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ACHI Tables of Contents: 0809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions

Fullname:Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions
Editors:Leslie Miller; Alma Leora Culén
Location:Barcelona, Spain
Dates:2014-Mar-23 to 2014-Mar-27
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-61208-325-4
Links:Conference Website | Proceedings
  1. Interaction and Interface Design and Evaluation I
  2. Interaction and Interface Design and Evaluation II
  3. Interaction and Interface Design and Evaluation III
  4. Other Domain Applications
  5. Usability and Universal Accessibility
  6. Interactive Systems
  7. Haptic Interfaces
  8. Principles, Theories, and Models
  9. Computer Games and Gaming
  10. Interfaces I
  11. Interfaces II
  12. Interaction Devices
  13. Human-Computer Interaction in Education
  14. User Modeling and User Focus I
  15. User Modeling and User Focus II
  16. Human-Robot Interaction

Interaction and Interface Design and Evaluation I

Publicly Displayed Interactive Installations: Where Do They Work Best? BIBAKFull-Text 1-8
  Rune B. Rosseland; G. Snorre Berge; Alma Leora Culén
In this paper, we discuss user experience (UX) with an interactive installation that we have developed in order to study its relation to physical space where the installation is used. The installation utilizes Kinect motion sensor to provide movement based, single or multi user, interactions with graphical and sound interfaces. The installation was tested in various settings, including private interactions in the lab, and public space interactions in a library and a museum. Our findings show that for an open, explorative kind of interactions such as ours, spaces where one is expected to explore, e.g., a Maker Faire or a museum, provide for the longest and most pleasurable interactions with the installation.
Keywords: interactive installations; play; public space; user experience; Kinect
Using the Implicit Association Test for Interface-Based Evaluations BIBAKFull-Text 9-16
  Tiago Devezas; Bruno Giesteira
Non-instrumental dimensions, the aspects of a product that go beyond its ability to help achieve goals efficiently, are increasingly important in User Experience (UX) research. These dimensions, which include qualities like aesthetics and symbolism, are mainly assessed by self-reports, research has shown. However, respondents can provide wrong answers, willingly, due to concerns like social desirability and self-presentation, or unwillingly, due to the inability to access their inner states. We explored if one implicit measuring method, the Implicit Association Test (IAT), can be used to complement or replace self-report measures. Participants completed six IATs and explicit measures to determine their attitudes toward products represented by pictures of their interfaces. Two non-instrumental dimensions were assessed: valence and self-identification. Overall, implicit and explicit measures displayed a medium correlation. When comparing the correlations between the IATs for the two assessed dimensions and the corresponding explicit measures, similar strong effects were found. This suggests that the IAT bears further exploration as a complement or alternative to self-report methods.
Keywords: Implicit Association Test; interface evaluation; aesthetics; User Experience
Towards the Tangible Hyperlink BIBAKFull-Text 17-20
  Alfredo Pérez Fernández
Thanks to the persistent decrease in cost and size of electronics, this century is experiencing an important scale up in number of devices surrounding us, with a subsequent increment on the complexity of the user interaction with such devices. The proposed interaction concept -- the tangible hyperlink -- demonstrates that it is possible to apply the capacitive coupling communication technology to simplify the interaction with embedded devices without preventing users from maintaining control on their privacy.
Keywords: CHI; Personal Area Network; Tangible User Interface; Privacy
Interaction With Mobile Devices by Elderly People: The Brazilian Scenario BIBAKFull-Text 21-26
  Ricardo Leme; Luciana Zaina; Vitor Casadei
The use of mobile devices in Brazil has grown in different groups of people, making it an essential element in people's daily communication. Although there is a high concentration of users in the age group 20-40 years, it is the visible increase in the number of people over 60 that interacts with mobile devices, especially smartphones. These different groups of different ages have different needs with regard to interaction with mobile devices. The objective of this paper is to present the results of an exploratory study on the interaction of the older users with mobile devices in Brazil. For this, we used an exploratory study with potential users in Brazil. The exploratory study outcomes allowed us to draw the personas for the Brazilian scenario. The main interaction personas were identified and defined from this survey, aiming at an efficient representation of the group studied. The survey showed us that although the majority of users had mobile devices and used them for daily activities, some of them still face difficulties on handling them.
Keywords: mobile devices; elderly user; personas

