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APCHI Tables of Contents: 04081213

Proceedings of the 2013 Asia Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the 11th Asia Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction
Editors:Sanjay Tripathi; Anirudha Joshi
Location:Bangalore, India
Dates:2013-Sep-24 to 2013-Sep-27
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2253-9; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: APCHI13
Links:Conference Website
  1. APCHI 2013: full papers
  2. APCHI 2013: short papers
  3. APCHI 2013: demos & posters
  4. APCHI 2013: industrial case studies
  5. India HCI 2013: full papers

APCHI 2013: full papers

Usability evaluation of messenger applications for Android phones using cognitive walkthrough BIBAFull-Text 9-18
  Dhiraj Jadhav; Ganesh Bhutkar; Vishal Mehta
Android -- the open source operating system for mobile phones is grabbing more and more user attention and thousands of Android applications are currently being developed. This research aims at usability evaluation of three messenger applications on Android phones, chosen based on a user survey. The applications include WhatsApp, Skype and GO SMS Pro, focusing on primary tasks such as chatting, file transfer, profile viewing and updating contacts. For usability evaluation, Cognitive Walkthrough is selected as it helps in evaluation of tasks providing correct execution paths, while revealing reasons for error occurrences. Cognitive Walkthrough also highlights many usability problems such as lack of provision for multiple smiley selection, no confirmation message for file transfer and ineffective 'Search' functionality. In future, the identified usability problems should be resolved by designing improved mobile interfaces for messenger applications that has an ever-growing user-base.
A study of the impact of task complexity and interface design on e-learning task adaptations BIBAFull-Text 19-27
  Yogesh Deshpande; Samit Bhattacharya; Pradeep Yammiyavar
E-learners use different strategies of learning and interactions in different learning situations. The learning task's complexity and the design of user interface used together influences learner's adaptations in their interaction tasks. This research studies influence of task's complexity and interface design, on learner's adaptations in interaction tasks. The study reveals learner's interaction behavior in situations of changing cognitive demands of learning tasks.
   The participants of the study solved learning tests using an e-learning web application with two distinct types of graphical user interfaces (GUI-1 and GUI-2). GUI-1 had hierarchical navigation design while GUI-2 had non-hierarchical design. Different sample groups (K, C and A) were administered learning tests having different complexities such as knowledge based (K), comprehension based (C) and application based (A). The interaction tasks such as total pages visited (Tpv) and total operations done (Top) during the learning tests were recorded for computing task adaptation score (TAS). The adaptation scores for GUI-1 and GUI-2 in various sample groups (K, C and A) were compared and analyzed. The study concludes that the hierarchical or non-hierarchical navigation designs have no significant effect on learner's adaptations in Tpv and Top. However learning test complexity (knowledge, comprehension and application) significantly affects task adaptation scores.
Technology adoption by 'emergent' users: the user-usage model BIBAFull-Text 28-38
  A Devanuj; Anirudha Joshi
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have a role to play in human development. However, in order to be effective, they have to be adopted and used by their potential users. While there is an extensive literature on user modelling, there has been very little effort to model emergent users -- those who are less educated, economically disadvantaged, geographically dispersed, and culturally heterogeneous. These users have not been adequately addressed by the progress in ICT until recently. In order to design successful ICT artefacts for the emergent users, one needs to know how the users adopt them and progress in their usage. Based on contextual interviews, we propose a two-dimensional model of technology adoption. One dimension characterises the types of users on the basis of the factors affecting their predisposition towards technology adoption, such as culture, capabilities and attitudes. Along the other dimension, we map the progress of each user type in skillful usage of a given ICT artefact over time. We also identify the triggers and barriers encountered during this progress.
Collaborative tablet applications to enhance language skills of children with autism spectrum disorder BIBAFull-Text 39-44
  Bimlesh Wadhwa; Clarence Cai Jianxiong
In this paper we present our experience of designing two tablet applications we developed for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This paper also provides a review of apps for autism, state-of-the-art practices on user modeling and adaptation for children with special needs as well as the challenges to be addressed in order to analyze, design, implement and evaluate such an app. Our novel contribution is in the form of simple collaborative applications for multi-touch tablets to enhance language skills for children with ASD. We have developed two iPad apps 'I Know' and 'I Can Tell' which are freely available at AppStore. We believe that these apps, though developed with an aim to enhance language skills, could also enhance social behaviors such as collaboration, expression and appreciation for pair activities.
Error quantifying metrics for text entry systems augmented with word prediction BIBAFull-Text 45-54
  Manoj Kumar Sharma; Pradipta Kumar Saha; Sayan Sarcar; Debasis Samanta
Of late, many text entry systems in users' languages with various text entry rate enhancement strategies are being proposed. To evaluate the effectiveness of such text entry systems, measuring error correction efficiency in addition to text entry rate have been advocated by researcher. Existing metrics for evaluating text entry errors are found inaccurate to evaluate text entry systems augmented with word prediction. This work attempts to bridge this gap. In this work, we redefine existing error classes as well as error quantifying metrics. In addition to this, we also introduce five different errors classes and six new metrics relevant to text entry error evaluation in the context of text entry systems augmented with word prediction. We substantiate the validity of error classes and efficacy of the metrics with a sufficient number of instances.
Parichaya -- a low-cost device to increase adherence among Tuberculosis patients in rural Assam BIBAFull-Text 55-62
  Himanshu Seth; Keyur Sorathia
Limited access to information, lack of motivation and unawareness of cause, precaution and prevention of Tuberculosis (TB) are some of the leading causes for in-adherence towards TB therapy. We present key findings and insights through a contextual enquiry conducted with patients and healthcare workers, in order to develop new Information Communication Technology (ICT) interventions for empowerment of TB patients in rural parts of Assam. We also propose Parichaya, a low-cost device that helps patients in utilizing their idle time during medication to learn about the disease and importance of DOTS therapy. The device aims to motivate the patients to adhere to DOTS therapy and to make informed health decisions. Using a basic recording module and push buttons, the system makes use of illustrations with embedded audio in Assamese language to spread awareness through narratives. The device, in the form of a medical kit, replaces the traditional medication blisters for TB patients.
