foley
Automatic generation of textual, audio, and animated help in UIDE: the User Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 44-52
  Piyawadee Noi Sukaviriya; Jeyakumar Muthukumarasamy; Anton Spaans; Hans J. J. de Graaff
Research on automatic help generation fails to match the advance in user interface technology. With users and interfaces becoming increasingly sophisticated, generating help information must be presented with a close tie to the current work context. Help research also needs to utilize the media technology to become effective in conveying information to users. Our work on automatic generation of help from user interface specifications attempts to bridge the gaps, both between help and user interface making help truly sensitive to the interface context, and between the help media and the interface media making communication more direct and more effective. Our work previously reported emphasized a shared knowledge representation for both user interface and help, and an architecture for automatic generation of context-sensitive animated help in Smalltalk-80. This paper presents a new integrated architecture in C++ which not only generates animation, but also audio as procedural help. The architecture also uses the knowledge representation to automatically provide textual help of why an object in an interface is disabled.
Keywords: animated help, automatic help generation, multimedia help, user interface representations
BETTY: planning and generating animations for the visualization of movements and spatial relations BIBAFull-Text 53-58
  Andreas Butz
In this work the problem of synthesizing an animation is regarded as a planning problem, and the result is an animation planner that, starting from a visualization goal, plans a script for an animation including all low-level camera and object motions. The system takes all decisions about camera positions, zooms, moves and cuts considering the actual context as well as some fundamental filmmaking rules. The script is then realized by a given animation system which computes the single frames and does the playback.
   BETTY is part of the multimodal user interface WIP, that investigates the plan-based automatic generation of multimodal operation instructions for technical devices.
   Presently, BETTY is able to compute animations to demonstrate movements, to localize parts of a device and to explode assemblies.
AWI: a workbench for semi-automated illustration design BIBAFull-Text 59-68
  Thomas Rist; Antonio Krüger; Georg Schneider; Detlev Zimmermann
In this paper we present the system AWI (A Workbench for semi-automated Illustration design). AWI provides operationalizations of illustration techniques frequently used in technical illustration. Given that pure editing systems are too low-level, and that automatically generated illustrations are often suboptimal with regard to functional and aesthetic aspects, semi-automatism seems a reasonable way to produce effective illustrations more efficiently. Within such an approach the collaboration between user and system is twofold. While the user may have the system to provide a first draft which then will be refined through post editing, a user's draft may be evaluated and improved by the system as well. After an introduction of the essential concepts we base on, we give an outline of the workbench AWI. Examples serve to show the making of illustrations with AWI in a semi-automated manner. Finally we describe potential application areas for AWI.
Automatic chunk detection in human-computer interaction BIBAKFull-Text 69-77
  Paulo J. Santos; Albert N. Badre
This paper describes an algorithm to detect user's mental chunks by analysis of pause lengths in goal-directed human-computer interaction. Identifying and characterizing users' chunks can help in gauging the users' level of expertise. The algorithm described in this paper works with information collected by an automatic logging mechanism. Therefore, it is applicable to situations in which no human intervention is required to perform the analysis, such as adaptive interfaces. An empirical study was conducted to validate the algorithm, showing that mental chunks and their characteristics can indeed be inferred from analysis of human-computer interaction logs. Users performing a variety of goal-directed tasks were monitored. Using an automated logging tool, every command invoked, every operation performed with the input devices, as well as all system responses were recorded. Analysis of the interaction logs was performed by a program that implements a chunk detection algorithm that looks at command sequences and timings. The results support the hypothesis that a significant number of user mental chunks can be detected by our algorithm.
