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APCHI Tables of Contents: 04081213

Proceedings of the 2004 Asia Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction

Fullname:APCHI 2004: 6th Asia Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction
Editors:Masood Masoodian; Steve Jones; Bill Rogers
Location:Rotorua, New Zealand
Dates:2004-Jun-29 to 2004-Jul-02
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3101
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/b98382 hcibib: APCHI04; ISBN: 978-3-540-22312-2 (print), 978-3-540-27795-8 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. Full Papers
  2. Short Papers
  3. Doctoral Consortium

Full Papers

A Simple and Novel Method for Skin Detection and Face Locating and Tracking BIBAFull-Text 1-8
  Saleh A. Al-Shehri
In many computer vision applications such as human-computer interaction (HCI) and human-motion tracking (HMT), face detection is considered the main step which is also the first step. To detect faces, skin color is considered the most appropriate feature to use. A simple arithmetic on RGB color space components is used in this paper to extract the skin. Elliptical shape fitting is used to locate the face. Then template matching is used to locate the eyes. A very good result is achieved using our simple algorithm. Up to our knowledge, we believe that our skin detection method is one of the most efficient methods being used today.
Operation-Support System for Transportable Earth Station Using Augmented Reality BIBAFull-Text 9-18
  Kikuo Asai; Noritaka Osawa; Yuji Y. Sugimoto; Kimio Kondo
We have developed a prototype system for supporting operation of a transportable earth station using augmented reality technology, and have had a preliminary experiment for investigating properties of the operation-support system. It was not easy for non-technical staffs to treat the equipments they saw for the first time. The operation-support system gives us information on how to manage the pieces of equipment, using a see-through HMD. The equipment is distinguished with a marker. The automatic voice also lets the user know the identified equipment, and the voice attention works to reduce a mistake of operation. To simplify authoring of multimedia data for the instruction, the Web browser in information presentation was adopted for using the existent resources. The result of the experiment suggested that the system improved reliability of information acquisition, obtaining information of what a user sees.
Real-World Oriented Access Control Method with a Displayed Password BIBAFull-Text 19-29
  Yuji Ayatsuka; Michimune Kohno; Jun Rekimoto
Access control within a ubiquitous networking environment is a critical issue. Traditional access control methods have mainly relied on the authentication of registered users or devices, and security issues arise if visitors are permitted to use networked resources in an office and have accessibility to other resources. We propose a new access control method that uses frequently changing passwords which are displayed beside the resource. This method provides real-world-oriented access control over an internet without any need for special hardware such as sensors.
Evolutionary Approaches to Visualisation and Knowledge Discovery BIBAFull-Text 30-39
  Russell Beale; Andy Pryke; Robert J. Hendley
Haiku is a data mining system which combines the best properties of human and machine discovery. An self organising visualisation system is coupled with a genetic algorithm to provide an interactive, flexible system. Visualisation of data allows the human visual system to identify areas of interest, such as clusters, outliers or trends. A genetic algorithm based machine learning algorithm can then be used to explain the patterns identified visually. The explanations (in rule form) can be biased to be short or long; contain all the characteristics of a cluster or just those needed to predict membership; or concentrate on accuracy or on coverage of the data.
   This paper describes both the visualisation system and the machine learning component, with a focus on the interactive nature of the data mining process, and provides case studies to demonstrate the capabilities of the system.
Creating a Framework for Situated Way-Finding Research BIBAFull-Text 40-49
  Nicola J. Bidwell; Christopher P. Lueg
Preliminary themes to scaffold an investigative framework supporting human navigation from a egocentric (viewer-centered) perspective are de-scribed. These emerge from prototyping a mobile information appliance that supports, and is ecologically compatible with, human vision-based navigation and acquirement of spatial knowledge during movement through the physical world. The device assists a person finding his/her way from an origin to a destination by providing route information between images of landmarks, presented as they would be seen when walking rather than from an abstract map-type view. The use of the device in a foreign, built environment of the scale of a small university campus is illustrated and related to its use as a community authored resource. Emerging themes, such as the proximity, alignment and spatial separation of "ready-to-hand" landmarks, are discussed. Suggestions for further exploration are proposed and related to intersubjective and cross-cultural differences in communicating and using information for piloting navigation.
Extending Tree-Maps to Three Dimensions: A Comparative Study BIBAFull-Text 50-59
  Thomas Bladh; David A. Carr; Jeremiah Scholl
This paper presents StepTree, an information visualization tool designed for depicting hierarchies, such as directory structures. StepTree is similar to the hierarchy-visualization tool, Treemap, in that it uses a rectangular, space-filling methodology, but differs from Treemap in that it employs three-dimensional space, which is used to more clearly convey the structural relationships of the hierarchy. The paper includes an empirical study comparing typical search and analysis tasks using StepTree and Treemap. The study shows that users perform significantly better on tasks related to interpreting structural relationships when using StepTree. In addition, users achieved the same performance with StepTree and Treemap when doing a range of other common interpretative and navigational tasks.
Creative Expertise and Collaborative Technology Design BIBAFull-Text 60-69
  Linda Candy; Ernest Edmonds
The paper is concerned with increasing our understanding of creative expertise drawing upon studies of collaboration between technologists and artists. The nature of expertise in collaborative creative work is discussed and the implications for support tools considered. Characteristics of a visual programming environment used to support collaboration in the development of interactive digital works are discussed. Such environments provide facilities for sharing representations between experts from different domains and in this way can be used to enable all parties to the collaboration to participate fully in the decision making process.
Does DOF Separation on Elastic Devices Improve User 3D Steering Task Performance? BIBAFull-Text 70-80
  Géry Casiez; Patricia Plénacoste; Christophe Chaillou
We investigated the use of a new haptic device called the DigiHaptic in a 3D steering task. Unlike other devices intended to interact in 3D with one end-effector, the DigiHaptic has three levers that the user may handle simultaneously or not in elastic mode to rate control objects. We compared it to the SpaceMouse -- another elastic device -- to evaluate the influence that degrees of freedom (DOF) separation have in terms of accuracy (coordination and errors) and speed (time). The task consisted of steering paths that required the use of two or three DOF simultaneously. We found that users performed faster on the SpaceMouse but were less coordinated and accurate than on the DigiHaptic for the most complicated paths.
Collaborative Interactions on 3D Display for Multi-user Game Environments BIBAFull-Text 81-90
  Jeong-Dan Choi; Byung-Tae Jang; Chi-Jeong Hwang
This paper describes a method to integrate VR interfaces on 3D display for multi-user game environments, which addresses the problem of synchronization and calibration multiple devices together to treat game events. The challenge we interest in is how to build and use a low cost 3D display that collaborative interact for multi-user immersive game requirements. In the multi-user VR game, 3D display is an important component that supports immersion to gamer. So our display system is supported by following two methods. Projection-based screen system makes it possible to display on large-sized surface. Stereo sea-through HMD is to produce private area as well as public area: a viewer-oriented and private information display. To accomplish this system, we concrete a multi-projector system for creating a seamless wide-area view, head mounted device to play game, and gesture recognition system for collaborative interactions. Our preliminary system is well suited for jungle hunting as game contents with surround displays running on a PC clusters.
