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AVI Tables of Contents: 9496980002040608101214

Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces

Fullname:AVI'06 Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces
Editors:Augusto Celentano; Piero Mussio
Location:Venice, Italy
Dates:2006-May-23 to 2006-May-26
Standard No:ISBN: 1-59593-353-0; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: AVI06
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Invited talks
  2. Advanced interaction design: research papers
  3. Advanced interaction design: short papers
  4. Advanced interaction design: system papers
  5. Designing for the end user: research papers
  6. Designing for the end user: short papers
  7. Evaluating interaction: research papers
  8. Evaluating interaction: short papers
  9. Evaluating interaction: system papers
  10. Interaction for art, cultural heritage and tourism: research papers
  11. Interaction for art, cultural heritage and tourism: short papers
  12. Interaction for art, cultural heritage and tourism: system papers
  13. Multimodal interaction: research papers
  14. Multimodal interaction: short papers
  15. Visualization
  16. Visualization: short papers
  17. Visualization: system papers

Invited talks

AVI and the art system: interactive works at the Venice Biennale BIBAKFull-Text 3-6
  Riccardo Rabagliati
Interactive works of art having a digital basis are still confined to specialized events; very few of them are yet represented in the main contemporary art museum and international shows of art. This paper analyses some of the works presented in the Venice Biennale art exhibition.
Keywords: audio-visual installation, digital art, interactive experience
Distributed intelligence: extending the power of the unaided, individual human mind BIBAFull-Text 7-14
  Gerhard Fischer
The history of the human race is one of increasing intellectual capability. Since the time of our early ancestors, our brains have gotten no bigger; nevertheless, there has been a steady accretion of new tools for intellectual work (including advanced visual interfaces) and an increasing distribution of complex activities among many minds. Despite this transcendence of human cognition beyond what is "inside" a person's head, most studies and frameworks on cognition have disregarded the social, physical, and artifactual surroundings in which cognition and human activity take place.
   Distributed intelligence provides an effective theoretical framework for understanding what humans can achieve and how artifacts and tools can be designed and evaluated to empower human beings and to change tasks.
   This paper presents and discusses the conceptual frameworks and systems that we have developed over the last decade to create effective socio-technical environments supporting distributed intelligence.
From mainframes to picture frames: charting the rapid evolution of visual interfaces BIBAFull-Text 15
  Elizabeth Mynatt
The past four decades are witness to tremendous change in the technical capabilities, industry techniques, and popular expectations underlying visual interaction between people and computers. Nevertheless we are on the cusp of a more encompassing revolution driven by new expectations of increasingly personal computing experiences. In this talk I will illustrate this nascent relationship between people and computation driven by the emergence of people as equally, and interchangeably, consumers and producers of the computing experience. Although buoyed by achievements in ubiquitous and pervasive computing technologies, this revolution is fundamentally about how a blossoming literacy in computing technologies empowers new forms of communication, reflection and decision making.

Advanced interaction design: research papers

Bubble radar: efficient pen-based interaction BIBAKFull-Text 19-26
  Dzmitry Aliakseyeu; Miguel A. Nacenta; Sriram Subramanian; Carl Gutwin
The rapid increase in display sizes and resolutions has led to the re-emergence of many pen-based interaction systems like tabletop and wall display environments. Pointing in these environments is an important task, but techniques have not exploited the manipulation of control and display parameters to the extent seen in desktop environments. We have overcome these in the design of a new pen-based interaction technique -- Bubble Radar. Bubble Radar allows users to reach both specific targets and empty space, and supports dynamic switching between selecting and placing. The technique is based on combining the benefits of a successful pen-based pointing technique, the Radar View, with a successful desktop object pointing technique -- the Bubble Cursor. We tested the new technique in a user study and found that it was significantly faster than existing techniques, both for overall pointing and for targeting specific objects.
Keywords: interaction techniques, large-display systems, multi-display systems, object pointing, reaching
Evaluating the effects of fluid interface components on tabletop collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 27-34
  Uta Hinrichs; Sheelagh Carpendale; Stacey D. Scott
Tabletop displays provide exciting opportunities to support individual and collaborative activities such as planning, organizing, and storyboarding. It has been previously suggested that continuous flow of interface items can ease information access and exploration on a tabletop workspace, yet this concept has not been adequately studied. This paper presents an exploratory user study of Interface Currents, a reconfigurable and mobile tabletop interface component that offers a controllable flow for interface items placed on its surface. Our study shows that Interface Currents supported information access and sharing on a tabletop workspace. The study findings also demonstrate that mobility, flexibility, and general adjustability of Interface Currents are important factors in providing interface support for variations in task and group interactions.
Keywords: computer supported collaborative work, interface evaluation, tabletop displays, visual interface design
Improving interfaces for managing applications in multiple-device environments BIBAKFull-Text 35-42
  Jacob T. Biehl; Brian P. Bailey
Productive collaboration in a multiple-device environment (MDE) requires an effective interface for efficiently managing applications among devices. Though many interfaces exist, there is little empirical understanding of how they affect collaboration. This paper reports results from a user study comparing how well three classes of interfaces; textual, map, and iconic, support application management during realistic, collaborative activities in an MDE. From empirical results, observations, and an analysis of how users interacted with each interface, we produced a set of design lessons for improving management interfaces. The lessons were demonstrated within the iconic interface, but they are just as applicable to other interfaces. This work contributes further understanding of how to design effective management interfaces for MDEs.
Keywords: collaboration, iconic interface, multi-device environment
Mixed reality: a model of mixed interaction BIBAKFull-Text 43-50
  Céline Coutrix; Laurence Nigay
Mixed reality systems seek to smoothly link the physical and data processing (digital) environments. Although mixed reality systems are becoming more prevalent, we still do not have a clear understanding of this interaction paradigm. Addressing this problem, this article introduces a new interaction model called Mixed Interaction model. It adopts a unified point of view on mixed reality systems by considering the interaction modalities and forms of multimodality that are involved for defining mixed environments. This article presents the model and its foundations. We then study its unifying and descriptive power by comparing it with existing classification schemes. We finally focus on the generative and evaluative power of the Mixed Interaction model by applying it to design and compare alternative interaction techniques in the context of RAZZLE, a mobile mixed reality game for which the goal of the mobile player is to collect digital jigsaw pieces localized in space.
Keywords: augmented reality-virtuality, instrumental model, interaction modality, interaction model, mixed reality, multimodality
Programming rich interactions using the hierarchical state machine toolkit BIBAKFull-Text 51-58
  Renaud Blanch; Michel Beaudouin-Lafon
Structured graphics models such as Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) enable designers to create visually rich graphics for user interfaces. Unfortunately current programming tools make it difficult to implement advanced interaction techniques for these interfaces. This paper presents the Hierarchical State Machine Toolkit (HsmTk), a toolkit targeting the development of rich interactions. The key aspect of the toolkit is to consider interactions as first-class objects and to specify them with hierarchical state machines. This approach makes the resulting behaviors self-contained, easy to reuse and easy to modify. Interactions can be attached to graphical elements without knowing their detailed structure, supporting the parallel refinement of the graphics and the interaction.
Keywords: advanced interaction techniques, hierarchical state machines, post-WIMP interaction, scalable vector graphics, software architecture, structured graphics
Splitting rules for graceful degradation of user interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 59-66
  Murielle Florins; Francisco Montero Simarro; Jean Vanderdonckt; Benjamin Michotte
This paper presents a series of new algorithms for paginating interaction spaces (i.e.; windows, dialog boxes, web pages...) based on a multi-layer specification in a user interface description language. We first describe how an interaction space can be split using information from the presentation layer (Concrete User Interface). We then demonstrate how information from higher levels of abstraction (Abstract User Interface, Task model) can be used to produce a pagination that is more meaningful from the task's viewpoint than other techniques. The pagination relies on a set of explicit splitting rules that can be applied as the first step in a graceful degradation. These splitting rules are implemented as an interface builder plug-in which automatically generates code under the designer's control.
Keywords: design, graceful degradation, multiplatform systems, pagination, splitting rules
A taxonomy of ambient information systems: four patterns of design BIBAKFull-Text 67-74
  Zachary Pousman; John Stasko
Researchers have explored the design of ambient information systems across a wide range of physical and screen-based media. This work has yielded rich examples of design approaches to the problem of presenting information about a user's world in a way that is not distracting, but is aesthetically pleasing, and tangible to varying degrees. Despite these successes, accumulating theoretical and craft knowledge has been stymied by the lack of a unified vocabulary to describe these systems and a consequent lack of a framework for understanding their design attributes. We argue that this area would significantly benefit from consensus about the design space of ambient information systems and the design attributes that define and distinguish existing approaches. We present a definition of ambient information systems and a taxonomy across four design dimensions: Information Capacity, Notification Level, Representational Fidelity, and Aesthetic Emphasis. Our analysis has uncovered four patterns of system design and points to unexplored regions of the design space, which may motivate future work in the field.
Keywords: ambient display, design guidelines, notification system, peripheral display, taxonomy, ubiquitous computing