Keywords: chunk detection, chunking, event logging, human-computer interaction, models of the user, novice/expert differences, user study
Towards a dynamic strategy for computer-aided visual placement BIBAKFull-Text 78-87
  François Bodart; Anne-Marie Hennebert; Jean-Marie Leheureux; Jean Vanderdonckt
This study is devoted to the layout problem in the TRIDENT project (Tools foR an Interactive Development ENvironmenT), which is dedicated to highly interactive business-oriented applications. In this project, the placement problem consists of a computer-aided visual placement of interaction objects (IO) included in a more composite IO called Presentation Unit (PU). Two strategies for placing IO within a PU are characterised and investigated: a static two-column based strategy and a dynamic right/bottom strategy. Each strategy decomposes the placement into three partially overlapping dimensions: localisation, dimensioning, and arrangement. A set of simple mathematical relationships is introduced to rate the quality of visual principles gained with the result of each strategy within the three dimensions. This rating shows that the lack of flexibility should lead us more towards a dynamic strategy for computer-aided visual placement.
Keywords: dynamic strategy, grid, interaction objects, layouts, presentation unit, static strategy, visual interaction, visual interface design and management, visual placement, visual techniques
Recognizing and interpreting diagrams in design BIBAFull-Text 88-94
  Mark D. Gross
Hand drawn diagrams are essential tools for thinking and communicating in the early phases of design, yet computer based drawing tools support diagramming and sketching only poorly. Key components of computational support for early design include recognition, interpretation, and management of diagrams. The paper describes the motivation for, implementation of, and initial experience with the "computer as cocktail napkin" project, a design environment based on diagrams. It explains low level recognition of glyphs, construction of higher-level recognizers, and routines for managing diagrams in the cocktail napkin prototype.
Visual techniques for traditional and multimedia layouts BIBAKFull-Text 95-104
  Jean Vanderdonckt; Xavier Gillo
Character User Interfaces (CUI) generally display only pieces of text and semi-graphical objects, whereas Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) display interaction objects (IO) such as icons, check boxes, list boxes, radio buttons and push buttons. Traditional GUI do not often go beyond such existing IO. Multimedia GUI add interactive objects such as pictures, images, video sequences that could serve as a base for sophisticated user interaction. All these types of user interfaces have in common the problem of determining a basic layout of IO. The complexity of this problem is proportional to the variety of IO accessible for the designer. This paper summarises visual techniques exported from the area of visual design to be further exploited for user interface. These visual techniques provide the designer a wide range of means for laying out IO. A small set of guidelines for effectively applying these visual techniques is given.
Keywords: graphical applications, grid, interaction objects, interactive objects, layout, multimedia applications, visual interaction, visual interface design and management, visual placement, visual techniques
Style-based cut-and-paste in graphical editors BIBAFull-Text 105-112
  Wayne Citrin; Daniel Broodsky; Jeffrey McWhirter
Although great strides have been made in the last 10-15 years in the development of systems that use graphical representations, very little work has been done in developing systems that help users edit diagrams efficiently. This paper addresses the design of one such feature of a graphical editor, namely cut and paste. We show how knowledge of the syntax and semantics of the language being edited allows us to design a more intelligent cut-and-paste facility.
Gql, a declarative graphical query language based on the functional data model BIBAFull-Text 113-122
  Anthony Papantonakis; Peter J. H. King
We present in this paper Gql, a declarative graphical query language based on the functional data model. Gql queries are fully represented by a single diagram. Without containing any explicit boolean operators or logical quantifiers, Gql provides users of varying degrees of programming experience, with the same expressive power for retrieval as SQL. The design philosophy and characteristics of the language are discussed, and an informal presentation of Gql's constructs and semantics is given. Finally, gql_int, the implementation of an interface for the language, is described.
Database schema evolution using EVER diagrams BIBAFull-Text 123-132
  Chien-Tsai Liu; Shi-Kuo Chang; Panos K. Chrysanthis
We present an approach to schema evolution through changes to the ER diagram representing the schema of a database. In order to facilitate changes to the ER schema we enhance the graphical constructs used in ER diagrams, and develop EVER, an EVolutionary ER diagram for specifying the derivation relationships between schema versions, relationships among attributes, and the conditions for maintaining consistent views of programs. In this paper, we demonstrate the mapping of the EVER diagram into an underlying database and the construction of database views for schema versions. Through the reconstruction of views after database reorganization, changes to an ER diagram can be made transparent to the application programs while all objects in the database remain accessible to the application programs. The EVER system can serve as a front-end for object-oriented databases.