Age Differences in Rendezvousing: 18-30s Vs. 31-45s BIBAFull-Text 91-100
  Martin Colbert
One strategy for increasing the usefulness, ease of use and satisfaction of wireless navigation and related services is to tailor a package of services to meet the requirements of particular user groups. This paper reports a diary study, which compared the rendezvousing performance and behaviour of two age groups -- 18-30s and 31-45s. The age groups differed in the following respects: (i) 31-45s more frequently attributed problems rendezvousing to the overrunning of previous activities, and to the spontaneous performance of additional tasks ('side-stepping'); (ii) 31-45s more frequently experienced lost opportunities associated with the failure to meet as initially agreed in the form of personal sacrifices; and (iii) 31-45s more frequently changed plans for the rendezvous. The explanation for these differences suggested by the diaries is that commitments to spouse and children lead 31-45s to pack their lives more tightly with activities than 18-30s. Some implications for tailoring wireless navigation and related services to the 31-45 age group are discussed.
Specification and Generation of Model 2 Web Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 101-110
  Dirk Draheim; Gerald Weber
We describe the language and tool Angie for the type-safe specification of Web presentation layers and the subsequent generation of an executable interface prototype. A textual description of a Web based dialogue can be directly expressed in the proposed language and is then automatically mapped onto a system structure in compliance with currently discussed Web design patterns like the Model 2 architecture. The Angie tool bridges between specification and implementation level in a different way than other approaches in the same area. The proposed language directly supports the system metaphor of form-oriented analysis, namely the system model as a bipartite state machine.
Metaphors for Electronic Music Production in Reason and Live BIBAFull-Text 111-120
  Matthew Duignan; James Noble; Pippin Barr; Robert Biddle
Electronic music production was originally accomplished using a variety of electronic components and conventional analogue recording techniques. Both the electronic components and the recording equipment are now being replaced by computer software. In this paper we present a comparative study of two popular new systems, Reason and Live, concentrating on the role of user-interface metaphors. We compare the two systems, identify the key ways metaphor is used, and describe how it affects usability of the systems focusing on the role that user-interface metaphor play in their design.
Extending the Perceptual User Interface to Recognise Movement BIBAFull-Text 121-132
  Richard Green
Perceptual User Interfaces (PUIs) automatically extract user input from natural and implicit components of human activity such as gestures, direction of gaze, facial expression and body movement. This paper presents a Continuous Human Movement Recognition (CHMR) system for recognising a large range of specific movement skills from continuous 3D full-body motion. A new methodology defines an alphabet of dynemes, units of full-body movement skills, to enable recognition of diverse skills. Using multiple Hidden Markov Models, the CHMR system attempts to infer the movement skill that could have produced the observed sequence of dynemes. This approach enables the CHMR system to track and recognise hundreds of full-body movement skills from gait to twisting somersaults. This extends the perceptual user interface beyond frontal posing or only tracking one hand to recognise and understand full-body movement in terms of everyday activities.
Real-Time Color Gamut Mapping Architecture and Implementation for Color-Blind People BIBAFull-Text 133-142
  Dongil Han
A novel color gamut mapping method and architecture is described. The color gamut mapping allows versatile color display devices to generate transformed colors so that certain colors which are confused can be recognized by the color-blind users. And real-time hardware architecture for color gamut mapping is also described. The concept of three-dimensional reduced resolution look-up table is proposed and applied for color gamut mapping. The proposed architecture greatly reduces the required memory size and computational loads compared to the conventional methods and it is suitable for real-time applications. The proposed real-time architecture can easily be implemented in high-speed color display applications especially for color-blind users. The experimental results show that the proposed method is successfully used for color transform, which enables confused colors to be differentiated.
Tangible Teleconferencing BIBAFull-Text 143-152
  Jeorg Hauber; Mark Billinghurst; Holger Regenbrecht
This paper describes a teleconferencing application that uses real objects to interact with virtual on-screen content. A variety of tangible interaction techniques can be used to load, translate, rotate and scale shared virtual models. In addition, snapshots of real documents can be easily introduced into the system and enlarged using a tangible lens. We describe the teleconferencing inter-face and present results from a pilot user study.
Our Ubiquitous Computing Home Inside: A Practical Approach Emerging into House and Home BIBAFull-Text 153-162
  Soichiro Iga; Saiko Ohno
To make practical ubiquitous computing environment for everyday activities especially for house and home, the environment has to be proactively managed by the users at home themselves. This paper introduces an "Our Ubiquitous Computing Home Inside Project" and outlines some of our user-centered information architecture and interaction technique to provide practical ubiquitous computing environment at home. We have implemented two prototype systems called Coordi and Collenda to demonstrate our approach, and applied these to clothing coordination task. The result shows that the systems were proven to be useful for managing information and for decision-making.
A Study of an EMG-controlled HCI Method by Clenching Teeth BIBAFull-Text 163-170
  Hyuk Jeong; Jong-Sung Kim; Jin-Seong Choi
In this paper, a new Human-Computer-Interaction (HCI) method for a quadriplegic, which is controlled by clenching teeth, is proposed. By simple combination of two clenching patterns, seven instructions including rest, up, down, left and right as well as click and double click actions are made for the control of a pointing device. The control source is EMGs (electromyograms), which are generated by clenching teeth and acquired on two temporal muscles in one's forehead. For easy-to-wear, the prototype device is designed for attaching EMG electrodes on a forehead by using a headband. Stochastic values such as difference absolute mean value are used for feature extractions and Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Network (FMMNN) is used for classifying clenching patterns. The usefulness of the proposed system is confirmed by the user test.
Performance Analysis for User Interface in Real-Time Ubiquitous Information Network BIBAFull-Text 171-179
  Yung Bok Kim; Mira Kwak; Dong-sub Cho
The Web server for knowledge and information should be unified as a center for real-time information network in the ubiquitous computing environment. We studied the performance analysis for HCI (human-computer interaction) user interface in real-time ubiquitous information network based on wired and mobile Internet. We show an empirical performance analysis and metrics for user interface, at the customer's perspective, on the basis of simple implementation of the unified information portal accessible with single character domain names.
Envisioning Mobile Information Services: Combining User- and Technology-Centered Design BIBAFull-Text 180-190
  Jesper Kjeldskov; Steve Howard
We provide a meta-commentary on two approaches used for designing context-dependent mobile devices. On the basis of a 'user-centered' approach, consisting of interviews, observation of current practice and enactment of future scenarios in context, a number of non-functional design sketches were developed. While these sketches reflected a rich understanding of current work practices, they were little more than abstract speculations about future practice; lacking in detail on usability and feasibility, and being largely reactive to current problem situations. Conducted in parallel, the technology-centered study informed the design and implementation of a mature functional prototype. This facilitated a comprehensive usability evaluation revealing a series of technical challenges and problems related to mobile use. Though the technology-centered approach provided detailed input for refining the prototype, and an initial provocative break with current practice, it was less useful in supplying further original alternatives; post-evaluation, the design discussion was largely reactive to the current prototype. In concert, the two approaches complement each other well; the user-centered approach grounding design in current practice, in all its contextual complexity, and the technology-centered approach providing a counterpoint in technically detailed expressions of future possibilities.