Holy smartphones and tablets, Batman!: mobile interaction's dynamic duo BIBAFull-Text 63-72
  Tommaso Piazza; Morten Fjeld; Gonzalo Ramos; AsimEvren Yantac; Shengdong Zhao
It is becoming increasingly more common for people to own both a smartphone and a tablet, providing a design opportunity to leverage the combination of these two formfactors. Our work aims to explore this by: a) defining the design space of distributed input and output solutions that rely on and benefit from phone -- tablet collaboration, both physically and digitally; andb) reveal the idiosyncrasies of each particular device combination via interactive prototypes. Our research provides actionable insight in this emerging area by defining a design space, suggesting a developer's framework and implementing prototypical applications in such areas as distributed information display, distributed control and various configurations of these. For each of these, we present several example techniques and demonstrate an application that combines such techniques.
Flexible grouping and multiple centers for preserving simplicity and flexibility in animation sketches BIBAFull-Text 73-82
  Richard C. Davis; Kevin Steppe; Mengyuan Guan; Jing Ting Khoo; Rui Zhang; Quee Boon Koh
Animation sketching tools have been shown to make creating animations fast and easy, but editing an animation can make it more complex and harder to modify. To preserve simplicity and flexibility while editing animations, we explored the use of flexible grouping structure and multiple centers for rotation and scaling. We built a modified version of the K-Sketch animation sketching system, which allows grouping structure and center of rotation and scaling to change over time. The modified K-Sketch preserves simplicity when centers change by automatically converting existing motions about the old center to motions about the new center. We evaluated our method by examining traditional and novel grouping methods and center management methods under difficult editing scenarios. We then built video prototypes of these scenarios and gathered feedback from animators.
Exploration of multimodal input interaction based on goals BIBAFull-Text 83-92
  Sanjay Ghosh; Anirudha Joshi
Today applications demand newer and newer ways through which humans can interact with the system for effective and natural interaction. Each interaction modality have unique features and supports different interaction goals, which makes them logically appropriate for specific types of interaction necessary for different applications. With several multimodal input technologies now being available for users, a challenge is to design optimal combinations of multiple modalities for specific tasks. Also, it is important to understand that, how these modalities may coherently be used together in a well-coordinated manner. This paper presents our initial research wherein we did exploration with the objective of designing a scheme for identification of optimal multimodal input interaction for various applications and use cases. We identified the key interaction goals of few sample applications or usage scenarios, and systematically compared those with the capabilities of the modalities, in order to identify optimal multimodal combination for those applications.
Interacting with a self-portrait camera using motion-based hand gestures BIBAFull-Text 93-101
  Shaowei Chu; Jiro Tanaka
Taking self-portraits with a digital camera is a popular way to present oneself through photography. Traditional techniques for taking self-portraits, such as use of self-timers or face detection, provide only a modest degree of interaction between the user and camera. In this paper, we present an interaction technique that make novel use of image-processing algorithm to recognize hand motion gestures and provides user a natural way to interact with camera for taking self-portraits. User can perform nature gestures to control essential functions of camera and take self-portraits effectively. Three types of gesture (i.e., waving, eight-direction selection, and circling were identified and applied to develop a gesture user interface for controlling a Digital Single-Lens Reflex (DSLR) camera. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the usability and performance of the gesture interface. The results confirmed that the usability of the gesture interface is superior to a self-timer and the proposed technique achieved about 80% accurate recognition of motion gestures.

APCHI 2013: short papers

Bringing interaction design methods and experimental technologies together into designing and developing interactive products BIBAFull-Text 102-107
  Yanrui Qu; Daoyu Chong; Wei Liu
This study aims to design and develop interactive toys. There are fifty master and bachelor industrial design students from our institute involved in this project. This study adopts interaction design theory and experimental prototyping practices, enabling students to apply simple mechanical and electronic technology on generating interactive design concepts. There are five stages in the design and development process. The first stage begins with user research. Accordingly, product functions and morphology are investigated. Text and visual user scenarios are created as well. In the second stage, user-product interactions are examined in order to explore the context of usage. In the third stage, ten sets of conceptual designs are built with the application of Arduino based interactive prototyping platform. In the fourth stage, these conceptual designs are evaluated by users and technical experts. In the last stage, the design concepts are further improved based on evaluation feedback, and are processed into engineering and technical prototypes. The challenge lies in the correlation between interaction design considerations and application of technologies. The findings of our study imply a principle to face this challenge: bringing users, context, morphology and technology together to design and develop interactive products. Interaction design methods provide our students guidance and inspirations to generate conceptual design ideas. Experimental prototyping practices facilitate our students' ability to turn ambiguous ideas into feasible design artifacts. We envisage further developing our experience by conducting similar interaction design research studies again in the future.
A proposal of the experience engineering (XE) BIBAFull-Text 108-113
  Masaaki Kurosu
The concept of UX has become so popular that ISO standard (ISO9241-210 [8]) has incorporated the concept But this standard has many points to be criticized: 1. The concept of UX is not clear, 2. The process model of HCD does not cover the whole aspects of UX, including service. 3. The treatment of "satisfaction" is not adequate. All these points are not just the problems of the standard but the difficult aspects of the concept of UX itself. Hence, a new paradigm was proposed as to the concept of experience that includes the user experience for products and the recipient experience for services. Finally, parameters that manufacturers or service providers can manipulate were positioned in the psychological process that includes the concept of the level of aspiration and the adaptation level.
On effective sharing of user generated content BIBAFull-Text 114-118
  Shubhajit Saha; Goutam Paul
Sharing of content is an important part of growing social networking culture. We examine the effectiveness of shared user-generated content (UGC) on social networking sites (SNSs). We divide the shared content into two categories: direct share, where the content is created in SNS and indirect share, where the UGC is created in other websites/web-services. In particular, we study how the limited information and visibility of the post affect the popularity and longevity of the content on the basis of social activities such as likes, shares and comments. The findings indicate that indirect share is less popular and short lived as compared to direct share. The study suggests that there is a need to design social networking feature that supports integration of UGC form other popular web-services.
Proposal for a novel computerized menu-presentation interface for restaurants BIBAFull-Text 119-122
  Goutam Paul; Soumi Paul
Food is a necessity of life for all, and is a source of entertainment to many. Due to poor design of menu-presentation system in restaurants, be it online or manual, often people are forced to select dishes, without properly being informed about whether it would cater their likes and dislikes or their health requirements. It is a fact that the choices and requirements are varied and designing a menu-interface to satisfy everybody is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose a general framework for a low-cost customizable computerized menu-system that any restaurant or food-chain can adopt for better user-friendliness and usefulness for themselves as well as for their customers.