Designing and integrating user interfaces of geographic database applications BIBAFull-Text 133-142
  Agnès Voisard
In this paper, we investigate the problem of designing graphical geographic database user interfaces (GDUIs) and of integrating them into a database management system (DBMS). Geographic applications may vary widely but they all have common aspects due to the spatial component of their data: Geographic data are not standard and they require appropriate tools for (i) editing them (i.e., display and modify) and (ii) querying them. The conceptual problems encountered in designing GDUIs are partly due to the merger of two independent fields, geographic DBMSs on the one hand, and graphical user interfaces (GUIs) on the other hand. Although these areas have evolved considerably during the past ten years, only little effort has been made to understand the problems of connecting them in order to efficiently manipulate geographic data on a display. This issue raises the general problem of coupling a DBMS with specialized modules (in particular, the problem of strong vs. weak integration), and more generally the role of a DBMS in a specific application. After giving the functionalities that a GDUI should provide, we study the possible conceptual integrations between a GUI and a DBMS. Finally, a map editing model as well as a general and modular GDUI architecture are presented.
Unifying views of interactors BIBAFull-Text 143-152
  David Duke; Giorgio Faconti; Michael Harrison; Fabio Paternó
Interactors are components in the description of an interactive system that encapsulate a state, the events that manipulate the state, and the means by which the state is made perceivable to users of the system (the presentation). This paper concerns the relationship between the models of interactors that are being developed, at York and Pisa, in the context of Esprit Basic Research Action 7040 (Amodeus-2). The models differ in their expression of the three components of an interactor, and after relating the models to the informal notion of interactor we describe the context in which the view of interaction afforded by each model is appropriate.
Using visual programming to extend the power of spreadsheet BIBAFull-Text 153-161
  Philip T. Cox; Trevor J. Smedley
We describe a new means for representing computations in spreadsheets based on the visual, object-oriented data-flow language, Prograph, rather than textual arithmetic formulae. This mechanism is illustrated using various examples to show how common spreadsheet operation such as copying and extending formulae is more naturally represented. A formal syntax and semantics is presented. Suggestions are made for how this mechanism may be used to extend the range of applications of spreadsheets from the standard numerical calculations to areas such as symbolic computations and multimedia.
Towards efficient parsing of diagrammatic languages BIBAFull-Text 162-171
  Gennaro Costagliola; Andrea De Lucia; Sergio Orefice
Many models have been presented to specify visual languages and big efforts are being made to characterize a class of visual languages which is expressive enough and, at the same time, efficient to parse. Along this direction, the positional grammar model has been defined to extend the LR parsing techniques and parse efficiently not only the string languages but also iconic languages. In this paper, we present an extension of the positional grammar model in order to describe a wide variety of diagrammatic languages. We show that this new formalism allows the construction of an efficient LR-like parser for visual languages of very practical interest.
Interactive training of virtual agents BIBFull-Text 172-181
  A. Del Bimbo; E. Vicario; D. Zingoni
Programming as problem solving: a participatory theater approach BIBAKFull-Text 182-191
  Alex Repenning; Tamara Sumner
Spatial and temporal metaphors can play an important role in making the task of programming serve problem-solving processes. Visual programming research hopes to capitalize on innate human perceptual skills to make the programming task easier by using visualization to simplify program construction at the syntactic level. Instead, we advocate that the role of visualizations, and the consequent use of spatial metaphors, is not to simplify programming per se but instead to support the problem-solving process. To that end, environments endorsing spatial metaphors should support: creating and changing external representations of the problem, and opportunistic design strategies necessary for exploring problem spaces. We discuss problems with human-computer interaction schemes arising from the use of temporal metaphors. Direct-manipulation, on the one hand, can be too direct for controlling a number of autonomous processes such as cooperating agents. The complete delegation of tasks to agents, on the other hand, can leave users entirely in the role of passive observers. We propose a new approach, called the participatory theater metaphor, which combines the advantages of human computer interaction schemes based on direction manipulation and delegation and provides users with a continuous spectrum of control over their program behaviors.