Supporting Work Activities in Healthcare by Mobile Electronic Patient Records BIBAFull-Text 191-200
  Jesper Kjeldskov; Mikael B. Skov
Supporting work activities in healthcare is highly complex and challenging. This paper outlines the findings from a usability study of a commercial PC based electronic patient record (EPR) system at a large Danish hospital and presents our experiences with the design of a mobile counterpart. First, a number of challenges in relation to the use of traditional desktop-based EPR systems in healthcare were identified. Secondly, a mobile context-aware prototype was designed and implemented, which automatically keeps track of contextual factors such as the physical location of patients and staff, upcoming appointments etc. The usability of the mobile EPR prototype was evaluated in a laboratory as well as in relation to carrying out real work activities at the hospital. Our results indicate that mobile EPR systems can support work activities in healthcare, but that interaction design of such systems must be carefully thought out and evaluated. Specifically, our findings challenge the view of con-text-awareness being a universally useful paradigm for mobile HCI.
Design of Chording Gloves as a Text Input Device BIBAFull-Text 201-210
  Seongil Lee; Sang Hyuk Hong; Jae Wook Jeon; Hoo-Gon Choi; Hyoukryeol Choi
A chording input device for text input was developed in a Glove-typed interface using all the joints of the four fingers and thumbs of both hands. The glove-based device works for input of Korean characters as well as Roman-alphabet, Braille characters, and numbers using mode conversion among the respective keymaps. To minimize finger force and fatigue from repeated finger motions, input switch was made of conductible silicon ink, which is easy to apply to any type of surface, light, and enduring. The chording gloves showed comparable performances in Korean text input tasks with input keypads of mobile phones, but proved to be inferior to conventional keyboards. Subjects' performance showed that the chording gloves can input approximately 108 characters per minute in Korean, but needs further ergonomic consideration to reduce keying errors. The chording gloves developed in the study can be used with common computing devices such as PCs and PDAs in mobile environments.
Designing Explorable Interaction Based on Users' Knowledge: A Case Study on a Multi-functional Printer Application BIBAFull-Text 211-220
  Dong-Seok Lee; Douglas Jihoon Kim; Un Sik Byun
Many studies on exploratory learning advocate that the label-following heuristic is the user's basic and strongest exploration strategy (Polson, 1988). According to various observational studies, users exploit their prior knowledge when label-following fails. Their prior knowledge is classified by Yoon and Park's (1997) task knowledge types (Lee and Yoon, 2000; Lee et al., 2001). This paper deals with how that knowledge guides users' exploration. A framework for exploratory learning is suggested, which defines exploration as bi-directional search both from user goals and interface widgets. A case study shows that the framework assists designers to identify the source of usability problems and helps inspire design alternatives based on gathered users' knowledge. Usability evaluation shows that the design alternatives resulted in better performance and user satisfaction.
The Automatic Generation of a Graphical Dialogue Model from Delphi Source Code BIBAFull-Text 221-230
  Lei Li; Chris Phillips; Chris Scogings
A shortcoming of current user interface builders is that while they permit the designer to construct the visible user interface, they provide no model of the interaction. This paper describes how a Lean Cuisine+ graphical dialogue model of the behaviour of a graphical user interface (GUI) can be automatically generated from Delphi source code. The model is produced in a file format which is compatible with SELCU, an experimental support environment for Lean Cuisine+. SELCU provides for viewing, printing and editing of the model, which can be used to analyse the interaction.
NetWorker: A Practical Web-Based Tool to Support the Collect-Compare-Choose Cycle BIBAFull-Text 231-240
  Paul Lyons; Chris Phillips; Elizabeth Kemp; Jaimee Alam
An earlier paper has covered the development of a paper prototype of NetWorker, a tool designed to facilitate a Web usage referred to as the Collect-Compare-Choose cycle. Here we describe an initial implementation of the tool, a small scale evaluation, and modifications that were implemented subsequent to the evaluation. NetWorker is a PC application with a single window containing multiple web browsers and a text pane. It allows users to download and view pages from multiple web-sites in parallel, to drag text from the web pages into a working area (the WorkPad) and to edit and rearrange information within the WorkPad. The browsers and the WorkPad can be rearranged in various ways to make optimum use of the available screen space.
Nine Tools for Generating Harmonious Colour Schemes BIBAFull-Text 241-251
  Paul Lyons; Giovanni Moretti
We survey a number of tools that have been developed for generating sets of colours according to commonly accepted rules for colour harmony. Informal manual techniques for generating harmonious sets of colours have been known and used for at least a century. Although superficially simple, they have not been precise techniques, as pigment-based and dye-based colouring techniques are not susceptible to accurate measurement, in terms of area of colour used or mathematical relationships between colours, and mathematical analysis does not appeal strongly to the design community. Now the historical separation between engineering and design has narrowed. First, the development of colour television brought numerical precision into colour specification. Secondly, in computers, the medium for colour representation and the tool for calculating colour parameters have been integrated. Consequently, it has also become feasible to derive sets of harmonious colours automatically.
A Practical Set of Culture Dimensions for Global User-Interface Development BIBAFull-Text 252-261
  Aaron Marcus; Valentina-Johanna Baumgartner
User-interface design is influenced by cultural differences. Cultures around the world have different patterns of social behavior and interaction that have led anthropologists and scientists of communication to develop culture models whose dimensions describe these differences. This paper describes an effort to collect expert opinion about these cultural dimensions and how they influence user-interface design. The goal was to determine the most important dimensions. Data collected from over 50 experts in the field of user-interface design are presented in this survey. This paper is an edited extract of a much longer thesis by one of the authors [Baumgartner].
Towards a General Model for Assisting Navigation BIBAFull-Text 262-271
  Mike McGavin; James Noble; Robert Biddle; Judy Brown
In this paper, we review the principles of navigation, present a general model for supporting navigation in user interface design, and show examples of how the model can be applied. The model has four different properties along which navigational scenarios can be classified. These are: dimensionality, freedom of movement, presentation and reinforcement. We show how use of the model leads to heuristics to help in the design and evaluation of user interfaces that include navigational aspects.
inlineLink: Realization of Inline Expansion Link Methods on a Conventional Web Browser BIBAFull-Text 272-282
  Motoki Miura; Buntarou Shizuki; Jiro Tanaka
Conventional web browsing displays a web page inside of a window. In conventional web browsing, following a link replaces the previous document entirely, and the readers tend to lose the context. We have developed a system inlineLink, which applies an in-line, expansion-link method to web browsing. This in-line expansion inserts the linked document after the link anchor text. The inlineLink provides navigation mechanisms such as automatic animated scrolling, zooming, and index jumping in order to reduce the scrolling tasks while handling longer, inlined documents. We have adopted Dynamic HTML to implement the inline expansion functions. Casual users can try them on conventional web browsers. The results of our experiment prove the advantages of inlineLink in both click counts and mouse movement.
Chromotome: A 3D Interface for Exploring Colour Space BIBAFull-Text 283-292
  Giovanni Moretti; Paul Lyons; Mark Wilson
When continuous 3D shapes or enclosed structures, such as solid objects or skeletons, are mapped onto a 2D screen, simplifications such as hulls and wire frames are suitable visualization tools, because most or all of the information is concentrated along discontinuities that occupy only a small proportion of the space. Visualizing a colour space is more difficult. Colour spaces are three-dimensional solids with no discontinuities, and every point in such a space represents a unique colour. A colour space visualization tool must therefore facilitate the exploration of a solid, continuous, three-dimensional shape. Here we describe Chromotome, a software tool that has been developed for this purpose. Chromotome provides a cutaway view of a spherical colour space, and has controls for rotating the space (to alter the hues displayed), for altering the shape of the cutaway, and for visualizing sets of colours positioned according to simple geometrical relationships within the space.