AstroGrasp: a tangible user interface for teaching basic astronomy concepts BIBAFull-Text 123-128
  Harshit Agrawal; Keyur Sorathia
This paper introduces AstroGrasp, an educational tangible user interface that aims at facilitating collaborative hands-on learning of basic astronomy concepts of eclipses and the cause of seasons. AstroGrasp allows users to explore the concepts of eclipse and seasons by physically manipulating hemispherical tokens of the Earth and the moon. Leveraging the benefits of physical manipulation and continuous real-time digital feedback, AstroGrasp is aimed at providing an effective, constructive and engaging learning experience.
Mesh-Grab and Arcball-3D: ray-based 6-DOF object manipulation BIBAFull-Text 129-136
  Nicholas Katzakis; Kazuteru Seki; Kiyoshi Kiyokawa; Haruo Takemura
Manipulation of 3D objects is important for collaboration and education, where a presenter might wish to manipulate a 3D object to present it to an audience. We present Mesh-Grab and Arcball-3D; two ray-based techniques for manipulating remote 3D objects using a handheld wand and present the results of a formal evaluation session where we compared them against the state-of-the-art in direct interaction techniques. In a 6-DOF docking task, our proposed techniques performed slightly slower than Scaled HOMER but overall, participants showed preference towards Arcball-3D and complained about fatigue and awkward arm postures on Scaled HOMER. In addition to the users' preference, as ray-based techniques do not require full-range rotation, we conclude that they are a viable alternative to direct interaction.
Can children perform a heuristic evaluation? BIBAFull-Text 137-141
  Kishan Salian; Gavin Sim; Janet C. Read
Inspection based methods are not widely researched in the area of Child Computer Interaction. This paper reports the findings of a study to analyze the effectiveness of the heuristic evaluation method when using children as expert evaluators. In total 14 children participated in the study, evaluating a music making game on a laptop. The results showed that children could perform a heuristic evaluation but they encountered problems in understanding severity ratings, allocating problems found to the heuristic set and aggregating the problems. Further research will be performed to modify the process in an attempt to eliminate these issues in order to improve the method for children.
Enhancing mobile phones to support collaborative communication for micro-entrepreneurs in emerging economies: user studies and Research directions BIBAFull-Text 142-149
  Rahul Ajmera; Prashanth Pandit; Shekhar Borgaonkar; Sriganesh Madhvanath
In emerging economies such as India, micro-entrepreneurs and their businesses represent the majority of the workforce in the unorganized, informal sector involved in small scale trading, or services such as carpentry, plumbing, and so on. In recent years, basic mobile phones have seen rapid adoption, and micro-entrepreneurs have been at the forefront of this trend, driven by the need for timely information and communication. In this paper, we study the rich communication needs of such micro-entrepreneurs, that if addressed can help them work better with their clients & business partners. Based on a preliminary contextual inquiry, we designed a mobile device prototype to support mobile collaboration using images, voice and digital ink. We then conducted a qualitative user study in the lab with real users drawn from the target population, to understand how such a device may be useful for micro-entrepreneurs. The study reveals that while our prototype is a step in the right direction, there are a number of areas for further improvement. We believe that these findings will be of interest to designers and mobile service providers addressing this important segment of the population.
Objective comparisons between gesture and exploration based touchscreen keyboards for the blind BIBAFull-Text 150-155
  Adit Gupta; Nikhil Balram
We report the results of a short term experimental study on blind participants to evaluate their performances on two different text typing techniques. BrailleTouch, a gesture based text typing technology, is objectively compared to the TalkBack-enabled Android stock keyboard which requires touch exploration to type. We found that on an average BrailleTouch was almost twice as fast as the Android stock keyboard for typing each character. At the same time, these experiments clearly establish that accuracy of the BrailleTouch technique significantly dwindles as the number of dots in a Braille cell increase due to lesser motor control over the ring finger (or the digitus medicinalis).
Attention and human errors in multitask performance BIBAFull-Text 156-159
  Premjit K. Sanjram
This study examines prospective memory errors in programmer multitasking emphasizing how attention affects performance. It demonstrates that strategically, specific instruction has the benefit of reducing the occurrence of habit intrusion error. It emphasized on how attention affects performance among a group of computer science and engineering students (N=60). The study reports a taxonomical analysis of prospective memory errors. An experimental paradigm was developed to perform a taxonomical analysis of prospective memory errors. There was a significant effect of attention on omission error. Analysis of various errors contributing to overall prospective memory performance failure revealed that omission error comprised of 70.49%, target multi-response error comprised of 16.39%, invalid response error comprised of 11.48%, and habit intrusion error (even though intended to be eliminated) comprised of 1.64%.
Interfaces for kids BIBAFull-Text 160-166
  Amanjot Kaur Sandhu; Kanika Bhardwaj
Child healthcare is a major concern in developing as well as developed countries. There has been a paradigm shift in the medical sector from curative medicine to preventive healthcare. A major bulk of child development products and learning material is dedicated to assist learning about hygiene, sanitation, nutrition, etc. aimed at the same.
   Existing methods of teaching predominantly include parent-child, teacher-child, and peer-peer communication. Of late, lifestyle changes have led to reduced interpersonal communication and interaction. Now kids spend more time with gadgets like cell phones, play stations, tablets, computers and televisions instead.
   This gap in teaching-learning about healthcare can be bridged with the help of these devices, provided the interfaces are child friendly.
   In this paper we seek to list out important parameters about interfaces for kids and brainstorm on ideas around improving child's behavior for basic issues like hygiene, sanitation, etc.