Keywords: agents, delegation interfaces, direct manipulation, human-computer interaction, opportunistic design, participatory theater, problem solving, spatial metaphors, temporal metaphors, visual programming
Adaptive interaction with knowledge-based systems BIBFull-Text 192-199
  F. de Rosis; M. T. Cozza; B. de Carolis; S. Errore; S. Pizzutilo; I. de Zegher
The interface of the future BIBFull-Text 200-205
  S. Levialdi; A. N. Badre; M. Chalmers; P. Copeland; P. Mussio; C. Solomon
European research in visual interfaces (panel): experiences and perspectives BIBAFull-Text 206-209
  Roberto Polillo; Sebastiano Bagnara; Heinz-Dieter D. Böcker; Antonio Cantatore; Alessandro D'Atri; Paolo Paolini
The goal of this panel is to discuss some significant examples of current R&D projects related to visual interfaces, which are part of the different R&D programmes partially funded by the European Commission, and in particular of the Esprit programme. Even if the panel will concentrate on user interface issues, the scope of the presented projects is fairly broad: from user interface development technologies (as in HYPERFACE and INTERACTORS), to banking and financial environments and applications (as in FAST), to hypermedia platforms and applications (as in MINERS), to navigational user interfaces to traditional information systems (as in HIFI), to multimedia educational environments (as in MULTED), to multimedia medical information (as in MILORD), to 3D interaction with data bases (as in FADIVA). All the presented projects make large use of multimedia concepts and technologies.
A visual environment for multimedia object retrieval BIBAFull-Text 210-212
  Dario Lucarella; Antonella Zanzi; Mauro Zanzi
We present a graph-based object model that has been used as a uniform framework for direct manipulation of multimedia information. After a brief introduction motivating the need for abstraction and structuring mechanisms in hypermedia systems, we introduce the data model and the visual retrieval environment which, combining filtering, browsing and navigation techniques, provides an integrated view of the retrieval problem.
CSCW as a basis for interactive design semantics BIBAFull-Text 213-215
  Igor T. Hawryszkiewycz
The paper describes a method for visual systems synthesis. It stresses the importance of meaningful objects at the interface and suggests that semantics be used to derive such meaningful objects. The paper makes a distinction between the semantics of the design process and the problem domain and suggests that problem domain semantic concepts become the operands of design concepts. The paper notes the dual role of CSCW both as a problem domain in its own right and as providing semantics to describe the design process itself. The paper defines a set of formal semantics for CSCW and then describes synthesis of CSCW systems. It then describes the design process and shows how CSCW semantics can be used to define and implement a general model of the design process.
Clarifying the structure of complex Venn diagrams BIBFull-Text 216-218
  Susmita Ray; Peter Peelman; Jan Paredaens
Semantics of visual languages BIBAFull-Text 219-221
  Filomena Ferrucci; Genny Tortora; Maurizio Tucci
The general syntactical model of Relation Grammars has been introduced to describe any kind of graphical languages. This paper describes a technique for the semantic analysis of visual languages specified by relation grammars. The technique is based on the definition of Attribute Relation Grammars (ARG), which are an extension of attribute context-free grammars to the case of non-linear grammars. We study the static properties of an ARG under which each sentence can be translated with a cost linear in the size of the sentence.