Commercial Success by Looking for Desire Lines BIBAFull-Text 293-304
  Carl Myhill
'Desire Lines' are the ultimate unbiased expression of natural human purpose and refer to tracks worn across grassy spaces, where people naturally walk -- regardless of formal pathways. This perfect expression of natural purpose can extend into other interactions in the real world and in the software world.
   Rather than trying to understand user needs from a focus group, being alert for desire lines will show you users' actual purpose more directly. Smart companies have an obsession with what is typed into their Search facility, analysing hourly this pure expression of what people want from their sites.
   'Normanian Natural Selection' is proposed to describe survival of the fittest design. Companies focusing on desire lines apparent in their products, will be able to successfully adapt them to what their users really want. Perhaps these positive adaptions in design, aligned with human natural purpose, will lead to their greater commercial success.
Steering Law in an Environment of Spatially Coupled Style with Matters of Pointer Size and Trajectory Width BIBAFull-Text 305-316
  Satoshi Naito; Yoshifumi Kitamura; Fumio Kishino
Steering law is an excellent performance model for trajectory-based tasks in GUIs. However, since the original law was proposed, it has been examined only in a graphical environment of spatially decoupled style. Moreover, pointer size has been limited to a small one, and the trajectory width of the trajectory has also been limited to a certain size. To solve this problem, in this paper we discuss the extension of the original steering law in order to apply the law to a wider range of environments. We prove the steering law in an environment of spatially coupled style. We explore three conditions of the pointer and trajectory: a sufficiently small pointer and a trajectory of certain width; a pointer of certain size and a narrow trajectory, and, a pointer of certain size and a trajectory of certain width. The experimental results show that the steering law is valid in an environment of spatially coupled style.
Design of Information Visualization of Ubiquitous Environment for a Wearable Display BIBAFull-Text 317-327
  Makoto Obayashi; Hiroyuki Nishiyama; Fumio Mizoguchi
In this paper, we developed an information visualization system of the ubiquitous environment for a wearable computer using a small head-mount display. A wearable computer provides the user unlimited computer access in everyday places. The user of a wearable computer can acquire and process various information by hands-free operation. In this case, a tiny display communicates information from a wearable computer to the user. Downsizing a wearable computer's display is a result of the pursuit of portability. However, downsizing the display reduces the amount of information that can be displayed. Raising the resolution of a wearable display is sure that it can increase the amount of information displayed at once. However, information crowded onto the tiny display would be difficult to comprehend. Our information visualization system solves the above problems. It enables us to display the information of sensors equipped in an environment efficiently using a tiny display. We used a 12mm-square HMD for our system. We also demonstrate the potential of our system by evaluating experimental results.
Perceiving Tools in 3D Sculpting BIBAFull-Text 328-337
  Jyrki Parviainen; Nina Sainio; Roope Raisamo
We introduce a 3D sculpting application and some 3D tools that help the user to understand and perceive the third dimension better on a 2D display. We call the new tools as perceiving tools. The tools are a perceiving box, a perceiving plane, a tool guide and an object guide. Other existing tools are carving and stuffing tools. The controlling in the application is done with two hands, and the goal has been to make it as natural as possible. This two-handed application makes use of a Magellan SpaceMouse, a six-degrees of freedom controller, and a basic wheel-mouse. The results of the evaluation showed that our sculpting program is easy to use and learn and that the perceiving tools help in the sculpting process.
A Tripartite Framework for Working Memory Processes BIBAFull-Text 338-348
  Peter J. Patsula
A key factor in understanding the usability of an interface is to understand the user's mental model. However, most mental model research tends to be more descriptive than predictive. The following work outlines a theoretical framework well supported by cognitive science and cognitive psychology research called Mental Model Imprinting (MMI). MMI attempts to explain how mental models are processed in working memory so designers are better able to predict user interactions and ascertain why certain design features are more effective than others. A study is currently being planned to test for positive correlations between MMI based design treatments and Web-based navigation menus.
Designing for Flow in a Complex Activity BIBAFull-Text 349-358
  Jon M. Pearce; Steve Howard
One component of a user's interaction with computer systems is commonly referred to as 'flow'. Flow is an important consideration in interactive system design as it encapsulates some of the affective aspects of human behavior. The majority of current thinking conceptualises flow as a desirable and somewhat enduring emotional state that a user may enter during an activity. Analysis of data from 59 users engaged in an interactive online learning task contradicts this prevailing view. We show firstly that flow, rather than being enduring, is highly changeable during the term of an interaction. This challenges both current theoretical models of flow, and the current research methodology used to study the phenomenon. Secondly, we show that flow arises from an engagement either with the interactive artefact or the task being performed. This is an aspect of flow not well distinguished in other studies. Finally, we present initial analysis that suggests flow can be undesirable in some circumstances -- that there may be competition between task and artefact for the attention of the user. In response, we present a 'process' view of flow as a counterpoint to the existing 'state' based models.
Enhancing Interactive Graph Manipulation Tools with Tactile Feedback BIBAFull-Text 359-368
  Jukka Raisamo; Roope Raisamo
The sense of touch is important when interacting and exploring our physical surroundings. Haptic modality has also proved to be a promising feed-back modality in user interfaces but there are still virtually no applications taking advantage of the versatile qualities of active touching, i.e. the active exploration of the virtual objects on the screen. Our research is focused on haptic interaction in a highly interactive desktop application.
   A low-frequency tactile feedback mouse was applied to further enhance the directness and intuitiveness of the interactive graph manipulation tools. The overall positive results of our initial evaluation with the users support our de-sign of the tactile effects.
HCI Practices and the Work of Information Architects BIBAFull-Text 369-378
  Toni Robertson; Cindy Hewlett
We interviewed 26 information architects about their work, their backgrounds and their perceptions of their roles as information architects. Our research aimed to identify and understand the work practices that define the position of information architect as well as the human-computer interaction and usability issues that are relevant to their work. Our findings show that the work practices of information architects are far broader than those included in the popular technology design literature. A major issue that emerged from the research was the ongoing struggle of information architects to bring user-centred design methods into the design and development processes used in their organisations. A thorough knowledge of human-computer interaction and usability principles increased the ability of individual information architects to influence design processes.
User Model of Navigation BIBAFull-Text 379-388
  Corina Sas
This study proposes a user model of navigation in a Virtual Environment (VE), based on investigating the differences in movement patterns. Two methodologies enable accessing navigational rules and strategies employed by different groups of users: high versus low spatial users. These captured rules are summarised and hierarchically organised in a coherent structure which constitutes a basis for an efficient model of navigation. Implications of this model for designing navigable VEs are discussed.
An Interface for Input the Object Region Using the Hand Chroma Key BIBAFull-Text 389-398
  Shuhei Sato; Etsuya Shibayama; Shin Takahashi
We are developing the mobile system to identify wild flowers and grasses mainly from object images captured by a camera in the outdoor scene. In such systems, it is essential to inform the system an object region that the user interested in by some way. For example, if the captured image contains multiple leaves, the system can not determine which is the target leaf. In this paper, we propose interactive technique to inform the object region by placing hand behind the object. The system detects that situation, and extracts the object region automatically. Using this technique, a user can inform the system the object region in the interactive response time. Furthermore this input way is considered as natural because we often do this action to watch the object closely.