Advanced interaction design: short papers

An approach to remote direct pointing using gray-code BIBAKFull-Text 75-78
  Makio Ishihara; Yukio Ishihara
In this study, we apply gray-code to a remote direct pointing system. Gray-code is a method for automatic projection calibration. Gray-code binary patterns are projected to discover the locations of objects within the projector's perspective. In addition to this main feature, gray-code is capable of identifying a location within the projector's perspective from wherever the gray-code binary patters can be seen. We take this advantage of gray-code to build a remote direct pointing system. We build a prototype of the system that helps remote users draw directly onto remote objects. In the prototype, users see remote objects through cameras and draw on the objects simply by positioning the pointer on the images from the cameras. This property helps remote users get involved in remote environments. We describe the design of the prototype and also show an example of the prototype in use. The remote pen enables remote users to draw directly onto a remote desk or note.
Keywords: augmented reality, gray-code, monoscopic displays, remote direct pointing, user interface
Catenaccio: interactive information retrieval system through drawing BIBAKFull-Text 79-82
  Hiroaki Tobita
The Catenaccio system integrates information retrieval with sketch manipulations. The system is designed especially for pen-based computing and allows users to retrieve information by simple pen manipulations such as drawing a picture. When a user draws a circle and writes a keyword, information nodes related to the keyword are collected automatically inside the circle. In addition, the user can create a Venn diagram by repeatedly drawing circles and keywords to form more complex queries. Thus, the user can retrieve information both interactively and visually without complex manipulations. Moreover, the sketch interaction is so simple that it is possible to combine it with other types of data such as images and real-world information for information retrieval. In this paper, we describe our Catenaccio system and how it can be effectively applied.
Keywords: information retrieval, interactive system, sketch manipulations, venn diagram
Flow selection: a time-based selection and operation technique for sketching tools BIBAKFull-Text 83-86
  Gabe Johnson; Mark D. Gross; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
Flow selection is a time-based modeless selection and operation technique for freehand drawing and sketch tools. We offer flow selection as a modeless technique to address the observation that modal selection requires too much cognitive effort and causes breakdowns in creative flow. Flow selection provides input to a new class of operations by assigning increasing, fractional selection strengths to objects over time. We discuss the current prototype system and possible applications for this novel technique for interacting with sketches.
Keywords: flow selection, mode, modeless interaction, pen, sketch, stylus, time-based selection
iLayer: MLD in an operating system interface BIBAKFull-Text 87-90
  Linn Gustavsson Christiernin; Rickard Bäckman; Mikael Gidmark; Ann Persson
In this paper we try to solve the challenge of implementing Multi-Layered Design (MLD) at a system level. A fully implemented prototype is presented where a MLD interface is created in Mac OS X. Earlier studies on the MLD concept have been performed on desktop applications or web-systems, but this study is the first made on an operating system. To handle MLD in large applications with versified users groups and changing conditions over time, we created an administrative tool where the layer structure can be manipulated and the contents changed.
Keywords: interface, multi-layered design, operating system, practical implementation
Improving scalability and awareness in iconic interfaces for multiple-device environments BIBAKFull-Text 91-94
  Jacob T. Biehl; Brian P. Bailey
Iconic interfaces offer a promising interaction metaphor for effectively managing applications in multi-device environments. However, current implementations scale poorly for even a modest number of applications and do not allow users to maintain adequate awareness of the workspace. To overcome these limitations, we have designed new interaction techniques and prototyped them within a new iconic interface. Our interface uses zooming and animation-based interactions to improve scalability and uses application icons and portal views with real-time updates to enhance awareness. Results from a user study confirm the efficacy of these techniques. These techniques can be used to improve the broader class of iconic and portal-based interfaces.
Keywords: iconic interface, multi-device environment
Laser pointer interaction techniques using peripheral areas of screens BIBAKFull-Text 95-98
  Buntarou Shizuki; Takaomi Hisamatsu; Shin Takahashi; Jiro Tanaka
This paper presents new interaction techniques that use a laser pointer to directly manipulate applications displayed on a large screen. The techniques are based on goal crossing, and the key is that the goals of crossing are the four peripheral screen areas, which are extremely large. This makes it very easy for users to execute commands, and the crossing-based interaction enables users to execute fast and continuous commands.
Keywords: computer-based presentation, goal crossing, interaction techniques, laser pointers, pointing
On the visualization of large-sized ontologies BIBAFull-Text 99-102
  Yannis Tzitzikas; Jean-Luc Hainaut
The visualization of ontologies and metadata is a challenging issue with several applications not only in the Semantic Web but also in Software Engineering, Database Design and Artificial Intelligence. This paper aims at identifying and analyzing the more principal aspects of this problem, surveying some of the work that has been done so far, and at proposing novel ideas that are worth further research and investigation. In particular, it describes the main factors that determine whether an ontology diagram layout is satisfying or not and focuses on the visualization requirements of large-sized ontology diagrams.
Table-centric interactive spaces for real-time collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 103-107
  Daniel Wigdor; Chia Shen; Clifton Forlines; Ravin Balakrishnan
Tables have historically played a key role in many real-time collaborative environments, often referred to as "war rooms". Today, these environments have been transformed by computational technology into spaces with large vertical displays surrounded by numerous desktop computers. However, despite significant research activity in the area of tabletop computing, very little is known about how to best integrate a digital tabletop into these multi-surface environments. In this paper, we identify various design requirements for the implementation of a system intended to support such an environment. We then present a set of designs that demonstrate how an interactive tabletop can be used in a real-time operations center to facilitate collaborative situation-assessment and decision-making.
Keywords: groupware, interactive spaces, real-time collaboration, tabletop interaction
Video editing based on object movement and camera motion BIBAKFull-Text 108-111
  Yang Wang; Masahito Hirakawa
The advancement of computer technology makes video devices/equipments powerful and inexpensive, and thereby the number of applications that can effectively utilize digital videos is increasing.
   In this paper, the authors propose a new type of video editing, which is based on the movement of objects. A video shot is automatically edited so that the selected objects are placed and kept at the center of the frames to make the resultant video more attractive. Ideally this is interpreted as applying pan, tilt, and/or zoom operations into a source video as post-conditions in video editing. Implementation issues for realization of this facility are also presented in this paper.
Keywords: camera motion, moving object tracking, multimedia computing, video editing

Advanced interaction design: system papers

Fluid DTMouse: better mouse support for touch-based interactions BIBAKFull-Text 112-115
  Alan Esenther; Kathy Ryall
Although computer mice have evolved physically (i.e., new form factors, multiple buttons, scroll-wheels), their basic metaphor remains the same: a single-point of interaction, with modifiers used to control the interaction. Many of today's novel input devices, however, do not directly (or easily) map to mouse interactions. For example, when using one's finger(s) or hand directly on a touchable display surface, a simple touch movement could be interpreted as either a mouse-over or a drag, depending on whether the left mouse button is intended to be depressed at the time. But how does one convey the state of the left mouse button with a single touch? And how does one fluidly switch between states? The problem is confounded by the lack of precision input when using a single finger as the mouse cursor, since a finger has a much larger "footprint" than a single pixel cursor hotspot. In this paper we introduce our solution, Fluid DTMouse, which has been used to improve the usability of touch tables with legacy (mouse-based) applications. Our technique is applicable to any direct-touch input device that can detect multiple points of contact. Our solution solves problems of smoothly specifying and switching between modes, addressing issues with the stability of the cursor, and facilitating precision input.
Keywords: mouse emulation, multi-touch, tabletop interfaces, visual interaction

Designing for the end user: research papers

Appropriating and assessing heuristics for mobile computing BIBAKFull-Text 119-126
  Enrico Bertini; Silvia Gabrielli; Stephen Kimani
Mobile computing presents formidable challenges not only to the design of applications but also to each and every phase of the systems lifecycle. In particular, the HCI community is still struggling with the challenges that mobile computing poses to evaluation. Expert-based evaluation techniques are well known and they do enable a relatively quick and easy evaluation. Heuristic evaluation, in particular, has been widely applied and investigated, most likely due to its efficiency in detecting most of usability flaws at front of a rather limited investment of time and human resources in the evaluation. However, the capacity of expert-based techniques to capture contextual factors in mobile computing is a major concern. In this paper, we report an effort for realizing usability heuristics appropriate for mobile computing. The effort intends to capture contextual requirements while still drawing from the inexpensive and flexible nature of heuristic-based techniques. This work has been carried out in the context of a research project task geared toward developing a heuristic-based evaluation methodology for mobile computing. This paper describes the methodology that we adopted toward realizing mobile heuristics. It also reports a study that we carried out in order to assess the relevance of the realized mobile heuristics by comparing their performance with that of the standard/traditional usability heuristics. The study yielded positive results in terms of the number of usability flaws identified and the severity ranking assigned.
Keywords: heuristic evaluation, mobile computing, usability heuristics
Mobility agents: guiding and tracking public transportation users BIBAKFull-Text 127-134
  Alexander Repenning; Andri Ioannidou
Increasingly, public transportation systems are equipped with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) connected to control centers through wireless networks. Controllers use this infrastructure to schedule and optimize operations and avoid organizational problems such as bunching. We have employed this existing infrastructure to compute highly personalized information and deliver it on PDAs and cell phones. In addition to guiding people using public transportation by showing them which bus they should take to reach specific destinations, we track their location to create spatial awareness to a community of users. An application of this technology, called Mobility Agents, has been created and tested for people with cognitive disabilities. About 7% of the U. S. population has a form of cognitive disability. Cognitive disabilities are limitations of the ability to perceive, recognize, understand, interpret, and respond to information. The ability to use public transportation can dramatically increase the independence of this population. The Mobility Agents system provides multimodal prompts to a traveler on handheld devices helping with the recognition of the "right" bus, for instance. At the same time, it communicates to a caregiver the location of the traveler and trip status. This article describes our findings at several levels. At a technical level, it outlines pragmatic issues including display issues, GPS reliability and networking latency arising from using handheld devices in the field. At a cognitive level, we describe the need to customize information to address different degrees and combinations of cognitive disabilities. At a user interface level, we describe the use of different mission status interface approaches ranging from 3D real-time visualizations to SMS and instant messaging-based text interfaces.
Keywords: agent-based architectures, ambient intelligence, geographic information systems, location aware services, multimodal interfaces, ubiquitous computing, wireless computing
Supporting end-user debugging: what do users want to know? BIBAKFull-Text 135-142
  Cory Kissinger; Margaret Burnett; Simone Stumpf; Neeraja Subrahmaniyan; Laura Beckwith; Sherry Yang; Mary Beth Rosson
Although researchers have begun to explicitly support end-user programmers' debugging by providing information to help them find bugs, there is little research addressing the right content to communicate to these users. The specific semantic content of these debugging communications matters because, if the users are not actually seeking the information the system is providing, they are not likely to attend to it. This paper reports a formative empirical study that sheds light on what end users actually want to know in the course of debugging a spreadsheet, given the availability of a set of interactive visual testing and debugging features. Our results provide in sights into end-user debuggers' information gaps, and further suggest opportunities to improve end-user debugging systems' support for the things end-user debuggers actually want to know.
Keywords: end-user debugging, end-user development, end-user programming, end-user software engineering, online help
Supporting interaction and co-evolution of users and systems BIBAKFull-Text 143-150
  Maria Francesca Costabile; Antonio Piccinno; Daniela Fogli; Andrea Marcante
Interactive systems supporting people activities, even those designed for a specific application domain, should be very flexible, i.e., they should be easily adaptable to specific needs of the user communities. They should even allow users to personalize the system to better fit with their evolving needs. This paper presents an original model of the interaction and co-evolution processes occurring between humans and interactive systems and discusses an approach to design systems that supports such processes. The approach is based on the "artisan's workshop" metaphor and foresees the participatory design of an interactive system as a network of workshops customized to different user communities and connected one another by communication paths. Such paths allow end users and members of the design team to trigger and actuate the co-evolution. The feasibility of the methodology is illustrated through a case study in the medical domain.
Keywords: co-evolution, interaction model, participatory design, usability