Remote patient health alert system BIBAFull-Text 167-173
  Gagandeep Singh Bachhal; Amanjot Kaur Sandhu
This paper explores the existing remote health monitoring systems and proposes a solution -- "Remote Patient Health Alerts system (RPHA). This system provides a way that can utilize technology to connect doctor, patient and concerned family members and friends. It offers the idea of integrating the hospital systems with RPHA system and automates the whole end to end information flow. This information can be standardized and is sent in the form of alerts to the end subscribers. It explains the proposed system that can be used to inform the registered and approved family members or friends about very critical and time sensitive information about the patient's health. This system can also be viewed as an enhancement to the existing and upcoming Remote Patient Monitoring and telemedicine solutions [1] [2]. This paper also focuses on how the similar telemedicine systems can be extended to serve a need of the concerned audience. The same audience drives the evolution of such system as they are the customers for this service. It provides a medium with which the remote and concerned family members and friends of the patient can be made aware of the patient's health using various communications technologies like internet and telecommunication networks. This paper uses US healthcare market as a model for deploying this system. Research on existing RPM solutions and regulations are US specific but this solution can be implemented in any country. Key requirements for this system are the easy accessibility using wifi or new generation telecom networks and country specific regulations for patient information privacy. This paper covers the RPHA solution design, process flow and the business case along with future possibilities. It also explains a scenario to demonstrate the end to end concept. For further discussion concerned family members and friends will be referred to as subscribers.

APCHI 2013: demos & posters

PUSTACK: towards an augmented, scalable and personalized interface for paper textbooks BIBAFull-Text 174-177
  Naman Gandhi; Vinit Gaikwad; Pratik Kasat; Nikita Garg; Abhay Doke; Varun Kumar; Shirish Karande; Vijayanand Banahatti; Niranjan Pedanekar
In a developing country such as India, implementing personalized learning poses a challenge due to a large number of learners. Learners still tend to rely on 'authorized content' such as textbooks for their studies. Most learners use paper textbooks for the same. In this demonstration, we present PUSTACK, an interface for augmenting paper textbooks for providing personalized content in a scalable manner. We use a webcam-based setup to augment content from the physical book being read. We augment the content using 'layers' of information gathered from the Internet. We select and prioritize these layers for different learners to personalize the learning experience.
On the viability of CAPTCHAs for use in telephony systems: a usability field study BIBAFull-Text 178-182
  Niharika Sachdeva; Nitesh Saxena; Ponnurangam Kumaraguru
Usability of security solution has always been a keen area of interest for researchers. CAPTCHA is one such security solution which presents various usability challenges for users. However, it has successfully reduced the abuse of the Internet resources, such as spam. Similar to the Internet, audio-based CAPTCHAs have been proposed as a solution to curb voice spam over telephony. Voice spam is often encountered on telephony in various forms, such as, an automated telemarketing call asking to call a number to win million of dollars. A large percentage of voice spam is generated through automated system which introduces the classical challenge of distinguishing machines from humans on the telephony. We present a large scale evaluation of audio CAPTCHA from the human perspective over telephony through a field study with 90 participants. We study two primary research questions: how much inconvenience does audio CAPTCHA causes to users on telephony, and how different features of the CAPTCHA, e.g., duration and size influence usability of audio CAPTCHA on telephony. We found that captcha could be a viable solution for telephony with improved features, such as better voice and accent. We found that users were relatively close to the expected correct answers, which does suggest the possibility of deploying audio captcha on telephony platforms in the future. However, we did not find strong influence of captcha size and duration on solving accuracy.
Designing interfaces for healthcare workers: a case study of the electronic partogram BIBAFull-Text 187-191
  Bhaskar M. R. Bhatt; Gourab Kar; Sriram Shashank; Sumesh Somarajan
This paper describes a user-centered approach to the design and development of an electronic partogram for healthcare workers in developing countries. The device is intended to aid healthcare workers in data entry and interpretation of condition of mother and baby during active phase of labor in childbirth. Iterative processes of design thinking and prototyping lead to development of a simulation prototype, which was subject to user tests. Initial user tests revealed significant advantages in data entry speed and accuracy of electronic partogram over paper based partograph.
Preliminary results of pointing and calling detection system for nurses BIBAFull-Text 192-194
  Akira Urashima; Masaki Nakamura; Tomoji Toriyama; Junichi Oshima; Mitsuko Nakagawa; Tadao Nomura
Human error occupies a large part of the medical accidents. Although pointing and calling is one of the countermeasures of Nurses' error, it is reported that the enforcement of pointing and calling is not thorough from the busyness of nurses' daily work. We propose the pointing and calling detection system for nurses. It requires the user to wear a small wireless sensor attached to one's upper arm and a wireless microphone attached to one's head, however it does not require for the user to equip any device to one's forearm, and does not need a camera. The logged history of the pointing and calling detection by this system contributes the conformation of the proper procedure of nursing service at the time of the coaching to a new nurse from senior nurse and the looking-back at the time of writing nursing record. The result of the preliminary pointing and calling detection experiment, which was conducted by twenty nurses in the simulated environment at Toyama prefectural Koshi Rehabilitation Hospital, Japan, suggests the feasibility of our detection method.
Bridge: senior citizen care through facilitating reciprocal awareness BIBAFull-Text 195-198
  Paulami Roy Choudhury; Karan Patel; Arnab Chakravarty; Atul Saraf; Naveen Bagalkot
An increasing number of senior citizens and the changing nature of traditional Indian family structure call for initiatives that support the social and emotional aspects of senior citizen care. In this paper, we present our early work on designing for non-explicit reciprocal micro-communication between distributed aging parents and their adult children. Our work leverages implicit aspects of face-to-face interactions inherent in a traditional integrated family structure. We present the design and rationale of Bridge, an example manifestation. Bridge is enabled by an embedded sensor system with a smart phone as a gateway to communicate patterns of everyday activities and anomalies if any of seniors and their children to each other. Our goal is to facilitate an inter-personal and inter-generational holistic awareness of each other's environment as openings for engaging in a meaningful conversation and care across distance.
Plane-casting: 3D cursor control with a SmartPhone BIBAFull-Text 199-200
  Nicholas Katzakis; Kiyoshi Kiyokawa; Haruo Takemura
We present Plane-Casting, a novel technique for 3D object manipulation from a distance that is especially suitable for smartphones. We describe two variations of Plane-Casting and present results from a pilot study. Our evaluation demonstrates the feasibility of the interface and suggests that Pivot Plane-Casting is more suitable for quick, coarse movements whereas Free Plane-Casting is more suited to slower, precise motion. In a 3D movement task subjects preferred Free Plane-Casting overall among the two techniques.