Menu-Selection-Based Japanese Input Method with Consonants for Pen-Based Computers BIBAFull-Text 399-408
  Daisuke Sato; Buntarou Shizuki; Motoki Miura; Jiro Tanaka
We have developed a menu-selection-based Japanese input method for a pen device. To obtain user-input kanji-form text rapidly, the system requires sequence of consonant. Following this, the user selects kanji-form candidates inferred by the system. In some situations, consonant sequences can trigger an explosion of kanji-form candidates. Therefore, we have implemented a method for reducing candidates through vowel fixing. The user can input consonants, and select kanji-form candidates fluidly, using FlowMenu.
Framework for Interpreting Handwritten Strokes Using Grammars BIBAFull-Text 409-419
  Buntarou Shizuki; Kazuhisa Iizuka; Jiro Tanaka
To support the rapid development of pen-based structured diagram editors, we propose a framework for describing such editors. The framework uses grammar to describe the context, i.e., the positional relationship between handwritten strokes and other objects, which can be used to interpret ambiguous results of pattern matching, and to describe the syntax of the target diagrams. We implemented the framework by extending our visual system, which supports the rapid prototyping of structured diagram editors.
A Rapidly Adaptive Collaborative Ubiquitous Computing Environment to Allow Passive Detection of Marked Objects BIBAFull-Text 420-430
  Hannah Slay; Bruce Thomas; Rudi Vernik; Wayne Piekarski
This paper presents a tool to support the rapid and adaptive deployment of a collaborative, ubiquitous computing environment. A key tool for the configuration and deployment of this environment is a calibration tool to quickly and efficiently calculate the positions of cameras in a dynamic environment. This tool has been incorporated into our current Passive Detection Framework. The paper describes the context where our rapidly adaptive collaborative ubiquitous computing environment would be deployed. The results of a study to test the accuracy of the calibration tool are also presented. This study found that the calibration tool can calculate the position of cameras to within 25 mm for all lighting conditions examined.
The Misrepresentation of Use in Technology Demonstrations BIBAFull-Text 431-440
  Wally Smith
Demonstrations are ubiquitous in the world of information systems development, but it is not clear what role they play. It is contended that demonstrations are an informal attempt to examine issues of usefulness and usability, insofar as they bring together the technology, the user, genuine tasks and the organizational context. This raises the question, How well are new technologies and their use represented in demonstrations? An interview study with experienced demonstrators and audiences is reported and investigated in terms of Goffman's frame analysis. Demonstrations are interpreted as a kind of theatrical performance in which the situation of use is acted out. Various types of potential misrepresentation are identified in the study, including simulated and exaggerated functionality, serendipitous interaction paths and the manipulation of demonstrator credibility. It is argued that these distortions may mask the importance of human-computer interaction.
An Implementation for Capturing Clickable Moving Objects BIBAFull-Text 441-450
  Toshiharu Sugawara; Satoshi Kurihara; Shigemi Aoyagi; Koji Sato; Toshihiro Takada
This paper discusses a method for identifying clickable objects/regions in still and moving images when they are being captured. A number of methods and languages have recently been proposed for adding point-and-click interactivity to objects in moving pictures as well as still images. When these pictures are displayed in Internet environments or broadcast on digital TV channels, users can follow links specified by URLs (e.g., for buying items online or getting detailed information about a particular item) by clicking on these objects. However, it is not easy to specify clickable areas of objects in a video because their position is liable to change from one frame to the next. To cope with this problem, our method allows content creators to capture moving (and still) images with information related to objects that appear in these images including the coordinates of the clickable areas of these objects in the captured images. This is achieved by capturing the images at various infrared wavelengths simultaneously. This is also applicable to multi-target motion capture.
A Prototyping Framework for Mobile Text Entry Research BIBAFull-Text 451-460
  Sanju Sunny; Yow Kin Choong
The mobile phone has become the most widely used communication medium in the world, making our lives simpler by delivering services into our palms. Texting -- using a mobile phone to send a text message -- has become a form of mass communication. The effectiveness of many computing systems can be proven with objective tests and quantifiable results. Text entry methods on mobile phones however, interface directly and intimately with the end user. Developing a high-fidelity (typically, highly interactive) prototype for a new mobile text entry system is not an easy task. This paper describes the conceptualization, design and development of a prototyping framework for text entry research on mobile devices. The primary goal of the framework is to help text entry researchers produce high-fidelity working prototypes of their concept. It aims to ease development effort and maximize reusability of code.
The Effect of Color Coding for the Characters on Computer Keyboards for Multilingual Input Using Modeless Methods BIBAFull-Text 461-470
  Kuo-Hao Eric Tang; Li-Chen Tsai
When using computer keyboard in a multilingual environment, due to different languages and input methods, it requires switching back and forth between input modes. Although computer keyboard design has been discussed in numerous literatures, however, the colors of characters printed on the keys used for multiple input method has not been investigated. Along with the introduction of the intelligent "modeless" input method, the color-coding of the characters used on keyboard and how it impacts the performance need to be evaluated. A series of three experiments using Chinese and English as input text were conducted and the results show that keyboards with color-coding improved the performances, especially when typing text mixed with English and Chinese. The use of modeless input method also outperformed the traditional approach. And the color-coding particularly improved the performance of modeless input method for mixed input text. The results are discussed with motor program theory.
Extended Godzilla: Free-Form 3D-Object Design by Sketching and Modifying Seven Primitives at Single 2D-3D Seamless Display BIBAFull-Text 471-480
  Shun'ichi Tano; Yoichiro Komatsu; Mitsuru Iwata
We previously developed a prototype system called "Godzilla" that supports creative design, specifically by car-exterior designers. Godzilla provides an environment in which designers can draw concept image on a 2D pad (a tablet with an LCD), and when they hold the image in midair, the shape of the 2D sketch is automatically recognized and appears as a 3D sketch displayed on a 3D pad (stereovision TVs). Designers can sketch, modify, and view their drawings from different viewpoints in either two or three dimensions. The 3D images are not displayed as beautiful CG images, but as 3D sketches that consist of many 3D cursive lines produced by mimicking the designer's pen touch. Although Godzilla was successfully used on a trial basis at an automobile manufacturer, it has serious drawbacks: (1) the designable shapes are limited to those of cars, (2) the 2D and 3D view areas are separated, and (3) the equipment is expensive. We have now extended Godzilla to overcome these draw-backs: (1) free form design is possible using a combination of seven primitives, (2) presentation is seamless between the 2D and 3D spaces, and (3) off-the-shelf equipment is used. We devised a recognition technique that uses a topology matrix and implemented a user interface for transforming and manipulating the recognized primitives. Two preliminary experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of the system.
Quantitative Analysis of Human Behavior and Implied User Interface in 3D Sketching BIBAFull-Text 481-490
  Shun'ichi Tano; Toshiko Matsumoto; Mitsuru Iwata
Designers normally create three-dimensional images on paper. As a natural extension of this, we are developing a design support system that will enable people to draw 3D lines in 3D space directly. However, we first need to better understand how people behave when sketching in three-dimensional space and then design a user interface that supports natural 3D sketching. This paper describes the experiment we conducted to quantitatively analyze the diverse aspects of this behavior. The experiment clarified the characteristics of 3D drawing, particularly the effect of the drawing location, the perception of depth, the sense of balance, the direct/indirect input method, and the preferred drawing direction. We propose improving the user interface by using the metaphor of "shadow" and the metaphor of "hand mirror" to promote the user's awareness of errors and/or by using "adaptive rotation" to improve the user's comfort when sketching.