Designing for the end user: short papers

Annotation as a support to user interaction for content enhancement in digital libraries BIBAKFull-Text 151-154
  Maristella Agosti; Nicola Ferro; Emanuele Panizzi; Rosa Trinchese
This work describes the interface design and interaction of a generic annotation service for Digital Library Management Systems (DLMSs), called Digital Library Annotation Service (DiLAS), that has been designed and is currently undergoing development and user test in the framework of the DELOS European Network of Excellence. The objective of DiLAS is to design and develop an architecture and a framework able to support and evaluate a generic annotation service, i.e. a service that can be easily used into different DLMSs enhancing their User Interfaces (UIs) in order to offer to Digital Library (DL) users a set of uniform, user-tested (under certain required conditions), and recognizable functionalities.
Keywords: annotation, annotation service, digital library, digital library management system, multimedia document, user interface
iFlip: a metaphor for in-vehicle information systems BIBAKFull-Text 155-158
  Verena Broy; Frank Althoff; Gudrun Klinker
After the successful transfer of hierarchical menu-structures from the computer domain to an automotive environment, it is time to discuss the potential of 3D metaphors to meet the strong requirements for in-vehicle information systems (IVIS). The idea is to increase learnability, efficiency and joy of use of IVIS by providing a 3D interaction concept that is based on cognitive capabilities of humans. We present a 3D interaction metaphor, iFlip, which consists of displaying information on the reverse side of thin interaction objects and a preview to current submenu states.
   A comparison with a traditional list-based 2D menu for IVIS has shown that iFlip fulfills automotive requirements and can even enhance usability and likeability of IVIS.
Keywords: 3D interaction, 3D metaphor, automotive infotainment, spatial memory, vision-based UI
Interacting with piles of artifacts on digital tables BIBAKFull-Text 159-162
  Dzmitry Aliakseyeu; Sriram Subramanian; Andrés Lucero; Carl Gutwin
Designers and architects regularly use piles to organize visual artifacts. Recent efforts have now made it possible for users to create piles in digital systems as well. However, there is still little understanding of how users should interact with digital piles. In this paper we investigate this issue. We first identify three tasks that must be supported by a digital pile -- navigation, reorganization, and repositioning. We then present three interaction techniques -- called DragDeck, HoverDeck, and ExpandPile that meet these requirements. The techniques allow users to easily browse the piles, and also allow them to move elements between and within piles in an ad-hoc manner. In a user study that compared the different interaction techniques, we found that ExpandPile was significantly faster than the other techniques over all tasks. There were differences, however, in individual tasks. We discuss the benefits and limitations of the different techniques and identify several situations where each of them could prove useful.
Keywords: digital piles, interaction techniques, pen input, tabletop
Stylus based text input using expanding CIRRIN BIBAKFull-Text 163-166
  Jared Cechanowicz; Steven Dawson; Matt Victor; Sriram Subramanian
CIRRIN [3] is a stylus based text input technique for mobile devices with a touch sensitive display. In this paper we explore the benefit of expanding the letters of CIRRIN to reduce the overall difficulty of selecting a letter. We adapted the existing CIRRIN to expand the characters as the stylus approached it to create a new text entry technique called expanding CIRRIN. In a small user study we compared the standard CIRRIN and expanding CIRRIN for different sentences. Our results indicate that expanding CIRRIN increases error rates and text input times. We observed that expanding the letters often made the stylus enter the CIRRIN ring adjacent to the intended letter, thereby increasing error rates. We discuss the implications of these results, and possible applications of expanding targets with other text input techniques such as the Metropolis [7] soft keyboard.
Keywords: CIRRIN, Fitts' law, expanding targets, stylus, text entry, touch sensitive display
Syntax analysis for diagram editors: a constraint satisfaction problem BIBAFull-Text 167-170
  Mark Minas
Visual language syntax can be specified by grammars or meta-models. Grammars are more complicated to build than meta-models, but allow for parsing of visual sentences which is necessary for building free-hand editors. Parsing has not yet been considered for meta-model-based specifications. Such visual editors support only structured editing so far. This paper shows that the syntax analysis problem ("parsing") for meta-model-based language specifications can be transformed into a constraint satisfaction problem and solved that way. This approach, therefore, allows for easy free-hand editing and, at the same time, easy meta-model-based language specifications.
VLMigrator: a tool for migrating legacy video lectures to multimedia learning objects BIBAKFull-Text 171-174
  Andrea De Lucia; Rita Francese; Ignazio Passero; Genoveffa Tortora
In this paper we propose a tool, named VLMigrator, for interactively restructuring a lecture and the associated Powerpoint presentation into one or more multimedia Learning Objects. It also enables to fill the Learning Object metadata by automatically extracting information from the Powerpoint presentation. To easily perform these tasks, the VLMigrator interface exploits continuous semantic zooming and visual contextualization of information.
Keywords: E-learning, learning object, multimedia video lectures, reengineering, semantic zooming