Interaction and Interface Design and Evaluation II

A Set Of Heuristics for User Experience Evaluation in E-commerce Websites BIBAKFull-Text 27-34
  Laia Bonastre; Toni Granollers
Electronic Commerce (e-commerce) websites need to provide customers with a positive User Experience (UX) to be successful and competitive. In this paper, it is presented a set of 64 heuristics as a tool to evaluate the grade of UX achievement of these kinds of sites. The set is based on three studies which provide functional requirements and guidelines in regard to the quality of e-commerce web sites. The main contribution of this work is the standardization of these recommendations by formulating them in interrogative sentences to facilitate the evaluation of e-commerce sites. Each heuristic is accompanied by examples and suggestions that facilitate their evaluation by a provided scoring system.
Keywords: Heuristic evaluation; E-commerce; User Experience
Sonification of Large Datasets in a 3D Immersive Environment: A Neuroscience Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 35-40
  Panagiota Papachristodoulou; Alberto Betella; Paul F. Verschure
Auditory display techniques can play a key role in the understanding of hidden patterns in large datasets. In this study, we investigated the role of sonification applied to an immersive 3D visualization of a complex network dataset. As a test case, we used a 3D interactive visualization of the so called, connectome of the human brain, in the immersive space called "eXperience Induction Machine (XIM)". We conducted an empirical validation where subjects were asked to perform a navigation task through the network and were subsequently tested for their understanding of the dataset. Our results showed that sonification provides a further layer of understanding of the dynamics of the network by enhancing the subjects' structural understanding of the data space.
Keywords: sonification; XIM; networks; neuroscience; complex data; auditory display
Design Guidelines and Design Recommendations of Multi-Touch Interfaces for Elders BIBAKFull-Text 41-47
  Bruno Loureiro; Rui Rodrigues
The usage of multi-touch interfaces on a tabletop device, has been very explored for elder users in several domains. This interaction technique is an alternative to reducing the obstacles that older adults face in the use of computer systems, e.g., handling of peripherals. Many design guidelines are proposed in the literature for a wide range of products and systems for elders, e.g. websites, TV user interfaces. However, there is a lack of set of design guidelines and design recommendations of multi-touch interfaces that matches elder's needs. This paper presents a set of design guidelines and design recommendations distilled and extracted from most relevant works on design of multi-touch interfaces for elders available in the literature. The results are a set of design guidelines, useful for designers, application developers, usability specialists and researchers.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction; Natural User Interfaces; Multi-Touch Interfaces; Design Guidelines; Elderly