What Are You Looking At? Newest Findings from an Empirical Study of Group Awareness BIBAFull-Text 491-500
  Minh Hong Tran; Gitesh K. Raikundalia; Yun Yang
Real-time, distributed, collaborative writing systems are useful tools allowing a group of distributed authors to work on a document simultaneously. A very important factor in achieving effective and efficient collaborative writing is the incorporation of group awareness (GA). GA conveniently provides comprehensive knowledge about the status of a document and activities other authors perform upon the document. However, far more work needs to be carried out in determining exactly what awareness elements (awareness information, such as where users are viewing within a document versus where they are working on a document) are required in collaborative writing. This involves empirically determining which elements are more important than others for support.
   The authors report results and findings of an empirical, laboratory-based study of GA elements. These findings are completely novel since no other empirical study of GA elements has been done. The findings guide designers in developing relevant mechanisms supporting GA.
Cultural Usability in the Globalisation of News Portal BIBAFull-Text 501-510
  Tina Wai Chi Tsui; John Paynter
The paper aims to identify areas of web usability in the News Portal industry that may be culturally specific so that web designers would target these areas when designing web sites. It also explores the current state of globalising these web sites in terms of catering for languages of users. Findings indicates that cultural preferences are shown to exist in terms of the number of animations used in the web page, the graphical density and length of the web page, navigation menu display, colour and family, male and female related images. In addition, it was found that majority of the web sites from the sample does not cater for language of different users.
Collecting, Organizing, and Managing Non-contextualised Data by Using MVML to Develop a Human-Computer Interface BIBAKFull-Text 511-520
  Michael Verhaart; John Jamieson; A Kinshuk
One aspect of information technology increasingly being researched is organizing and managing the huge repository of data and information available. This is particularly relevant in the context of the explosion in Internet use. As knowledge is gathered from the Internet the ability to retain and recall the knowledge is becoming more and more difficult and complex. Computer based techniques are often used to store and manage this data. Managing the data typically takes two forms; firstly cross-referencing to the original source as in a bibliography or reference list, or secondly collected by an individual, such as purchasing a book, creating a hard copy of a web page, and so forth. With the Internet, web based tools and techniques are frequently employed to manage this information. This may be by maintaining a list of links as in a portal to actual web content, by using the available web search engines, or saving the content into a personal electronic knowledge space. This paper will look at the ways this knowledge could be collected and the smallest unit required to organize small pieces of data. The ability to map this into an electronic medium is then explored, and a prototype meta-data schema is then discussed. Finally, the Human-Computer Interface will be discussed that could enable the data to be organized in a variety of ways based on the meta-data schema.
Keywords: XML; multimedia meta language
Common Industry Format: Meeting Educational Objectives and Student Needs? BIBAFull-Text 521-530
  Karola von Baggo; Lorraine Johnston; Oliver Burmeister; Todd Bentley
The Common Industry Format (CIF) provides an industry standard for the reporting of usability test results. The ongoing success of the CIF will in part be determined by the support of future IT professionals. The work reported in this paper describes our experience in adapting and using the CIF in an introductory Human-Computer Interaction course at an Australian University. It also examined subsequent student perceptions about the usefulness and ease of use of a CIF-style template, and the degree to which students were able to generate CIF-compliant reports. It was found that few modifications to the template were required to meet the educational objectives of the course. Overall, students were neutral as to whether the CIF was a useful or easy to use device, but were able to generate moderately compliant reports. Comments from students indicated that more formal training in the CIF might be useful.
Accessibility: A Tool for Usability Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 531-539
  Daniel Woo; Joji Mori
Infrastructure intended to support accessibility can be employed to provide useful information for the usability evaluation of graphical user inter-faces. In this paper, we discuss how software infrastructure designed to augment assistive technologies for disabled users can be used to provide event in-formation relevant to usability analysis. The problem is that extracting information about the interaction is difficult and there is no standard method for extracting complete event logs describing the interaction. Approaches to extract usability interactions so far have been ad-hoc, and on the whole quite complex to incorporate into logging systems. Encouraging support for accessibility generates a valuable, high-level channel of information for user interface evaluation and provides benefits to reach the broader user community.
The Degree of Usability from Selected DVD Menus and Their Navigational Systems BIBAFull-Text 540-549
  Guy Wood-Bradley; Malcolm Campbell
The purpose of this research is to investigate the usability of DVD interfaces via their menus and navigation, inspired by Donald Norman who has had a pivotal role in user-centred design and usability. The paper encompasses theoretical aspects of interactivity, usability and DVD technology. A usability test was administered with the DVDs chosen. The results from the usability test were the main focus in this research. Such results were supportive of Norman's claims, as participants experienced varying degrees of usability issues. Furthermore, the findings were used to develop a set of guidelines and recommendations designers could follow. If these were adhered to, it would have significantly alleviated the difficulty the participants had in interacting with the DVDs.
OPR-LENS: Operation-Lens System for Supporting a Manipulation of Information Appliances BIBAFull-Text 550-559
  Takumi Yamaguchi; Haruya Shiba; Kazunori Shimamura
This paper describes how to mount a new pointing device by which users, who have an existing metaphor for using information appliances, can effectively apply that including Personal Computer (PC). We propose the system wearing the operation lens support, which is called "OPR-LENS (Operation-Lens)". The OPR-LENS system is composed of the OPR-LENS module and the OPR-LENS device, and mounted on the server and the viewer software connected via TCP/IP, respectively. The OPR-LENS device forms a temple block suitable for a palm operation. Users' manipulation can be effectively supported by the effect of the spherical lens with the partial GUI image. This research investigates the evaluation of the OPR-LENS system through mounting a prototype system and implementing the performance evaluation experiment. In addition, the application example when applying to the existing metaphor such as information appliances was shown in this paper.
A Novel Locomotion Interface with Independent Planar and Footpad Devices for Virtual Walking BIBAFull-Text 560-569
  Jungwon Yoon; Jeha Ryu
This paper describes a novel locomotion interface that can generate infinite floor for various surfaces. This interface allows users to participate in a life-like walking experience within virtual environments, which include various terrains such as slopes and stairs. The interface is composed of two three-DOF (X, Y, Yaw) planar devices and two three-DOF (Pitch, Roll, and Z) footpads. The planar devices are driven by AC servomotor for generating fast motions, while the footpad devices are driven by pneumatic actuators for continuous support of human weight. For sensing system, a motion tracker is attached to the human foot in order to track the foot positions, and the combination of planar forces from the planar device and the vertical forces of the footpad device gives the gravity reaction forces (GRF), which is important to recognize the walking condition. For control implementation, even though the human is walking continuously, the human body should be confined in certain area to walk on an infinite floor. Thus, the walking control algorithm is suggested to satisfy above conditions keeping the safety of the walker. For preliminary experimental evaluation of the interface device, the walking interface is proven for a general human to walk naturally without disturbing human body. This interface can be applied to various areas such as VR navigations, rehabilitation, vocational training, and military exercises.