Evaluating interaction: research papers

Design and evaluation of a shoulder-surfing resistant graphical password scheme BIBAKFull-Text 177-184
  Susan Wiedenbeck; Jim Waters; Leonardo Sobrado; Jean-Camille Birget
When users input their passwords in a public place, they may be at risk of attackers stealing their password. An attacker can capture a password by direct observation or by recording the individual's authentication session. This is referred to as shoulder-surfing and is a known risk, of special concern when authenticating in public places. Until recently, the only defense against shoulder-surfing has been vigilance on the part of the user. This paper reports on the design and evaluation of a game-like graphical method of authentication that is resistant to shoulder-surfing. The Convex Hull Click (CHC) scheme allows a user to prove knowledge of the graphical password safely in an insecure location because users never have to click directly on their password images. Usability testing of the CHC scheme showed that novice users were able to enter their graphical password accurately and to remember it over time. However, the protection against shoulder-surfing comes at the price of longer time to carry out the authentication.
Keywords: authentication, convex hull click scheme, graphical passwords, password security, shoulder-surfing, usable security
Evaluating the semantic memory of web interactions in the xMem project BIBAKFull-Text 185-192
  Francesca Rizzo; Florian Daniel; Maristella Matera; Sharon Albertario; Anna Nibioli
As the amount of information on the World Wide Web continues to grow, efficient hypertext navigation mechanisms are becoming crucial. Among them, effective history mechanisms play an important role. We therefore decided to provide a new method to access users' navigation histories, called xMem (Extended Memory Navigation), building on semantic-based and associative accesses, so as to imitate some of the features of the human memory. Such a memory may give users better understanding of the context of their searches, intermixing semantic aspects with the temporal dimension.
   The paper presents the experimental study conducted on the xMem approach to revisit the Web interaction history. Two controlled experiments have been performed with the aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the xMem history mechanism with respect to traditional Web browser histories. The results from the first experiment show a clear advantage, in terms of the time needed to complete a retrieving task, for the subjects that used the xMem prototype. Accordingly, users found retrieving previously visited pages with xMem more satisfying than using Web interaction histories sorted by the only time dimension. The results from the second experiment show the relevance in the process of information retrieval of clusters and keywords semantically related to the context of the search.
Keywords: experimental evaluation, human factors, hypertext navigation, information retrieving, usability, web history mechanisms, web interaction history, world wide web
An evaluation of depth perception on volumetric displays BIBAKFull-Text 193-200
  Tovi Grossman; Ravin Balakrishnan
We present an experiment that compares volumetric displays to existing 3D display techniques in three tasks that require users to perceive depth in 3D scenes. Because they generate imagery in true 3D space, volumetric displays allow viewers to use their natural physiological mechanisms for depth perception, without requiring special hardware such as head trackers or shutter glasses. However, it is unclear from the literature as to whether these displays are actually better than the status-quo for enabling the perception of 3D scenes, thus motivating the present study. Our results show that volumetric displays enable significantly better user performance in a simple depth judgment task, and better performance in a collision judgment task, but in its current form does not enhance user comprehension of more complex 3D scenes.
Keywords: depth perception, evaluation, volumetric display
Exploring the design space for adaptive graphical user interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 201-208
  Krzysztof Z. Gajos; Mary Czerwinski; Desney S. Tan; Daniel S. Weld
For decades, researchers have presented different adaptive user interfaces and discussed the pros and cons of adaptation on task performance and satisfaction. Little research, however, has been directed at isolating and understanding those aspects of adaptive interfaces which make some of them successful and others not. We have designed and implemented three adaptive graphical interfaces and evaluated them in two experiments along with a non-adaptive baseline. In this paper we synthesize our results with previous work and discuss how different design choices and interactions affect the success of adaptive graphical user interfaces.
Keywords: adaptive interfaces, user study
Exploring visual feedback of change conflict in a distributed 3D environment BIBAKFull-Text 209-216
  Mark S. Hancock; John David Miller; Saul Greenberg; Sheelagh Carpendale
Teams that are geographically distributed often share information both in real-time and asynchronously. When such sharing is through groupware, change conflicts can arise when people pursue parallel and competing actions on the same information. This leads to problems in how the systems and its users maintain a consistent view of shared information across distance and time. We explore change awareness of conflicts in a three-dimensional distributed shared space. Our user study compares the use of visual feedback to an optimistic concurrency control strategy for both synchronous and asynchronous distributed groupware. Our feedback provides a means for synchronous users to recognize and resolve real-time changes, and for asynchronous users to view and resolve changes when switching from an offline to online mode of work. Results of our study suggest that the visual feedback serves as a useful feedthrough mechanism in the synchronous case, but that asynchronous users may be overwhelmed by the quantity of changes if they come online after many changes have been made.
Keywords: asynchronous, change conflict, distributed collaboration, divergence, synchronous, visual feedback
An integrated task-based framework for the design and evaluation of visualizations to support preferential choice BIBAKFull-Text 217-224
  Jeanette Bautista; Giuseppe Carenini
In previous work, we proposed ValueCharts, a set of visualizations and interactive techniques to support the inspection of linear models of preferences. We now identify the need to consider the decision process in its entirety, and to redesign ValueCharts in order to support all phases of preferential choice. In this paper, we present our task-based approach to the redesign of ValueCharts grounded in recent findings from both Decision Analysis and Information Visualization. We propose a set of domain-independent tasks for the design and evaluation of interactive visualizations for preferential choice. We use the resulting framework as a basis for an analytical evaluation of ValueCharts and alternative approaches. We conclude with a detailed discussion of the redesign of our system based on our analysis.
Keywords: preferential choice, task analysis, visualization techniques
Investigating user tolerance for errors in vision-enabled gesture-based interactions BIBAKFull-Text 225-232
  Maria Karam; m. c. schraefel
In this paper, we describe our investigation into user tolerance of recognition errors during hand gesture interactions with visual displays. The study is based on our proposed interaction model for investigating gesture based interactions, focusing on three elements: Interaction context, system performance and user goals. This Wizard of Oz experiment investigates how recognition system accuracy rates and task characteristics in both desktop and ubiquitous computing scenarios can influence user tolerance for gesture interactions. Results suggest that interaction context is a greater influence on user tolerance than system performance alone, where recognition error rates can potentially reach 40% before users will abandon gestures and use an alternate interaction mode in a ubiquitous computing scenario. Results also suggest that in a desktop scenario, traditional input methods are more appropriate than gestures.
Keywords: Wizard of Oz, gestures, secondary tasks, semaphoric gestures, ubiquitous computing
Usability of overview-supported zooming on small screens with regard to individual differences in spatial ability BIBAKFull-Text 233-240
  Thorsten Büring; Jens Gerken; Harald Reiterer
While zoomable user interfaces can improve the usability of applications by easing data access, a drawback is that some users tend to become lost after they have zoomed in. Previous studies indicate that this effect could be related to individual differences in spatial ability. To overcome such orientation problems, many desktop applications feature an additional overview window showing a miniature of the entire information space. Small devices, however, have a very limited screen real estate and incorporating an overview window often means pruning the size of the detail view considerably. Given this context, we report the results of a user study in which 24 participants solved search tasks by using two zoomable scatterplot applications on a PDA -- one of the applications featured an overview, the other relied solely on the detail view. In contrast to similar studies for desktop applications, there was no significant difference in user preference between the interfaces. On the other hand, participants solved search tasks faster without the overview. This indicates that, on small screens, a larger detail view can outweigh the benefits gained from an overview window. Individual differences in spatial ability did not have a significant effect on task-completion times although results suggest that participants with higher spatial ability were slowed down by the overview more than low spatial-ability users.
Keywords: overview plus detail, scatterplot, small screen, spatial ability, zoom

Evaluating interaction: short papers

Allowing camera tilts for document navigation in the standard GUI: a discussion and an experiment BIBAKFull-Text 241-244
  Yves Guiard; Olivier Chapuis; Yangzhou Du; Michel Beaudouin-Lafon
The current GUI is like a flight simulator whose camera points fixedly at right angle to the document, thus preventing users from looking ahead while navigating. We argue that perspective viewing of usual planar documents can help navigation. We analyze the scale implosion problem that arises with tilted cameras and we report the data of a formal experiment on document navigation with perspective views.
Keywords: camera tilt, fitts' law, multiscale document navigation, perspective viewing
Can spatial mnemonics accelerate the learning of text input chords? BIBAKFull-Text 245-249
  Frode Eika Sandnes
This study addresses to what degree spatial mnemonics can be used to assist users to memorise or infer a set of text input chords. Users mentally visualise the appearance of each character as a 3x3 pixel grid. This grid is input as a sequence of three chords using one, two or three fingers to construct each chord. Experiments show that users are able to use the strategy after a few minutes of instruction, and that some subjects enter text without help after three hours of practice. Further, the experiments show that text can be input at a mean rate of 5.9 words per minute (9.9 words per minute for the fastest subject) after 3 hours of practice. On the downside, the approach suffers from a relatively high error rate of about 10% as subjects often resort to trial and error when recalling character patterns.
Keywords: chording, limited visual feedback, miniature device, mobile text entry, spatial mnemonics, visually impaired users
Globalisation vs. localisation in e-commerce: cultural-aware interaction design BIBAKFull-Text 250-253
  Antonella De Angeli; Leantros Kyriakoullis
Online shopping is the product of consumer assessment of the technological medium and the e-vendor. Previous research has evinced a number of interface features which are believed to be associated with trust building in e-commerce. In this paper we address issues of cross-cultural validity of these 'trust attributes' by comparing the relative importance given to them in two European nations (UK and Cyprus) which are characterized by different cultural values such as uncertainty avoidance (the way cultures deal with risk) and individualism/collectivism (the relative importance given to groups vs. individuals). A large-scale survey study suggested a strong cultural bias in the evaluation of trust attributes. The implications of these findings for interface design and localization are discussed.
Keywords: culture, on-line shopping, trust
Hypothesis oriented cluster analysis in data mining by visualization BIBAKFull-Text 254-257
  Ke-Bing Zhang; Mehmet A. Orgun; Kang Zhang; Yihao Zhang
Cluster analysis is an important technique that has been used in data mining. However, cluster analysis provides numerical feedback making it hard for users to understand the results better; and also most of the clustering algorithms are not suitable for dealing with arbitrarily shaped data distributions of datasets. While visualization techniques have been proven to be effective in data mining, their use in cluster analysis is still a major challenge, especially in data mining applications with high-dimensional and huge datasets. This paper introduces a novel approach, Hypothesis Oriented Verification and Validation by Visualization, named HOV3, which projects datasets based on given hypotheses by visualization in 2D space. Since HOV3 approach is more goal-oriented, it can assist the user in discovering more precise cluster information from high-dimensional datasets efficiently and effectively.
Keywords: cluster analysis, high-dimensional data visualization, visual data mining
Implicit brushing and target snapping: data exploration and sense-making on large displays BIBAKFull-Text 258-261
  Xiaohua Sun; Patrick Chiu; Jeffrey Huang; Maribeth Back; Wolf Polak
During grouping tasks for data exploration and sense-making, the criteria are normally not well-defined. When users are bringing together data objects thought to be similar in some way, implicit brushing continually detects for groups on the freeform workspace, analyzes the groups' text content or metadata, and draws attention to related data by displaying visual hints and animation. This provides helpful tips for further grouping, group meaning refinement and structure discovery. The sense-making process is further enhanced by retrieving relevant information from a database or network during the brushing. Closely related to implicit brushing, target snapping provides a useful means to move a data object to one of its related groups on a large display. Natural dynamics and smooth animations also help to prevent distractions and allow users to concentrate on the grouping and thinking tasks. Two different prototype applications, note grouping for brainstorming and photo browsing, demonstrate the general applicability of the technique.
Keywords: grouping, information visualization, large displays, sense-making, visual interfaces
Navigation by zooming in boxes: preliminary evaluation BIBAFull-Text 262-265
  Tania Di Mascio; Ivano Salvatore; Laura Tarantino
Our intent is to validate the adoption of an enclosure-based visualization technique of hierarchical structures for the presentation of web sites, according to a paradigm that (1) abandons the concept of web page collection and (2) replaces the link-traversal based navigation with a zoom-based navigation. In particular we re-visit the box-in-box technique (originally introduced to visualize objects in a knowledge base), based on recursive containment among labeled boxes, where panning and zooming operations allow to move the visibility window over the structure. The paper presents the main features of "boxed" web sites, sketches system characteristics and architecture, and discusses results of a preliminary evaluation study based on the comparison between a traditional version and a boxed version of the same site.
The plot, the clutter, the sampling and its lens: occlusion measures for automatic clutter reduction BIBAKFull-Text 266-269
  Geoffrey Ellis; Alan Dix
Previous work has demonstrated the use of random sampling in visualising large data sets and the practicality of a sampling lens in enabling focus+context viewing. Autosampling was proposed as a mechanism to maintain constant density within the lens without user intervention. However, this requires rapid calculation of density or clutter. This paper defines clutter in terms of the occlusion of plotted points and evaluates three possible occlusion metrics that can be used with parallel coordinate plots. An empirical study showed the relationship between these metrics was independent of location and could be explained with a surprisingly simple probabilistic model.
Keywords: clutter, density reduction, information visualisation, lens, occlusion, overplotting, random sampling, sampling
Preserving the mental map in interactive graph interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 270-273
  Manuel Freire; Pilar Rodríguez
Graphs provide good representations for many domains. Interactive graph-based interfaces are desireable to browse and edit data for these domains. However, as graphs increase in size, interactive interfaces risk information overload and low responsiveness. Focus+context approaches overcome these problems by presenting abridged views of the graph. Users can then navigate among views with a level-of-detail mechanism. If jumps from each view to the next are easy to follow, users will gain a good mental map of the whole graph; otherwise, they may become disoriented.
   In this work, we identify three factors that affect mental map preservation during navigation of interactive focus+context graphs: the predictability of navigational actions, the degree of change from one view to the next, and the traceability of changes once they occur. Strategies for preserving user orientation are classified according to these factors, and new strategies developed for the CLOVER visualization environment are presented.
Keywords: focus+context, graph visualization
Understanding the whethers, hows, and whys of divisible interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 274-277
  Heather M. Hutchings; Jeffrey S. Pierce
Users are increasingly shifting from interacting with a single, personal computer to interacting across multiple, heterogeneous devices. We present results from a pair of studies investigating specifically how and why users might divide an application's interface across devices in private, semi-private, and public environments. Our results suggest that users are interested in dividing interfaces in all of these environments. While the types of divisions and reasons for dividing varied across users and environments, common themes were that users divided interfaces to improve interaction, to share information, and to balance usability and privacy. Based on our results, we present implications for the design of divisible interfaces.
Keywords: divisible interfaces, multi-device interfaces, paper prototyping