Dropbox: drop physical data into your digital world BIBAFull-Text 204-209
  Mannu Amrit; Jatin Pherwani; Mohit Yadav; Keyur Sorathia
In this paper, we describe the idea of an associated physical object that is used to control the functionalities of a screen based interface (like a website) metaphorically. The focus of this project was to define meaningful metaphors between interactions with a physical object and online digital services. We took dropbox (www.dropbox.com) as a case example for this project. Dropbox offers cloud storage and file synchronization to its client. The exploration was done by studying the features and usage of the web portal and then associating it with possible interactions with the physical object, which in our experiment was an actual box container. We designed a physical box to store data physically and digitally simultaneously. The box also has provisions to share this data with public or private groups. The project outcome is a functional prototype capable of executing basic functionalities of the web service by providing simple and intuitive interactions with the box.
REALCAM: a PedagogicalTool for learning basic videography BIBAFull-Text 210-214
  Harshit Agrawal; Arka Bani Maini; A. Abhinav Krishna; Tushar Chhabra; Keyur Sorathia
We introduce a novel concept of a tangible camera to be used as a teaching tool for beginners of videography. The tangible camera can be interfaced with any 3D modeling/animation software with a built in camera tracking application to allow for its direct, real-time manipulation using our tangible camera. This gives the user ample scope to explore various camera shots, angles and movements using the physical camera over the virtually modeled scenarios on the 3D platform without having to use a real physical camera which is expensive and not often portable. The tangible camera provides a cost effective, easy to use and portable device to explore various basic concepts of cinematography freely. In this project we explore the possibilities of this concept using 'Autodesk Maya 2014' -- an industry standard software used by professionals for 3D modeling and animation. We discuss the need for better interactive ways to teach basic videography, the lack of enough equipment for all the students of the subject due to the high cost of equipment, and how this small device would help in providing an inexpensive yet highly interactive platform for students to grasp the concept of videography in much better way than it is currently done today. We explain how this tool can help students as a pre-visualization aid to quickly build up rich storyboards that ultimately help them hone their skills of videography.
EyeK: an efficient dwell-free eye gaze-based text entry system BIBAFull-Text 215-220
  Sayan Sarcar; Prateek Panwar; Tuhin Chakraborty
Over the last three decades, eye gaze has become an important modality of text entry in large and small display digital devices covering people with disabilities beside the able-bodied. Despite of many tools being developed, issues like minimizing dwell time, visual search time and interface area, eye-controlled mouse movement stability etc. are still points of concern in making any gaze typing interface more user friendly, accurate and robust. In this paper, we propose EyeK, a gaze-based text entry system which diminishes dwell time and favors to mitigate visual search time. Performance evaluation shows that proposed interface achieves on an average 15% higher text entry rate over the existing interfaces. As designed, the proposed interface can effortlessly be suited in medium-sized display devices like Tablet PC, PDA etc. Also, the developed system can be used by the people with motor disabilities.

APCHI 2013: industrial case studies

Challenges of using information technology onboard ships BIBAFull-Text 226-230
  Elina Vartiainen; Maria Ralph; Petra Björndal
The use of technology onboard ships is not typically studied within the HCI community due mainly to the challenges researchers face in gaining access to these environments. However, there is now a higher number of technological devices being used onboard ships to assist crew members in their daily tasks. So gaining access to these environments is even more important now since this increased use of technology has impacted the work practices of crew members. This paper is therefore a first step towards researching what technologies are now being incorporated onboard ships, their impact, and proposed future HCI solutions for the maritime domain.
MK-pad: a Mouse+Keyboard input technique for distance interaction through a mobile tablet device BIBAFull-Text 231-236
  Chunchuan Lv; Boyuan Yuan; Ran Bi; A Hai-Ning; Nancy Diniz; M. L. Dennis Wong
We introduce MK-Pad (Mouse+Keyboard Pad), a technique for entering text and performing mouse operations using a tablet device for distance interaction. MK-Pad uses the screen of a 10.1" tablet touchscreen to host a soft keyboard and turns the screen into a large multi-touch trackpad. The multi-touch capabilities of the tablet make it possible to avoid the need for explicit mode switching between text-entry and mouse operations. Similarly, because of the relatively large size of the tablet display, we are able to map the entire external screen onto the tablet display and this provides users with both absolute and relative cursor positioning: tapping causes the cursor to jump to the corresponding location, providing rapid movement across large distances, while clutching using relative mode supports fine positioning control. We conducted two studies. We use data from the first study to inform the design of MK-Pad. In the second study we compare MK-Pad against the standard mouse and keyboard. The results show that MK-Pad has potential and a good alternative to mouse and keyboard for distance interaction with large displays.
Glassbeam search: big data analytics & object oriented UX framework BIBAFull-Text 237-241
  Jyotirmaya Mahapatra; Porus Rathore; Swati Gupta; Pramod Sridharamurthy
Glassbeam Support is a cloud based Machine log data analytics and search application. It allows Data centers, Networking servers, OEMs and IT Enterprises to quickly search for data sources and insights related to any machine.
   Due to the complexity of data within log files, the existing interface supported a lot of features, which were not aligned to actual user behavior. This made the product complex and various features were left unexplored. The existing system presented itself with inefficient navigation and performance latency issues. Glassbeam required a complete re-design of 'Search', which could be intuitive and scalable to different kinds of log files across domains.
   To achieve this, an 'Object Oriented' user experience design framework was used where a 'Central Object' around which the entire application and functionalities could be aligned.
   The redesigned application reduced the time to narrow down to problems and troubleshoot issues in minutes instead of days. The overall usability of the system was enhanced and it supported a broader number of use cases. It empowered enterprises with end-to-end log data analytics, support their support, RnD and Sales forecasting activities.
Ethnography of software maintenance activities in an industrial engineering setup BIBAFull-Text 242-246
  Dhaval Vyas
New technical and procedural interventions are less likely to be adopted in industry, unless they are smoothly integrated into the existing practices of professionals. In this paper, we provide a case study of the use of ethnographic methods for studying software bug-fixing activities at an industrial engineering conglomerate. We aimed at getting an in-depth understanding of software developers' everyday practices in bug-fixing related projects and in turn inform the design of novel productivity tools. The use of ethnography has allowed us to look at the social side of software maintenance practices. In this paper, we highlight 1) organizational issues that influence bug-fixing activities, 2) social role of bug tracking systems, and 3) social issues specific to different phases of bug-fixing activities.