Sychronizing video and event logs for usability studies BIBAFull-Text 222-224
  Albert N. Badre; Scott E. Hudson; Paulo J. Santos
This paper presents a simple but very powerful technique to support user interface evaluation, along with a prototype implementation of this technique. This technique provides tools to allow the user interface evaluator to combine event streams and video recording, analyzing the event stream to search for patterns of interesting or important user actions, then using the recorded timestamps associated with these actions to present only the sections of the video recording of interest. This allows, for example, all places where the user invokes a help system or a particular command to be observed without requiring the evaluator to manually search the recording or sit through long sessions of unrelated interactions. By combining the precise recording of automatic event trace capture with the rich contextual information that can be captured in a video and audio recording, this technique allows analyses to be performed that would not be practical with either media alone.
Dynamic WAIS book: an electronic book to publish and consult information distributed across a wide-area network BIBAFull-Text 225-227
  S. Bizzozero; A. Rana
The aim of this paper is to present the results of a research in the design and development of a "network user interface" application which provides capabilities to locally organise information resulting from searches conducted on a collection of data distributed across a wide area network. A strong requirement which had to be satisfied was to define a model for the user interface characterised by easy and intuitive use-ability in order to provide a system that could be easily used by people not necessarily expert in computing systems.
Bags and viewers: a metaphor for structuring a database browser BIBFull-Text 228-230
  Robert Inder; Jussi Stader
Automatic layout based on formal semantics BIBFull-Text 231-233
  Thomas Kamps; Klaus Reichenberger
Towards a user environment integrating hypermedia browsers, scientific visualization programs and numerical simulation programs BIBAFull-Text 234-236
  Andrea O. Leone; Antonio Ticca
The success of projects like CERN World Wide Web has spurred the development of many hypermedia browsers on Internet. One of them, NCSA Mosaic, has a rather sophisticated ability of supporting user defined layouts of widgets, comparable to what is available in simple interface builders, and can be easily interfaced to other programs. In this article we will describe an experimental set-up that tries to explore the possibility of integrating, under a single user interface: a) hypermedia document browsing b) data feeding to scientific visualization programs c) parameter feeding and running numerical simulation programs.
On the development of user interface systems for object-oriented database BIBAFull-Text 237-239
  J. Lopes de Oliveira
In this paper we present a user interface system which provides a complete environment for improved browsing in object-oriented database management systems (OODBMSs). The system uses only the basic features of the object-oriented data model, so it can be associated to different OODBMSs. The design of our system is based on features that, in our opinion, should be present in any database user interface system. We present and discuss such features.
QBI: an iconic query system for inexpert users BIBAFull-Text 240-242
  Antonio Massari; Stefano Pavani; Lorenzo Saladini
We present a general purpose query interface for inexpert users based on the manipulation of icons. The user perceives the reality of interest as structured in classes and attributes while the system internally maintains a schema rich of semantic information. The query language, fully visual, is based on the select and project paradigm that has been proven to be easy to understand. No path specification is required for composing a query. Automatic feedbacks based on natural language generation and cardinality constraints analysis help the user in specifying his/her requests.
VIPERS: a data flow visual programming environment based on the Tcl language BIBAFull-Text 243-245
  Massimo Bernini; Mauro Mosconi
This paper presents VIPERS, a new, general purpose, visual programming environment, based on an augmented data-flow model. The novel design peculiarity of VIPERS is the use of a fully programmable interpretive command language (Tcl) to define the flow graph operators, as well as to control the behaviour and the appearance of the whole programming environment. We show how such a choice, with its resulting synergies, can lead to a multifeatured, flexible and convenient programming environment, where the application developer's tasks are remarkably simplified.
An information manipulation environment for monitoring parallel programs BIBAFull-Text 246-248
  Manfred Tscheligi; Sabine Musil
Information Manipulation Environments (IME) are metaphor based visual environments for the problem oriented presentation and manipulation of non standard application functions. An IME is also characterized by excessive usage of direct manipulative interaction techniques. Based on these features we present INHOUSE, which is an information manipulation environment for user oriented monitoring of parallel system behavior. The functionality of the system is shown by a small and consistent set of non-standard interaction objects reflecting the task oriented structure of the application. It provides an intuitive interaction philosophy for non-parallel programming experts.