Evaluating interaction: system papers

A tool to support usability inspection BIBAKFull-Text 278-281
  Carmelo Ardito; Rosa Lanzilotti; Paolo Buono; Antonio Piccinno
SUIT (Systematic Usability Inspection Tool) is an Internet-based tool that supports the evaluators during the usability inspection of software applications. SUIT makes it possible to reach inspectors everywhere, guiding them in their activities. Differently from other tools that have been proposed in literature, SUIT not only supports the activities of a single evaluator, but permits to manage a team of evaluators who can perform peer reviews of their inspection works and merge their individual reports in a single document on which they agree.
Keywords: inspection, usability evaluation, web-based tool

Interaction for art, cultural heritage and tourism: research papers

CHAMBRE: integrating multimedia and virtual tools BIBAKFull-Text 285-292
  Paolo Bottoni; Stefano Faralli; Anna Labella; Alessio Malizia; Claudio Scozzafava
Current research in interaction aims at defining new types of multimedia and multimodal experience, at enriching everyday objects and environments with the ability to capture user actions and intentions, and at integrating real and virtual sources of information, typically exploiting the visual channel. These forms of interaction usually require dedicated architectures, often relying on different component models, and with rigid types of configuration. We present an approach to the integration of real and virtual world sensors and effectors, and of traditional multimedia environments within a single component-based architecture. Environments in this architecture are defined as networks of plugins, each equipped with computational, presentation and communication capabilities. Examples of integrated environments produceable with this architecture are given.
Keywords: multimedia-multimodal interaction, plugins, virtual sensors
CHEF: a user centered perspective for Cultural Heritage Enterprise Frameworks BIBAKFull-Text 293-301
  Franca Garzotto; Luca Megale
An enterprise framework denotes a "reusable, "semi-complete" application skeleton that can be easily adapted to produce custom applications in a specific business domain. CHEF is an enterprise framework for multi-device hypermedia applications in cultural heritage. Its goal is to reduce the cost of application development and to improve the quality of the final product. Differently from existing frameworks, which are typically conceived as tools for programmers, CHEF adopts an end-user development approach. It has been built for and with "domain experts" (cultural heritage specialists). It provides a set of user-friendly tools that hide the implementation complexity and can be used, by domain experts with no technical know-how, to design-by-reuse their hypermedia, to instantiate their designs with the proper contents, and to deliver the final application on different platforms (web-enabled desktop, PDA, CD-ROM).
Keywords: cultural heritage, dynamic web generation, end-user development, enterprise framework, hypermedia, multi-device application

Interaction for art, cultural heritage and tourism: short papers

History Unwired: mobile narrative in historic cities BIBAKFull-Text 302-305
  Michael Epstein; Silvia Vergani
History Unwired (HU, see http://web.mit.edu/frontiers) is a multi-year investigation of the narrative uses of mobile technology in historic cities. In 2004-2005 a team of researchers from MIT and University of Venice IUAV worked with local artists, citizens, and academics to develop a walking tour through one of Venice's more hidden neighborhoods, delivered over location-aware, multimedia phones and PDAs. The tour was presented at the 2005 Biennale of Contemporary Art and takes visitors around one of the lesser-traveled neighborhoods of Venice: Castello. The tour was tested on over 200 users, over half of whom filled out extensive surveys. In this paper we present the results of these surveys focusing on the how different types of physical and sociological spaces complemented the audio, video, interactive media and positioning capabilities of the handhelds. First we provide some background information on tourism and local culture in Venice. We then describe the narrative and technical structure of the History Unwired walking tour. We then go into the use of mobile media in closed, semi-open, and commercial spaces in Castello.
Keywords: augmented-reality, cultural technology, mixed-reality, mobile media, mobile technology, pda walks, tourism
A semantic approach to build personalized interfaces in the cultural heritage domain BIBAKFull-Text 306-309
  S. Valtolina; P. Mazzoleni; S. Franzoni; E. Bertino
In this paper we present a system we have built to disseminate cultural heritage distributed across multiple museums. Our system addresses the requirements of two categories of users: the end users that need to access information according to their interests and interaction preferences, and the domain experts and museum curators that need to develop thematic tours providing end users with a better understanding of the single artefact or collection. In our approach we make use of a semantic representation of the given heritage domain in order to build multiple visual interfaces, called "Virtual Wings" (VWs). Such interfaces allow users to navigate through data available from digital archives and thematic tours and to create their own personalized virtual visits. An interactive application integrating personalized digital guides (using PDAs) and 360 panoramic images is the example of VW presented.
Keywords: interactive interfaces, interfaces for cultural heritage, visual interface design, visual querying
Visual comparison and exploration of natural history collections BIBAKFull-Text 310-313
  Martin Graham; Jessie Kennedy; Laura Downey
Natural history museum collections contain a wealth of specimen level data that is now opening up for digital access. However, current interfaces to access and manipulate this data are standard text-based query mechanisms, giving no leeway for exploratory investigation of the collections. By adapting previous work on multiple taxonomies we allow visual comparison of related museum collections to discover areas of overlap, naming errors, and unique sections of a collection, indicating areas of specialisation for individual collections and the complementarities of the set formed by the collections as a whole.
Keywords: animation, multiple tree visualization, natural history collections, taxonomy

Interaction for art, cultural heritage and tourism: system papers

MADCOW: a visual interface for annotating web pages BIBAKFull-Text 314-317
  Paolo Bottoni; Stefano Levialdi; Anna Labella; Emanuele Panizzi; Rosa Trinchese; Laura Gigli
The use of the Web and the diffusion of knowledge management systems makes it possible to base discussions upon a vast set of documents, many of which also include links to multimedia material, such as images or videos. This perspective could be exploited by allowing a team to collaborate by exchanging and retrieving annotated multimedia documents (text, images, audio and video). We designed and developed a digital annotation system, MADCOW, to assist users in constructing, disseminating, and retrieving multimedia annotations of documents, supporting collaborative activities to build a web of decision-related documents. We made a strong effort in designing the user interface and we tested it with 24 users. We describe a scenario in which annotation plays a crucial role, where the object of the collaboration is a politically and artistically important palace of Rome, for which the availability of images and historical documentation is fundamental in order to take informed decisions. We demonstrate the MADCOW interface and its use in the restoration team. The annotations can be used to support teamwork as well as to offer the public some reasoned integration and guide to the available material.
Keywords: annotation, multimedia, user interface, user interfaces
DentroTrento: a virtual walk across history BIBAKFull-Text 318-321
  Giuseppe Conti; Stefano Piffer; Gabrio Girardi; Raffaele De Amicis; Giuliana Ucelli
This paper illustrates the results of the DentroTrento project which promotes historical, artistic and cultural heritage in the area of Trentino through the use of Virtual Reality technologies. The project's goal was to implement an user friendly system which could be used by visitors of an archaeological site thus fostering a process of cultural enrichment. The importance of the project, commissioned by the authority for Cultural Heritage, partially resides in the peculiarity of the site's premises, located below a square in Trento among the theatre's foundations. The interface developed allows users speaking different languages to share simultaneously the experience of virtual tour across time.
Keywords: cultural heritage, user interfaces, virtual reality
Playing music: an installation based on Xenakis' musical games BIBAKFull-Text 322-325
  Marco Liuni; Davide Morelli
Iannis Xenakis' works Duel and Strategie are two music games: sounds play the role of moves in a match where the players are the two orchestra conductors. They decide which part of the score is to be played in answer to the opposite conductor's choice, looking at a game matrix which contains the values of every couple of moves.
   Playing Music is an installation driven by software implementing the same logic as Duel.
   Each player makes his moves with simple physical actions, recognized by the software using a camera, and the score is projected on a screen so that the audience can easily understand the rules, after a few moves.
Keywords: audio strategy, installation, mapping, music game, theory of games, xenakis