Improving visualization for decision making in alarm resolution of power systems BIBAFull-Text 247-251
  Sanjay Tripathi; Wagesh Kulkarni
Providing right information in right context always helps viewer gain better understanding of the context. In the industrial environment where Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems being used to monitor and control the complete network system by trained operators, primary goal of the operator is to ensure the safety of the personal and devices in the field from any anomaly situations. In this paper we have developed alarm visualization to support industrial operators in making right decision and also validated using both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies.
Three gestures, the context does the rest some ideas to simplify interactions BIBAFull-Text 252-257
  Robin Vivian; Jérôme Dinet; David Bertolo
The evolution of tactile devices allows the creation of applications supporting space manipulationwith more than 3 degrees of freedom. Often, each application requires a new grammar of gestures. The user needs to learn some new gestures often for an occasional use of application. This constraint is often blocking and users rapidly abandon application (to complex, to long). These grammars are inappropriate for occasional use (having information about a city, a movie, searching a restaurant) or for fun applications that notneedsa new long learning (educative games for example or fun games). A user would prefer to use a limited number of gestures. Our work is in the field of 3D geometry learning. This paper trying to prove that it's possible to reduce set of multi-touch gestures that, developed from three basic actions (tap, pinch/spread, and drag). This work leverages the context to frame the gestures semantics so as to reduce the cognitive load of anybody that learning and using multi-touch gestures.
Challenges of using mobile devices in process industry BIBAFull-Text 258-263
  Elina Vartiainen; Maria Ralph; Petra Björndal
Almost everyone today owns some type of mobile device that is not only being used for routine tasks such as making phone calls, but also for more advanced tasks such as social networking. Advances in hardware technology have seen the cost of mobile devices reduce considerably. However, even with the advanced capabilities and relatively low cost, there is still limited use of these devices in industrial environments. In this paper we discuss observations made from several field studies conducted that examine the challenges faced by personnel working in three different process industry environments. We then present design directions for how mobile devices could be used more effectively to enhance their work practice. This paper therefore provides both a rare glimpse for other researchers into industrial working conditions which are often difficult to gain access to, and a possible way forward for how mobile devices could effectively enhance users working experiences.
Human computer interaction paradigm for business process task crowdsourcing BIBAFull-Text 264-273
  Chithralekha Balamurugan; Shourya Roy
In conventional systems like the web-based systems, device-based systems, or desktop systems, the Human Computer Interaction (HCI) spectrum encompasses of user interaction methods, interaction modes, user interface design, etc. that strive to facilitate a user to seamlessly and intuitively interact with the system to accomplish his system goals. This spectrum usually considers aspects pertaining to bringing the user to initiate interaction with the system and retaining the user's interest to keep interacting with the system as an outcome of the usability/user experience that a user obtains while interacting with the system. In the context of crowdsourcing, these aspects have individual significance and not completely user experience based. Hence, it is essential to widen the spectrum of HCI for crowdsourcing to embrace these additional aspects explicitly and provide for a comprehensive HCI paradigm for crowdsourcing
   In this paper, the conceptualization and definition of HCI paradigm for crowdsourcing has been described. The application of every aspect of the proposed paradigm is illustrated with respect to crowdsourcing of a typical form digitization task. The defined aspects could also serve as HCI evaluation parameters for business process task crowdsourcing.
Finger identification and hand gesture recognition techniques for natural user interface BIBAFull-Text 274-279
  Unseok Lee; Jiro Tanaka
The natural user interface using hand gesture have been popular field in Human-Computer-Interaction (HCI). Many research papers have been proposed in this field. They proposed vision-based, glove-based and depth-based approach for hand gesture recognition. However, hand gesture itself is simple and not natural way to interact. In otherwise, hand gesture recognition using finger tracking and identification can be implemented more robust and subtle recognition. Recently, new horizons are open with the development of sensors and technology such as Kinect and Depth-Sense. This development has made possible robust recognition, like finger identification and hand gesture recognition in bad conditions such as dark light and rough background as well. In this paper, we proposed a new finger identification and hand gesture recognition techniques with kinect depth data. Our proposed finger identification and gesture recognition methods provide natural interactions and interface by using fingers. We implemented interfaces and designed hand gestures using this method. This paper explains finger identification method and hand gesture recognition in detail. We show the preliminary experiment for evaluating accuracy of finger identification and hand gesture recognition accuracy. Finally, we discuss the result of evaluation and our contributions.
Exploring suitable interfaces for agriculture based smartphone apps in India BIBAFull-Text 280-285
  Rakshit Agrawal; Mridu Atray; Krishna Sundari Sattiraju
In this paper the authors design, develop and test two Smartphone applications for Indian agriculture workers. The problem under concern necessitates the need to take into consideration the low literacy level of Indian farmers. The authors also present results from two surveys, one with the farmers and other with phone dealers catering to a majority farmer population, indicating the economic and educational constraints that come into the picture while developing assistance tools for them. A detailed mobile phone market study over the past few years is also presented discussing recent trends. The resulting designs for the two apps are a result of a participatory study with farmers, where multiple design iterations were performed to come down to the final design. Testing of the final app designs confirmed recommendations from previous work in the area and also revealed certain new design considerations based on how the users perceive and understand numbers. The paper therefore, presents design recommendations that have been tested with farmers and can be used to develop effective Smartphone apps for rural workers, particularly in the area of agriculture.
A new collaborative sketching method on web browser BIBAFull-Text 286-290
  Dawei Cheng; Wenxi Zhu; Danqiong Li; Zhen Zhou
Canvas brings novel features to web interfaces, which enable designers can sketch directly on web pages. Collaborative sketching within browser is becoming realistic. However, current solutions are suffering couples of disadvantages: low performance, high latency, additional user account to authentication. Therefore, we present a new tool to provide high performance, low latency, and rich element collaborative sketching. Users can login with existing online account, and then both chatting and initialing a painter are allowed with contacts. We achieve this by exploiting XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol) for instance message; web sockets (an independent TCP-based protocol) for low latency sketching and web workers to offload heavy calculated sketching items to a new thread. We describe our technical solution as well as demonstrate example applications in everyday scenarios.
Responsive design for transaction banking -- a responsible approach BIBAFull-Text 291-295
  Sumit Pandey
With the fast growth rate of Internet enabled devices capable of displaying the full web, designing responsively is becoming the next big paradigm shift in web design and development. This case study presents the prototype driven -mobile first design process used for the design of a hybrid smartphone and tablet app for enterprise transaction banking. The development model selected for this app presented unique challenges since it was to be developed as a native application with the UI screens developed using a responsive web strategy. We also elaborate on the major takeaways from designing for such a context and present a case for a responsible responsive web strategy.