Short Papers

Designing Intelligent Environments -- User Perceptions on Information Sharing BIBAFull-Text 570-574
  Craig Chatfield; Jonna Häkkilä
This study examines user's opinions on personal information ex-change with an Intelligent Environment providing information for HCI design for acceptable and usable application development. It found that users are more comfortable with their information being exchanged if it is clear what the in-formation is being used for, and who will have access to it. 83% of all subjects wanted control over the exchange of their information, and a third would be more likely to share information with a service provider if they had a good global reputation and if the user could request that their information could be deleted. The biggest influence on a user's information sharing preferences was found to be the existence of a prior relationship with the information recipient.
Sony EyeToy™: Developing Mental Models for 3-D Interaction in a 2-D Gaming Environment BIBAFull-Text 575-582
  Geanbry Demming
The Sony EyeToy™ is a webcam attachment for the Playstation2 (PS2) gaming console. The EyeToy™ places a user's mirror image on a television screen while it detects their movements in order for them to manipulate objects and characters within a game. Although EyeToy™ is immediately popular due to the novelty of interaction, users often have trouble forming a mental model of how to manipulate their own image in a 2-dimensional (2-D) 3rd person gaming scenario. Multiplayer testing sessions were carried out to explore the impact that a game's theme and a user's age and previous gaming experience would have on how users initially cope with this form of gaming interaction. A lack of tangible feedback and unrealistic game scenarios were the main hindrances to users reconciling the fact that they were in a 3-dimensional (3-D) space but had to behave as 2-D characters.
Face and Body Gesture Analysis for Multimodal HCI BIBAFull-Text 583-588
  Hatice Gunes; Massimo Piccardi; Tony Jan
Humans use their faces, hands and body as an integral part of their communication with others. For the computer to interact intelligently with human users, computers should be able to recognize emotions, by analyzing the human's affective state, physiology and behavior. Multimodal interfaces allow humans to interact with machines through multiple modalities such as speech, facial expression, gesture, and gaze. In this paper, we present an overview of research conducted on face and body gesture analysis and recognition. In order to make human-computer interfaces truly natural, we need to develop technology that tracks human movement, body behavior and facial expression, and interprets these movements in an affective way. Accordingly, in this paper we present a vision-based framework that combines face and body gesture for multimodal HCI.
Ambulance Dispatch Complexity and Dispatcher Decision Strategies: Implications for Interface Design BIBAFull-Text 589-593
  Jared Hayes; Antoni Moore; George Benwell; B. L. William Wong
The domain of ambulance command and control is complex due to dispatchers being required to make potentially hazardous decisions, often based on uncertain data, received from distributed sources in an environment that is extremely dynamic. These complexities were established after observing and interviewing fourteen ambulance command and control dispatchers located in two communications centres in New Zealand. In addition to the identification of complexities, the interviews resulted in the formulation of decision strategies utilised by the dispatchers when working in the communication centres. This research has implications for display design and provides avenues of research regarding how best to display the decision-making data required by ambulance dispatchers to overcome the complexities they encounter.
Supporting Group Learning Using a Digital Whiteboard BIBAFull-Text 594-598
  Raymond Kemp; Elizabeth Kemp; Thevalojinie Mohanarajah
Three important ways in which student learning can be facilitated are: getting them to work in groups, ensuring they can communicate face-to-face, and by using a computer. The question arises, can we do all three at the same time? One answer is to use a digital whiteboard. This device allows a group of users to share a workspace in an orderly fashion, and the computer driving the board can be programmed to support the students' learning. We describe some of our research where we have observed groups using whiteboards (both digital and non-digital) and our work towards producing a computer system to help and guide learners in this kind of setting.
Verifying the Field of View Afforded to the Pilot due to Cockpit Design, Stature, and Aerodrome Design Parameters BIBAFull-Text 599-603
  Eugene Aik Min Khoo; Kee Yong Lim
This paper examined the contribution of various design parameters towards the pilot's forward field of view (FFOV). This study was based upon the SQ006 crash at Chiang Kai Shek Airport, Taipei, Taiwan on 31 Oct 2000. A 3-dimensional scale model was created to simulate certain design features experienced on the night of the accident. A simulation of the Boeing 747-400 taxiing towards Runway 05R was constructed to visualize the FFOV afforded. Conclusions and implications of the specifications of the design parameters studied will be reviewed.
Creative Information Seeking and Interface Design BIBAFull-Text 604-609
  Shu-Shing Lee; Yin-Leng Theng; Dion Hoe-Lian Goh; Schubert Shou-Boon Foo
Inspired by Weisberg's argument that everyone is creative, this paper highlights a model of information seeking capturing users' creative traits by synthesizing established models in information seeking and creativity. Using Google, a pilot study was conducted to understand subjects' creative information seeking process. Claims Analysis and Interaction Framework were used to elicit design features that might have supported subjects' creative, "serendipitous" information seeking. This paper presents novel, initial work towards eliciting conceptual design features for users' creative, "serendipitous" information seeking behaviors. It concludes with a discussion on creativity and interface design for information retrieval systems.
Connecting the User View with the System View of Requirements BIBAFull-Text 610-614
  Ralph R. Miller; Scott P. Overmyer
In a pilot study, professional information technologists from both commercial and academic institutions showed that representing the requirements for a simple television remote control device could be done accurately and completely using separate languages that are for 1) user interface specification, and 2) system specification, and, 3) with natural language. That individuals can create 3 separate, but equivalent representations is important because, with the aid of an underlying meta-representation, it allows system stakeholders to view software requirements in whatever way best represents their particular area of concern, while maintaining internal consistency between views.
Recourse for Guiding Didactical Creators in the Development of Accessible e-Learning Material BIBAFull-Text 615-619
  Valeria Mirabella; Stephen Kimani; Tiziana Catarci
Most of the existing efforts for supporting the preparation and delivery of accessible e-learning materials propose guidelines that prevalently ad-dress technical accessibility issues. However, little or no consideration is given to the didactical creators in the learning material preparation. The existing guidelines also usually provide generic indications on alternative forms of didactical content to enable equivalent access of the content. However, the sole provision of equivalent forms does not guarantee effective access. While this paper acknowledges the role of the existing guidelines, it proposes that the didactical domain creators be provided with a non-technical recourse that can enable them to contribute to or participate in the development process of accessible e-learning content aiming at guaranteeing an effective learning experience.
DIANEnx: Modelling Exploration in the Web Context BIBAFull-Text 620-624
  Aaron Mullane; Sandrine Balbo
The process of exploring is an important aspect of a user's general understanding of the environment they are navigating through in computational systems. The research outlined in this paper briefly presents an empirical study of user exploratory behaviour within the web context. It outlines the development of an exploratory grid obtained from this study and its use in forming the DIANEnx task model, enabling user interface and web designers to model users' exploration.
Factors Influencing User Selection of WWW Sitemaps BIBAFull-Text 625-630
  Chris J. Pilgrim; Gitte Lindgaard; Ying K. Leung
One challenge confronting web site designers is to provide effective navigational support. Supplemental navigation tools such as sitemaps are frequently included on web sites to support navigation. However, there is a lack of empirically based guidelines for designers of such tools. This paper reports an empirical investigation into the factors influencing the decision by users to select sitemaps or search tools. The study establishes a relationship between goal specificity and user selection of sitemap and search tools providing a basis for the design of further investigations into the usability and design of such tools.