Multimodal interaction: research papers

Authoring interfaces with combined use of graphics and voice for both stationary and mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 329-335
  Fabio Paternò; Federico Giammarino
The technological evolution is making multimodal technology available to the mass market with increased reliability. However, developing multimodal interfaces is still difficult and there is a lack of authoring tools for this purpose, especially when multi-device environments are addressed. In this paper, we present a method and a supporting tool for authoring user interfaces with various ways to combine graphics and voice in multi-device environments. The tool is based on the use of logical descriptions and provides designers and developers with support to manage the underlying complexity, make and modify design choices, and exploit the possibilities offered by multimodality.
Keywords: authoring environments, graphical and vocal modalities, multimodal interfaces, web, x+v
Enabling interaction with single user applications through speech and gestures on a multi-user tabletop BIBAKFull-Text 336-343
  Edward Tse; Chia Shen; Saul Greenberg; Clifton Forlines
Co-located collaborators often work over physical tabletops with rich geospatial information. Previous research shows that people use gestures and speech as they interact with artefacts on the table and communicate with one another. With the advent of large multi-touch surfaces, developers are now applying this knowledge to create appropriate technical innovations in digital table design. Yet they are limited by the difficulty of building a truly useful collaborative application from the ground up. In this paper, we circumvent this difficulty by: (a) building a multimodal speech and gesture engine around the Diamond Touch multi-user surface, and (b) wrapping existing, widely-used off-the-shelf single-user interactive spatial applications with a multimodal interface created from this engine. Through case studies of two quite different geospatial systems -- Google Earth and Warcraft III -- we show the new functionalities, feasibility and limitations of leveraging such single-user applications within a multi user, multimodal tabletop. This research informs the design of future multimodal tabletop applications that can exploit single-user software conveniently available in the market. We also contribute (1) a set of technical and behavioural affordances of multimodal interaction on a tabletop, and (2) lessons learnt from the limitations of single user applications.
Keywords: computer supported cooperative work, multimodal speech and gesture interfaces, tabletop interaction, visual-spatial displays
MAge-AniM: a system for visual modeling of embodied agent animations and their replay on mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 344-351
  Luca Chittaro; Fabio Buttussi; Daniele Nadalutti
Embodied agents are employed in several applications (e.g. computer-based presentations, help systems, e-learning and training, sign language communication for the deaf), but the process of developing them is still complex (e.g., modeling animations is one of the difficult and time-consuming tasks). Moreover, although mobile devices have recently reached a performance level that allows them to manage 3D graphics, most embodied agents run on desktop computers only. The aim of our research is twofold: (i) proposing a tool that allows novice users to approach the animation modeling process of 3D anthropomorphic agents in a simple way, and (ii) proposing a 3D player to display these animated agents on PDAs. Besides discussing in detail the proposed system, the paper reports about its informal evaluation and two of its applications: sign language animation for the deaf and mobile fitness training.
Keywords: embodied agents, mobile devices, visual animation modeling
The prospects for unrestricted speech input for TV content search BIBAKFull-Text 352-359
  Kent Wittenburg; Tom Lanning; Derek Schwenke; Hal Shubin; Anthony Vetro
The need for effective search for television content is growing as the number of choices for TV viewing and/or recording explodes. In this paper we describe a preliminary prototype of a multimodal Speech-In List-Out (SILO) interface in which users' input is unrestricted by vocabulary or grammar. We report on usability testing with a sample of six users. The prototype enables search through video content metadata downloaded from an electronic program guide (EPG) service. Our setup for testing included adding a microphone to a TV remote control and running an application on a PC whose visual interface was displayed on a TV.
Keywords: electronic program guides, information retrieval, multi-modal interfaces, speech interfaces, television interfaces

Multimodal interaction: short papers

The ASPICE project: inclusive design for the motor disabled BIBAKFull-Text 360-363
  F. Aloise; F. Cincotti; F. Babiloni; M. G. Marciani; D. Morelli; S. Paolucci; G. Oriolo; A. Cherubini; F. Sciarra; F. Mangiola; A. Melpignano; F. Davide; D. Mattia
The ASPICE project aims at the development of a system which allows the neuromotor disabled persons to improve or recover their mobility (directly or by emulation) and communication within the surrounding environment. The system pivots around a software controller running on a personal computer, which offers a proper interface to communicate through input interfaces matched with the individual's residual abilities.
   This system links to the concept of user-centered interface promoted by human-computer interaction researchers. Each person has a "singular disability", thus the system must provide the possibility to use an adaptive interface customized to their own ability and requirements, which stem from contingent factors or simple preferences, depending on the user and his or her life stage, task, and environment.
   At this time, the system is under clinical validation, that will provide assessment through patients' feedback and guidelines for customized system installation.
Keywords: ambient intelligence, brain-computer interfaces, robotic navigation, severe motor impairment, technologies for independent life
Improving access of elderly people to real environments: a semantic based approach BIBAKFull-Text 364-368
  Fabio Pittarello; Alessandro De Faveri
Access to real environments is often conditioned by a number of issues, including the skills of the user (i.e. affected by aging, physical and psychological deficiencies, etc.) and the complexity of the real environment itself. This work proposes an approach for helping users with different skills, including elderly people, to navigate through complex real scenes; such approach is based on the semantic description of the objects and zones that characterize the environment itself and takes advantage of an implementation architecture based on web standards for generating navigational support. A case study related to the creation of a guided tour through the indoor and outdoor locations of the city of Venice, accessible through a multimodal web browser, is presented.
Keywords: XHTML + voice profile, elderly people, multimodality, navigation, semantic 3D environments
Oral messages improve visual search BIBAKFull-Text 369-372
  Suzanne Kieffer; Noëlle Carbonell
Input multimodality combining speech and hand gestures has motivated numerous usability studies. Contrastingly, issues relating to the design and ergonomic evaluation of multimodal output messages combining speech with visual modalities have not yet been addressed extensively.
   The experimental study presented here addresses one of these issues. Its aim is to assess the actual efficiency and usability of oral system messages including some brief spatial information for helping users to locate objects on crowded displays rapidly and without effort.
   Target presentation mode, scene spatial structure and task difficulty were chosen as independent variables. Two conditions were defined: the visual target presentation mode (VP condition) and the multimodal target presentation mode (MP condition). Each participant carried out two blocks of visual search tasks (120 tasks per block, and one block per condition). Scene target presentation mode, scene structure and task difficulty were found to be significant factors. Multimodal target presentation mode proved to be more efficient than visual target presentation. In addition, participants expressed very positive judgments on multimodal target presentations which were preferred to visual presentations by a majority of participants. Besides, the contribution of spatial messages to visual search speed and accuracy was influenced by scene spatial structure and task difficulty. First, messages improved search efficiency to a lesser extent for 2D array layouts than for some other symmetrical layouts, although the use of 2D arrays for displaying pictures is currently prevailing. Second, message usefulness increased with task difficulty. Most of these results are statistically significant.
Keywords: experimental evaluation, multimodal system messages, speech and graphics, usability study, visual search, visual target spotting
Ubiquitous graphics: combining hand-held and wall-size displays to interact with large images BIBAKFull-Text 373-377
  Johan Sanneblad; Lars Erik Holmquist
Ubiquitous Graphics addresses the problem of interacting with very large computer graphics images, for instance an online map or a large digitized painting. It uses a combination of mobile and stationary displays to show both overview and detail. The main image is displayed using a projector or other large traditional display. To access details, the user holds a mobile device in front of the stationary display. Using ultrasonic tracking the smaller display is aligned with the overview, giving access to a corresponding portion of the image in higher resolution. Alternatively the system provides "magic lens" functionality that can show additional information. Users may add free-form annotations and pre-defined graphical objects by interacting directly with the mobile device. In a user study, subjects drew better descriptive maps using the system than an ordinary map application. The system is robust and was demonstrated to several thousand people in a week-long public exhibit.
Keywords: magic lenses, mobile computing, peephole displays, position aware displays, ubiquitous computing