A researcher's guide to running diary studies BIBAFull-Text 296-300
  Anjeli Singh; Sareeka Malhotra
In this paper, we discuss our learning and suggestions on how to run a diary study, a user research method appropriate to collect longitudinal data. The diary study is a longitudinal method that allows self-reporting of specific aspects of users' natural behaviors and thoughts [2].
   To get an in-depth understanding about products and its users, we have conducted diary studies both in Enterprise and Consumer domains. The objectives of these studies were to gather information on the usage patterns; existing users pain points and identify opportunities to improve the product. The findings of these studies have given a closer look at the users' requirements and challenges.
The future of e-commerce experience: Marcopoloshop platform BIBAFull-Text 301-305
  Antonio De Pasquale; Gianluca Brugnoli
Desktop, tablet & Mobile e-commerce platform design for Marcopoloshop, one of the leading electronics retailers in Italy (www.marcopoloshop.it).

India HCI 2013: full papers

Vision-based typing interface for chording input with keystroke detection using Kalman filter BIBAFull-Text 310-317
  Poorna Talkad Sukumar; K. Gopinath
In this paper, we present a vision-based typing interface implemented for chording input. Chording input is an interaction technique which uses combinations of finger touches to enter characters or commands. With this technique, we can obtain 127 combinations by using 7 fingers which is greater than the number of keys on a standard keyboard. But chording input requires identification of the fingers by some means. We describe the prototype system built which performs real-time recognition of fingertips and detection of keystrokes for a bi-manual typing interface using a single web cam. By imposing a few feasible constraints, we were able to use basic image processing for the detection and labeling of the fingertips. We also implemented a novel method for keystroke detection by velocity sensing using Kalman filter. Multi-touch detection is also feasible in the system and a Hindi/Devanagari text entry application has been implemented by encoding Unicode representations of the Devanagari character set into combinations of typed fingertips. The system achieved reliable fingertip recognition and keystroke detection with a mean latency of 80 ms.
For video lecture transmission, less is more: analysis of image cropping as a cost savings technique BIBAFull-Text 318-324
  Gollapudi V. R. J. Sai Prasad; Niyati Mishra
This paper explores the implications of socio-cultural constraints on the design of a video deployment system. The research is motivated by real world difficulties faced by students in downloading large course-content videos. For instance, online lecture videos may rarely be downloaded by students because of their institution's bandwidth constraints. One simple method to lessen the bandwidth burden is to have a deployment system that crops out non-essential portions of the transmitted video. This paper explores how cropping may adversely impact a student's impressions and understanding of the transmitted content. A two part, between-subject experiment was conducted. The results: when cropping was applied, the file sizes decreased, and the message clarity increased by 12%. Moreover, cropping did not significantly lessen the personality judgment the students were making of the instructor. So, post-processing of videos for transmission, by cropping non-essential content, does show promise, while not compromising content or impressions.
Assistive technology for children with autism -- lessons for interaction design BIBAFull-Text 325-333
  Harini Sampath; Ravi Agarwal; Bipin Indurkhya
This paper describes our experiences from developing assistive tools for children with autism. We describe two applications -- AutVisComm, an assistive communication system developed on ubiquitous tablets, and Autinect, a set of activities to teach social skills to children with autism that use Microsoft Kinect™ as a controller. Both these systems were developed in close collaboration with teachers and parents of children with autism. We present here our approach to the design and evaluation of the system that incorporated the cognitive profiles of children with autism and the needs of their caregivers. We also present a summary of the key lessons learnt from these experiences.
I-sphere: a virtual reality based 3D interactive web navigation interface BIBAFull-Text 334-343
  Seongju Chang; Apurva Gupta
This research explores a novel hybrid interface which dynamically links a virtual reality based 3D interface object with multiple hypertext webpages. The tree or network structured 3D graphic object named I-Sphere, consists of multiple nodes and links which intuitively represents the entire 3D navigational space of a site so that the user is aware of his/her navigational position in the web search space at all times. This user operable 3D web search visual interface would give a more intuitive and information rich control over the entire search space to assist highly interactive online information navigation. I-Sphere development process follows a user centric design methodology. A prototypical 3D web search interface was conceptualized and test-built. Finally an instance of the developed interface was employed over a context and tested for usability issues.
DrawCAD: mouse-sketch-based engineering drawing BIBAFull-Text 344-353
  Abhiram Ranade; Shripad Sarade
While there has been a lot of work on freehand drawing programs, robust programs which are easy to learn are still not available. We feel our program DrawCAD takes significant steps in this direction. Two dimensional drawings are sketched by the user using the mouse; DrawCAD analyzes the sketches and infers the intent of the user and produces beautified drawings. DrawCAD also infers and maintains constraints between various elements of the drawing. Supported constraints include horizontality or verticality of lines, tangency between arcs and lines, parallelism/perpendicularity between lines, equality of angles or line segment lengths. Some of these constraints are inferred as the user draws, and some can be explicitly added using well known conventions of Euclidean Geometry (e.g. putting a wedge to indicate perpendicularity). The key idea in this is to treat the strokes drawn by the user on one hand as actual drawing elements, but at the same time as gestures. We feel that this makes it easy for the user to declare his/her intent, and also easy for DrawCAD to recognize the intent.
   User studies are presented in which some benchmark drawings are created using DrawCAD as well as standard programs. Some of our benchmarks are simple informal drawings, and others are detailed engineering drawings with dimensions etc. Our general conclusion is that DrawCAD is very robust, easy to learn, and fast to use.