ViewPoint: A Zoomable User Interface for Integrating Expressive Systems BIBAFull-Text 631-635
  Darryl Singh; Mitra Nataraj; Rick Mugridge
Naked Object applications are Expressive -- a desirable quality not present in traditional software systems. However, these applications can generate a large number of windows leading to a cluttered desktop. In order to rectify this problem we have used a Zoomable User Interface (ZUI), which provides the user with an infinite amount of space. A system titled ViewPoint was developed to effectively integrate Naked Objects with a Zoomable environment. The finished system enhances Naked Objects by making full use of ZUI capabilities. ViewPoint also introduces various generic context awareness and navigation mechanisms to optimise the use of ZUIs.
Passing on Good Practice: Interface Design for Older Users BIBAFull-Text 636-640
  Mary Zajicek
There exists a pressing need for the fruits of research into interface design for older adults to be made available to the wider design community. Older people form a special user group as a result of age related capability changes, who cannot easily participate in User Centred Design activities. Interface designers must take this into account. This paper introduces patterns as a solution for passing on successful design for older adults.

Doctoral Consortium

Interfaces That Adapt like Humans BIBAKFull-Text 641-645
  Samuel Alexander; Abdolhossein Sarrafzadeh
Whenever people talk to each other, non-verbal behaviour plays a very important role in regulating their interaction. However, almost all human-computer interactions take place using a keyboard or mouse -- computers are completely oblivious to the non-verbal behaviour of their users. This paper outlines the plan for an interface that aims to adapt like a human to the non-verbal behaviour of users. An Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) for counting and addition is being implemented in conjunction with the New Zealand Numeracy Project. The system's interface will detect the student's non-verbal behaviour using in-house image processing software, enabling it to adapt to the student's non-verbal behaviour in similar ways to a human tutor. We have conducted a video study of how human tutors interpret the non-verbal behaviour of students, which has laid the foundation for this research.
Keywords: Affective computing; non-verbal behaviour; adaptation
Designers Search Strategies Influenced by the Interaction with Information Retrieval Systems (IRS): Within the Early Stages of the Design Process BIBAFull-Text 646-650
  Caroline Francis
As Industrial Designers handle information within the early stages of the design process they are influenced by the information viewed and the Information Retrieval Systems (IRS) that they utilise. The purpose of this research is to investigate the influences that Information Retrieval Systems such as Search Engines, the Internet and Academic Databases have on Industrial Designers' searching strategies. The study involves the observation of designers transforming early design language into query 'keyword' language for the operation of IRS's and how this transition causes a design direction shift.
Personal Digital Document Management BIBAFull-Text 651-655
  Sarah Henderson
Knowledge workers today have a lot of digital documents to manage, and most employ some sort of organizational system or scheme to help them. Most commonly used software provides the ability to create a hierarchical organization, but the appropriateness of this structure for personal digital document management has not been established. This research aims to understand how people currently organize their documents, identify the strengths and weaknesses of current systems and explore the usefulness of other information structures. This will provide insight into how personal digital document management systems can be made more usable.
A Study of the Impact of Collaborative Tools on the Effectiveness of Clinical Pathology Conferences BIBAFull-Text 656-660
  Bridget Kane; Saturnino Luz
Multidisciplinary conferences in hospitals are becoming an everyday part of health service delivery and being recommended as a mechanism for ensuring quality patient care and management. This paper reports preliminary findings of an ethnographic study of Clinical Pathology Conferences with Respiratory teams. Educational, patient management and organizational objectives of the conference are identified. The findings so far suggest that collaborative technologies have the potential to improve the effectiveness of clinical conference activity. Time, location and missing artefacts are identified as being issues as well as the coordination of the series of events associated with patient investigative and assessment procedures. The implications of recording data and interactions at the conference are also being investigated.
Physical Computing -- Representations of Human Movement in Human-Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 661-665
  Astrid Twenebowa Larssen
Interactions between humans and computers are becoming increasingly physical. Technology is embedded in the environment around us and is now hosted by the human body. This research explores characteristics of human-computer interaction when the human body and its movements become input for interaction and interface control.
Creative Interface Design for Information Seeking BIBAFull-Text 666-671
  Shu-Shing Lee
Inspired by Weisberg's argument that everyone is creative, and exists in varying degrees, this PhD proposal aims to investigate the relationship between creativity and information seeking, and explores implications for interface design with design features that might support users' information seeking behaviours. A holistic model of creativity was proposed synthesizing established models in creativity. Based on the model, five approaches investigating relationships between creativity and information seeking were highlighted. Initial work carried out attempted to understand users' information seeking behaviours to elicit supportive features. Discussion of on-going work is also presented to indicate approaches proposed to design, implement, and evaluate a prototype with design features to support information seeking.
Understanding Interaction Experience in Mobile Learning BIBAKFull-Text 672-674
  Fariza Hanis Abdul Razak
The convergence of mobile technology and e-learning has generated considerable excitement among both practitioners and academics. Mass media continually promotes novel idea about m-learning. Content developers also continue to deliver learning on wireless, mobile learning devices based on their often abstract conceptions of what the 'generalised' learners might want to learn. We are now seeing the adoption of e-learning into m-learning without a clear understanding of motivations and circumstances surrounding m-learning and m-learners. This research looks into interaction experience that is believed to play a significant role in the development of usable m-learning.
Keywords: M-learning; e-learning; interaction experience; HCI; mobile environment
User Experience in Interactive Computer Game Development BIBAKFull-Text 675-681
  Tracey Sellar
This paper outlines PhD research into user experience in interactive computer game development. The study will investigate how usability methods and approaches can be adapted and extended to evaluate and improve the user experience of gaming systems. The research will focus on exploring ways to evaluate fun and engaging user experiences, and on identifying how to provide useful, valid, timely, cost-efficient feedback on user experience to game development teams. A range of research methods is proposed including case studies with industry stakeholders, contextual and lab-based user experience evaluations with gamers, and action research within a games company. Research findings will inform the development of a practical evaluation model and tools to support game experience design practices and product development.
Keywords: Interactive computer game development; usability methods; user experience
Using Patterns to Guide User Interface Development BIBAKFull-Text 682-686
  Elizabeth G. Todd
User Interface patterns have the potential to guide the development of conceptual user interface models. A pattern management tool, which would enable development and maintenance of collections of patterns and their use by user interface developers, is proposed. Preliminary results have identified six questions that can be used for describing the internal validity of a user interface pattern language.
Keywords: user interface; use case; pattern languages; conceptual design
Multimodal Cues for Object Manipulation in Augmented and Virtual Environments BIBAFull-Text 687-691
  Mihaela A. Zahariev
The purpose of this work is to investigate the role of multimodal, especially auditory displays on human manipulation in augmented environments. We use information from all our sensory modalities when interacting in natural environments. Despite differences among the senses, we use them in concert to perceive and interact with multimodally specified objects and events. Traditionally, human-computer interaction has focused on graphical displays, thus not taking advantage of the richness of human senses and skills developed though interaction with the physical world [1]. Virtual environments have the potential to integrate all sensory modalities, to present the user with multiple inputs and outputs, and to allow the user to directly acquire and manipulate augmented or virtual objects. With the increasing availability of haptic and auditory displays, it is important to understand the complex relationships amongst different sensory feedback modalities and how they affect performance when interacting with augmented and virtual objects. Background and motivation for this research, questions and hypotheses, and some preliminary results are presented. A plan for future experiments is proposed.