A comparison of static and moving presentation modes for image collections BIBAKFull-Text 381-388
  Katy Cooper; Oscar de Bruijn; Robert Spence; Mark Witkowski
In both professional and personal contexts, a common activity is the search for a target image among a collection of images. The presentation of that collection to a user can assume a wide variety of forms, and it would help interaction designers to be aware of the comparative properties of available presentation modes. A property of major interest is the percentage of correct identification of the presence or absence of the target image within the collection; another is users' acceptance of a presentation mode. Several modes of Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) are compared for effectiveness in a number of image identification tasks, and with regard to user acceptance and stated preference.
   Presentation modes have been classified as static or moving. For a selected representative group of three static and three moving modes, for three image presentation times and for three tasks of increasing complexity, we report experimental results which in most cases establish, with a high degree of statistical confidence, that -- over the range of independent variables investigated -- (a) static modes are more successful with regard to identification success than moving modes; (b) static modes are far more preferred than moving ones; (c) identification success generally increases with increase in presentation time per image; (d) for mixed and tile modes, identification success is relatively insensitive to image presentation time; and (e) success rate decreases with increase in task complexity except, notably, for slide-show and mixed modes. Evidence from eye-gaze records suggests that the eye-gaze strategy adopted by a subject exerts a very strong influence on both identification success and mode preference. Conclusions are drawn about guidance that can be offered to an interaction designer.
Keywords: eye-gaze tracking, rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), user preference
Contrasting portraits of email practices: visual approaches to reflection and analysis BIBAKFull-Text 389-395
  Adam Perer; Marc A. Smith
Over time, many people accumulate extensive email repositories that contain detailed information about their personal communication patterns and relationships. We present three visualizations that capture hierarchical, correlational, and temporal patterns present in user's email repositories. These patterns are difficult to discover using traditional interfaces and are valuable for navigation and reflection on social relationships and communication history. We interviewed users with diverse email habits and found that they were able to interpret these images and could find interesting features that were not evident to them through their standard email interfaces. The images also capture a wide range of variation in email practices. These results suggest that information visualizations of personal communications have value for end-users and analysts alike.
Keywords: email, information visualization, personal communication
Improving list revisitation with ListMaps BIBAKFull-Text 396-403
  Carl Gutwin; Andy Cockburn
Selecting items from lists is a common task in many applications. Alphabetically-sorted listboxes are the most common interface widget used to accomplish this selection, but although general they can be slow and frustrating to use, particularly when the lists are long. In addition, when the user regularly revisits a small set of items, listboxes provide little support for increased performance through experience. To address these shortcomings, we developed a new list selection device called a ListMap, which organizes list items into a space-filling array of buttons. Items never move in a ListMap, which allows people to make use of spatial memory to find common items more quickly. We carried out a study to compare selection of font names from a set of 220 fonts using both ListMaps and standard listboxes. We found that although listboxes are faster for unknown items, revisitation leads to significant performance gains for the ListMap.
Keywords: list selection, listboxes, listmaps, revisitation
Line graph explorer: scalable display of line graphs using Focus+Context BIBAKFull-Text 404-411
  Robert Kincaid; Heidi Lam
Scientific measurements are often depicted as line graphs. State-of-the-art high throughput systems in life sciences, telemetry and electronics measurement rapidly generate hundreds to thousands of such graphs. Despite the increasing volume and ubiquity of such data, few software systems provide efficient interactive management, navigation and exploratory analysis of large line graph collections. To address these issues, we have developed Line Graph Explorer (LGE). LGE is a novel and visually scalable line graph management system that supports facile navigation and interactive visual analysis. LGE provides a compact overview of the entire collection by encoding the y-dimension of individual line graphs with color instead of space, thus enabling the analyst to see major common features and alignments of the data. Using Focus+Context techniques, LGE provides interactions for viewing selected compressed graphs in detail as standard line graphs without losing a sense of the general pattern and major features of the collection. To further enhance visualization and pattern discovery, LGE provides sorting and clustering of line graphs based on similarity of selected graph features. Sequential sorting by associated line graph metadata is also supported. We illustrate the features and use of LGE with examples from meteorology and biology.
Keywords: Focus+Context, line graph
Querying spatio-temporal databases using a visual environment BIBAKFull-Text 412-419
  Valéria M. B. Cavalcanti; Ulrich Schiel; Cláudio de Souza Baptista
Visual Query Systems (VQS) are becoming a very attractive field of research, especially for advanced database systems such as spatial and temporal ones. However, most of the visual query proposals support either spatial or temporal data but not both. This paper presents a new VQS which supports querying spatio-temporal data. The main idea is to provide a web-based, user-friendly, and visual environment for querying generic spatio-temporal databases. Therefore end users do not need to worry about neither data schemas nor query language syntax. The proposed VQS is based on well-established standards such as SQL and OpenGIS, and it is flexible to be used in many database systems with support for spatial data.
Keywords: spatio-temporal databases, visual query databases, visual query interfaces
Task-at-hand interface for change detection in stock market data BIBAFull-Text 420-427
  Carmen Sanz Merino; Mike Sips; Daniel A. Keim; Christian Panse; Robert Spence
Companies trading stocks need to store information on stock prices over specific time intervals, which results in very large databases. Large quantities of numerical data (thousands of records) are virtually impossible to understand quickly and require the use of a visual model, since that is the fastest way for a human brain to absorb those enormous collections of data. However, little work has been done on verifying which visualizations are more suitable to represent these data sets. Such work is of crucial importance, since it enables us to identify those useful visual models and, in addition, opens our minds to new research possibilities. This paper presents an empirical study of different visualizations, that have been employed for stock market data, by comparing the results obtained by all studied techniques in typical exploratory data analysis tasks. This work provides several research contributions to the design of advanced visual data exploration interfaces.
Tumble! Splat! helping users access and manipulate occluded content in 2D drawings BIBAKFull-Text 428-435
  Gonzalo Ramos; George Robertson; Mary Czerwinski; Desney Tan; Patrick Baudisch; Ken Hinckley; Maneesh Agrawala
Accessing and manipulating occluded content in layered 2D drawings can be difficult. This paper characterizes a design space of techniques that facilitate access to occluded content. In addition, we introduce two new tools, Tumbler and Splatter, which represent unexplored areas of the design space. Finally, we present results of a study that contrasts these two tools against the traditional scene index used in most drawing applications. Results show that Splatter is comparable to and can be better than the scene index. Our findings allow us to understand the inherent design tradeoffs, and to identify areas for further improvement.
Keywords: 2D drawing, interaction technique, layer management, occlusion