Eyeboard++: an enhanced eye gaze-based text entry system in Hindi BIBAFull-Text 354-363
  Sayan Sarcar; Prateek Panwar
Of late, eye gaze has become an important modality of text entry in large and small display digital devices. Despite many tools being developed, issues like minimizing dwell time and visual search time, enhancing accuracy of composed text, eye-controlled mouse movement stability etc. are yet to be addressed. Moreover, eye typing interfaces having a large number of keys suffer from many problems like selecting wrong characters, more character searching time etc. Some linguistic issues often decline in minimizing dwell time incurred for character by character based eye typing task. The aforementioned issues are prominently evolved in case of Indian languages for its many language related issues. In this paper, we propose a gaze-based text entry system EyeBoard++ for Hindi, national language of India which minimizes dwell time by introducing word completion and word prediction methodologies side by side mitigates visual search time by highlighting next probable characters. Performance evaluation shows that proposed interface achieves text entry rate on an average 9.63 words per minute. As designed, the proposed interface can effortlessly be suited in medium-sized display devices like Tablet PC, PDA etc. The proposed interface design approach, in fact, provides a solution to deal with complexity in Indian languages and can be extended to many other languages in the world. Also, the developed system can be used by the people with motor disabilities.
Cyber cafes as microtasking hubs BIBAFull-Text 364-370
  Navkar Samdaria; Ajith Sowndararajan; Ramadevi Vennelakanti; Sriganesh Madhvanath
Crowdsourced microtasking has been largely accessible on personal computers. With the rather low penetration of personal computers in countries like India, this has meant that microtasking opportunities have been limited to the educated elite with access to PC and Internet. In this paper we explore the use of cybercafés as microtasking hubs, thus overcoming the need to own an Internet connected computer. We conducted a one week exploratory study with three cyber cafes in Bangalore -- where we provided users with an opportunity to work on a few transcription tasks in the cyber cafe and earn in the form of mobile airtime (recharge). We also conducted in-depth interviews with users and cyber owners. Overall we found that successful adoption of a microtasking eco-system at a cyber café is highly co-related with the cyber café environment and owners motivation. We also uncover practice of "Pair Microtasking" -- where more than one person works on a single task and highlight its implications on task design and task accuracy.
Exploring an effective interaction mode for blind mobile users in India BIBAFull-Text 371-378
  Tuhin Chakraborty; Debasis Samanta
Mobile phone is mostly common communicating device in recent time but blind people have limited accessibility to that device. Due to the lack of their visual perception, blind people have different preferences towards interacting with a device. This work aims to find an effective interaction mode to access mobile phone by the visually impaired people in India. In Indian subcontinent people popularly use keypad-based handsets and are well habituated with the key based interaction. But the presence of a huge number of keys in keypad plays negative impact in interaction procedure for our target users. We explored how the detection time for a particular key in a jumble of keys varies with different keypad conditions where target users searched for a key only through the tactile sense. We report the preferable keypad type for our blind mobile users where detection for a particular key is made faster and less error prone. We found that the detection time for a particular key was significantly less and the detection was much accurate in a keypad containing only the functional keys rather than QWERTY or traditional 4x3 keypad.
How simple is simple: our experience with older adult users BIBAFull-Text 379-387
  Fariza Hanis Abdul Razak; Nuurul Amira Razak; Wan Adilah Wan Adnan; Nahdatul Akma Ahmad
As people age memory capabilities are reduced, thus reminder system can benefit older adult users. However, the uptake of reminder system is still low. In our previous work, we proposed a mental model of older adults for a reminder system. We presented this model using design principles: simplicity, flexibility, recognizability and familiarity. However, in this research, we were only interested to investigate the simplicity element of the user model. To do this, we evaluated two reminder applications -- Calendar and Task which were chosen based on other design principles: flexibility and familiarity. We had six older adult users who evaluated the interfaces based on usability principles: ease of use, ease of learning and user friendliness. The results showed that none of the reminders were considered as easy to use thus classified as unfriendly. What we learned from our study was that older adults only considered 'easy-to-use' if the interfaces were perceived simple enough for them and producing simple design requires a hard work and is a time-consuming process.
DESI: a virtual classroom system for distance education: a design exploration BIBAFull-Text 388-399
  Rafael R. Wanderley; Rafael Amaral; Victor Ximenes; Devendra Tewari; Sriganesh Madhvanath; Ramadevi Vennelakanti
Distance education (DE) today is mostly in broadcast mode, where classes are broadcast over networks for students to consume. While the instruction mode has remained close to the physical classroom metaphor, what is often lacking is the rich two way interaction that happens between students and the teacher and between the students in a physical classroom. In this paper, we describe the design of DESI, a virtual classroom system for DE. We consider the scenario wherein a student is attending a class at home on a PC, or an internet-connected TV, and explore the use of student and teacher interfaces that promote classroom interaction and integrate multimodal interactions to enable richer and more interactive virtual classroom experiences. We briefly describe the software architecture of the DESI system, and present preliminary results from testing an early version of the system with end users. Our work is relevant to distance education on TV broadcast networks, online classrooms, and enterprise collaboration and e-learning systems.
Assessing communication effectiveness of pattern names BIBAFull-Text 400-405
  Neha Jain; Puneeth Hegde; Radhakrishna Samad
Pattern languages are usually developed to help in communication in multidisciplinary teams. If all members are familiar with the pattern language then stating the name of the pattern is enough to communicate the situation to the entire team. In case the understanding of the pattern language is different the communication can/will fail entirely.
   Touch Point Eco System (TPES) is a pattern language written for the Service Design field where typically a multidisciplinary team works together. A quantitative study was conducted to estimate the communication effective of TPES by assessing whether the names of the patterns indicate the same understanding to the reader as explained by the author in the pattern description. With a chosen sampling frame a questionnaire was administered and data was collected. The data was later analyzed and the results are presented. With this paper we propose a direction to evaluate communication effectiveness of pattern languages.
Commodity price retrieval system in Bangla: an IVR based application BIBAFull-Text 406-415
  Joyanta Basu; Soma Khan; Rajib Roy; Milton S. Bepari
Present paper describes the overall architecture, design and evaluation process of an Interactive Voice Response based Commodity Price Retrieval System for semiliterate or illiterate farmers. Here users just need to dial a 24x7 helpline number to get market wise latest price information on recognition of district and commodity names in Bangla language. Telephonic speech data has been collected automatically from all geographical regions of West Bengal to cover major dialectal variations. Sustained efforts have been given in real-time speech data collection, transcription, system design, evaluation and field trial analysis. Additionally to meet users' expectations in field conditions, distinctive error recovery methods like Signal Analysis and Decision, Confidence Measure and Polling, Complementary Information, Runtime model generation etc. are incorporated to confirm performance enhancement in final trial. This system is providing excellent value-addition to the already existing AGMARKNET website managed by ministry of agriculture, India; as no computers, internet, or even reading/writing skills are required for this application.