Visualization: short papers

Animated visualization of time-varying 2D flows using error diffusion BIBAKFull-Text 436-439
  Alejo Hausner
This paper presents a fast glyph-placement algorithm for visualization of time-varying 2D flow. The method can be used to place many kinds of glyphs. Here it is applied to two in particular: arrows in a hedgehog diagram and streak lines. It works by overpopulating images with glyphs, and then decimating them. The decimation phase uses error diffusion, but extends this halftoning technique to solve the problem of coloring a collection of shapes which do not lie on a raster grid. Because error diffusion is a greedy algorithm, the method avoids iterative adjustments of glyph positions, and is fast. When used to visualize static flow fields, the resulting images are free of grid and clustering artifacts. It can be extended to visualize time-varying flow fields, by modifying the error diffusion algorithm further to maintain coherence between frames in an animation.
Keywords: error diffusion, flow visualization, time-varying flow
Browsing large collections of images through unconventional visualization techniques BIBAKFull-Text 440-444
  Marco Porta
In this paper we describe some alternative methods intended for rapid and effective browsing of large collections of images. Specifically, we address the user who, not having a clear idea about what to search, needs to explore the entire image database to identify what he or she likes. The purpose of our approaches is to find techniques characterized by good trade-offs between browsing time and quality of the exploration.
Keywords: image browsing, image database, image presentation
Browsing through 3D representations of unstructured picture collections: an empirical study BIBAKFull-Text 445-448
  Olivier Christmann; Noëlle Carbonell
The paper presents a 3D interactive representation of fairly large picture collections which facilitates browsing through unstructured sets of icons or pictures. Implementation of this representation implies choosing between two visualization strategies: users may either manipulate the view (OV) or be immersed in it (IV). The paper first presents this representation, then describes an empirical study (17 participants) aimed at assessing the utility and usability of each view. Subjective judgements in questionnaires and debriefings were varied: 7 participants preferred the IV view, 4 the OV one, and 6 could not choose between the two. Visual acuity and visual exploration strategies seem to have exerted a greater influence on participants' preferences than task performance or feeling of immersion.
Keywords: 3D visualization, immersive virtual reality, manipulation of 3D objects, photograph viewers, picture browsing, usability studies
Euclidean representation of 3D electronic institutions: automatic generation BIBAKFull-Text 449-452
  Anton Bogdanovych; Sara Drago
In this paper we present the 3D Electronic Institutions metaphor and show how it can be used for the specification of highly secure Virtual Worlds and how 3D Virtual Worlds can be automatically generated from this specification. To achieve the generation task we propose an algorithm for automatic transformation of the Performative Structure graph into a 3D Virtual World, using the rectangular dualization technique. The nodes of the initial graph are transformed into rooms, the connecting arcs between nodes determine which rooms have to be placed next to each other and define the positions of the doors connecting those rooms. The proposed algorithm is sufficiently general to be used for transforming any planar graph into a 3D Virtual World.
Keywords: 3D electronic institutions, rectangular dualization
Exploring augmented reality visualizations BIBAKFull-Text 453-456
  Antti Aaltonen; Juha Lehikoinen
Augmented Reality (AR) enhances our perception of reality by overlaying a digital creation on real world. AR information is often considered visual and most of it is associated with real world objects. This poses several challenges in, e. g., aligning the real and virtual worlds. Another essential -- yet not widely studied -- aspect is a more theoretical treatment of AR visualization. In this paper, we take the first steps towards understanding AR visualizations in more detail. We study existing AR visualizations based on well-known visualization techniques Zoom and Pan; Overview and Detail; and Focus+Context, and use these techniques to characterize AR visualizations in general. We claim that our approach covers the majority of visualization schemes applicable to AR, and is a useful method for understanding the fundamentals of AR visualizations in general.
Keywords: augmented reality, focus+context, information visualization, overview and detail, pan and zoom
Navigation in degree of interest trees BIBAKFull-Text 457-462
  Raluca Budiu; Peter Pirolli; Michael Fleetwood
We present an experiment that compares how people perform search tasks in a degree-of-interest browser and in a Windows-Explorer-like browser. Our results show that, whereas users do attend to more information in the DOI browser, they do not complete the task faster than in an Explorer-like browser. However, in both types of browser, users are faster to complete high information scent search tasks than low information scent tasks. We present an ACT-R computational model of the search task in the DOI browser. The model describes how a visual search strategy may combine with semantic aspects of processing, as captured by information scent. We also describe a way of automatically estimating information scent in an ontological hierarchy by querying a large corpus (in our case, Google's corpus).
Keywords: ACT-R, DOI trees, information scent, information visualization, user models, user studies
Putting pictures in context BIBAKFull-Text 463-466
  Lars-Erik Janlert
Visual likeness as a way of linking image to referent will need complement by other methods when mobile computing raises demands for situation-sensitive images. The issue of visual interface metaphors is reviewed, and the first steps to make a structured inventory of situational linking of images are taken, suggesting further exploration of metonymy and temporality.
Keywords: interface metaphor, mobile computing, situational context, ubiquitous computing, visual interface, visual linking
TAPRAV: a tool for exploring workload aligned to models of task execution BIBAKFull-Text 467-470
  Brian P. Bailey; Chris W. Busbey
Existing analysis tools are not sufficient for exploring pupillary response, as the data typically needs to be explored in relation to the corresponding task's execution. To address this need, we have developed an interactive visualization tool called TAPRAV. Key components include (i) a visualization of the pupillary response aligned to the model of task execution, useful for making sense of the overall data set; (ii) an interactive overview+detail metaphor, enabling rapid inspection of details; (iii) synchronization with the video of screen interaction, providing awareness of the state of the task; and (iv) interaction supporting discovery driven analysis.
Keywords: mental workload, pupil size, task models, visualization
View projection animation for occlusion reduction BIBAKFull-Text 471-475
  Niklas Elmqvist; Philippas Tsigas
Inter-object occlusion is inherent to 3D environments and is one of the challenges of using 3D instead of 2D computer graphics for information visualization. In this paper, we examine this occlusion problem by building a theoretical framework of its causes and components. As a result of this analysis, we present an interaction technique for view projection animation that reduces inter-object occlusion in 3D environments without modifying the geometrical properties of the objects themselves. The technique provides smooth on-demand animation between parallel and perspective projection modes as well as online manipulation of view parameters, allowing the user to quickly and easily adapt the view to avoid occlusion. A user study indicates that the technique significantly improves object discovery over normal perspective views. We have also implemented a prototype of the technique in the Blender 3D modeller.
Keywords: 3D visualization, occlusion reduction, view projection
Visual editing of animated algorithms: the Leonardo Web builder BIBAKFull-Text 476-479
  Vincenzo Bonifaci; Camil Demetrescu; Irene Finocchi; Luigi Laura
Leonardo Web is a collection of tools to animate algorithms. Animations can be generated with a visual editor or directly as a trace of an algorithm's execution. They can be visualized via a small Java player, available as an applet or as a standalone application; the player supports bidirectional continuous and step-by-step execution. Furthermore the system allows to export the animations in several formats, including Macromedia Flash, Microsoft PowerPoint and animated GIF.In this paper we discuss the design issues of one of the component of the visual editor of Leonardo Web, called the Builder, that can be used to design an animation from scratch as well as to refine batch-generated ones.
Keywords: algorithms animation, visual interfaces
Visualization of hand gestures for pervasive computing environments BIBAKFull-Text 480-483
  Sanna Kallio; Juha Kela; Jani Mäntyjärvi; Johan Plomp
Visualization method is proposed as an additional feature for accelerometer-based gesture control. The motivation for visualization of gesture control is justified and the challenges related to visualization are presented. The gesture control is based on Hidden Markov Models. This paper describes basic concepts of the gesture visualization and studies how well the developed visualization method can animate hand movement performed during the gesture control. The results indicate that visualization clearly provides information about the performed gesture, and it could be utilized in providing essential feedback and guidance to the user in future gesture control applications.
Keywords: accelerometers, gesture control, gesture recognition, gesture visualization, human computer interaction, mobile devices, user feedback
Visualization of patient data at different temporal granularities on mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 484-487
  Luca Chittaro
The capability of accessing, analyzing and possibly updating patients' medical records from anywhere through a mobile device in the hands of clinicians and nurses is considered to be a particularly promising application. Information Visualization has explored interactive visual formats to help users in analyzing patient records, but they are meant for the desktop context. This paper begins to explore the problem of visualizing patient record data with the limited display and interaction capabilities of mobile devices, focusing on common PDAs and temporal data.
Keywords: information visualization, mobile devices, patient records
Visualizing a temporally-enhanced ontology BIBAKFull-Text 488-491
  Katifori Akrivi; Vassilakis Costas; Lepouras Georgios; Daradimos Ilias; Halatsis Constantin
Most ontology development methodologies and tools for ontology management deal with ontology snapshots, i.e. they model and manage only the most recent version of ontologies, which is inadequate for contexts where the history of the ontology is of interest, such as historical archives. This work presents a modeling for entity and relationship timelines in the Protégé tool, complemented with a visualization plug-in, which enables users to examine entity evolution along the timeline.
Keywords: entity timeline, human-computer interaction, temporally enhanced ontology, visualization method
A wearable interface for visualizing coauthor networks toward building a sustainable research community BIBAKFull-Text 492-495
  Susumu Kuriyama; Masao Ohira; Hiroshi lgaki; Ken-ichi Matsumoto
In this paper, we introduce SCACS, a Social Context-Aware Communication System that facilitates face-to-face communications between old-timers and newcomers in a research community. SCACS provides users with information on coauthor relationships collocutors have in order to help users understand collocutors' research background and relations to own. While the system works so as to help newcomers get better understandings on the research community by meeting old-timers -- central to the community, it also works to recruit newcomers who might bring new ideas and research topics, in order to make the community sustainable. One of the contributions of the paper is to show an example of a fusion of social networking and ubiquitous computing technologies, which have attracted a considerable amount of attentions in the last few years. In contrast to exploiting social interactions in real world to enhance experiences of social networking services in virtual world, SCACS collects information on social networks (e.g., coauthor relationships networks) from virtual spaces (that is, databases), and then visualizes them to facilitate face-to-face communications among people in physical environments through using wearable interfaces. Instead of providing users with complex social network graphs, SCACS transforms network graphs into tree maps so that users are able to better understand the community.
Keywords: community support, icebreaker, legitimate peripheral participation, social networking, ubiquitous computing

Visualization: system papers

Coordinating views in the InfoVis toolkit BIBAKFull-Text 496-499
  Raquel M. Pillat; Carla M. D. S. Freitas
Multidimensional data sets can be visualized in a variety of forms provided by many techniques described in the literature. Depending on specific tasks, users might need to analyze the same data set using different representations. Moreover, they might need to interact with a view and have the results shown also in the others. This paper presents a system to provide multiple coordinated views of multidimensional data. It activates the coordination of techniques provided by InfoVis as well as visualizations we implemented using its basic resources. We allow users to set which visualizations they want to coordinate through a diagram representing the different visualizations. We present the user-driven coordination scheme and extensions we made in InfoVis to allow coordinated views through different interaction tools.
Keywords: coordinated views, information visualization
Mavigator: a flexible graphical user interface to data sources BIBAKFull-Text 500-503
  Mariusz Trzaska; Kazimierz Subieta
We present Mavigator, a prototype of a graphical user interface to databases. The system is dedicated to naive users (computer non-professionals) and allows them to retrieve information from any data source, including object-oriented and XML-oriented databases. The system extends its core functionalities by the Active Extensions (AE) module, which assumes a trade-off between simplicity of user retrieval interfaces and complexity of output formatting functions. In AE the latter are to be done by a programmer using a fully-fledged programming language (currently C#). Thus the retrieved data can be post-processed or presented in any conceivable visual form. Another novel feature of the Mavigator is the Virtual Schemas module, which allows customization of a database schema, in particular, changing some names, adding new associations or hiding some classes.
Keywords: GUI, HCI, baskets, database views, graphical query interface, information browsing, information retrieval, navigation
NAVRNA: visualization -- exploration -- editing of RNA BIBAKFull-Text 504-507
  Gilles Bailly; Laurence Nigay; David Auber
In this paper we describe NAVRNA, an interactive system that enables biologists or researchers in bioinformatics to visualize, explore and edit RNA molecules. The key characteristics of NAVRNA are (1) to exploit multiple display surfaces (2) to enable the manipulation of both the 2D view of RNA called secondary structure, as well as the 3D view of RNA called tertiary structure while maintaining consistency between the two views, (3) to enable co-located synchronous collaborative manipulation of the RNA structures and (4) to provide two-handed interaction techniques for navigating and editing RNA structures and in particular a two-handed technique for bending the structure.
Keywords: RNA structure, distributed display environment, tabletop display, two-handed interaction, visualization
System for enhanced exploration and querying BIBAKFull-Text 508-511
  Markku Rontu; Ari Korhonen; Lauri Malmi
This paper introduces SEEQ -- a System for Enhanced Exploration and Querying. It is a visual query system for databases that uses a diagrammatic visualization for most user interaction. The database schema is displayed as a graph of the data model including classes, associations and attributes. The user formulates the query in terms of direct manipulation as a graph of the schema objects, additional operators and constants. The output of the query is visualized as a graph of instances and constants or in some other format that is appropriate for the data. SEEQ can operate on arbitrary relational data base provided that the schema is in XML format.
Keywords: database, visual query system, visualization
A visual tool to support technical analysis of stock market data BIBAKFull-Text 512-515
  Andre Suslik Spritzer; Carla M. D. S. Freitas
A stock market investor relies on two schools of analysis of market behavior to determine a trading strategy: Technical Analysis and Fundamental Analysis. Fundamental Analysis is based on the study of the fundamental data of a company and more directed to long-term investments, not taking into account small short-term price oscillations. On the other hand, Technical Analysis is mostly used for mid and short-term investments and is based on the study of past price behavior through the use of statistical tools and price history charts, taking into consideration the hypothesis that prices form patterns and reflect all the relevant information about a company and about the psychology of other investors. The application of Technical Analysis requires a computational system capable of displaying price history charts and providing tools to be used with them. This paper presents a prototype for a portable, extensible and easy-to-use tool for desktop/laptop and handheld computers that provides the investor with techniques for the visualization of stock market data. Classical visualization techniques and tools, such as Line, Bar, Candlestick and Point and Figure Charts, as well as extra tools, such as candlestick pattern recognition, are available as built-in functions, but new tools and visualizations can be easily added. The software was built with the .NET and .NET Compact frameworks and utilizes XML to store the data set.
Keywords: information visualization, stock market, technical analysis