Interaction and Interface Design and Evaluation III

PolyPie: A Novel Interaction Techniques For Large Touch Surfaces With Extended Wall Displays BIBAKFull-Text 48-53
  Ihab Maged; Michael Louis; Mohamed Thabet; Ayman Atia
The paper presents new interaction techniques for large touch tables and large-wall projected screens. The extended projected screen is integrated as an extension to the touch table where the user can grab the menu items on the projected screen from the touch table or by interacting directly with the projected screen using hand gestures. The system proposes multi-touch controls and hand gestures that aim to minimize the user effort and body movements while interacting with the large touch table and the extended projected large-wall display. We present "PolyPie" as a group of three touch interaction techniques for large display touch surfaces and two hand gestures techniques for interacting with the large-wall projected display. The proposed touch techniques are the Dynamic Pie Magnifier, Poly-Fingers Grab, Five Fingers Shadow Grab. We conducted a primitive study for the proposed interaction techniques. The results showed that the proposed techniques helped the users to interact much easier with large display table and wall screen. The users were able to access far files in acceptable time and more smoothly.
Keywords: Large display interaction, extended display, interaction techniques
Trombosonic: Designing and Exploring a New Interface for Musical Expression in Music and Non-Music Domains BIBAKFull-Text 54-59
  Oliver Hödl; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
The "Trombosonic" is a new digital music instrument based on the foundational principles of the slide trombone. An ultrasonic sensor combined with a red laser allows the performer to play the instrument using similar movements to playing a trombone to change the pitch, by moving one hand back and forth even though there is no physical slider available. Furthermore, additional sensors enhance musical expression by gestural movement of the whole interface and by using the breath. Due to its compact size and the lack of a slider, the Trombosonic can be played in many different ways. This inspired us to do an informal evaluation to explore the potential applicability of our prototype in different fields and settings other than music. We identified a certain suitability for old and young people and a new possibility for people with restricted mobility to play such a musical instrument. Further development might include a built-in microphone to use the human voice and an expansion of the synthesizer's features.
Keywords: Sound and Music Computing, Interface for Musical Expression, Exploratory Evaluation
Colourful Privacy: Designing Visible Privacy Settings with Teenage Hospital Patients BIBAKFull-Text 60-65
  Maja van der Velden; Margaret Machniak
The paper reports from a qualitative study based on the analysis of semi-structured interviews and Participatory Design activities with hospitalised teenagers with chronic health challenges. We studied how teenage patients manage their online privacy, with a focus on the design and use of privacy settings. We found that the majority of participants preferred to visualise privacy settings through the use colours and to personalise access control. They also considered these necessary on more secure patient-centred social media. As proof of concept, we implemented some of the findings in a patient social network setting. We conclude that visualising and personalising privacy settings enable young patients to have more control over the sharing of personal information and may result in a more effective use of privacy settings. In addition, privacy-aware default settings may prevent teens from unintended sharing of personal information.
Keywords: Facebook; participatory design; patient social media; privacy settings; teenage patients; visualisation of privacy
On the Mesurement of Mental Models for Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 66-71
  Ryota Mori; Toshiki Yamaoka
The purpose of this paper is to provide a measurement of user's thought process after discussing the experiment with "degree of formed mental model", which involves a logical thinking. We studied 42 people based on questionnaire to measurement mental models. This method helped understanding the potential effectiveness of mental model measurement.
Keywords: mental model; interface; cognition
Travel Experience Cards: Capturing User Experiences in Public Transportation BIBAKFull-Text 72-78
  Alma Leora Culén; Maja van der Velden; Jo Herstad
The paper presents a Travel Experiences Card (TEC) set, produced as a tool to understand user experiences in public transportation. The card set allows exploration of diverse user experiences, from preparing travel to arriving at the destination. The set is designed using images taken during participant observation and photographic documentation of public transportation experiences. Two ways or working with the card set are proposed, one based on forced association technique and the other on focus event tool. These allowed for the breadth and the depth of exploration, respectively. We tested the cards in one pilot workshop to fine-tune it as a tool, and then applied it in two workshops in order to evaluate its usefulness. We used three important experiences for users of public transportation: safety, joy, and arriving on time. We found that the method was useful for eliciting rich responses from our participants, and for understanding the ecology of experiences. We also consider the process of designing the card set, and its evaluation, to be of relevance.
Keywords: service design; interaction design; experience design; customer journeys; experience design cards

Other Domain Applications

Coupling Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms in Redesigning Existing Cities for Flood Resistance BIBAKFull-Text 79-82
  Gene Oliver Cruz; Florencio, Jr. Ballesteros; Ariel Blanco
Cities are becoming more vulnerable to natural hazards due to increasing concentration of urban population and resources as well as to changing weather patterns caused by climate change. Adding to the aggravation of urban vulnerability is the socio-economic conditions of its population. More often, the poor are those who are severely affected and have no economic means to recover. Eventually, the local government takes the responsibility of providing services to restore and rehabilitate affected communities. This impacts the cities' economic base by reducing their ability to grow and raise revenue. In order to minimize economic losses caused by a disaster, it is important to assess the communities' vulnerabilities and plan ahead before a disaster strikes. This paper explores the use of neural networks and genetic algorithms as support tools for an integrated urban development and disaster risk reduction planning and decision making.
Keywords: artificial neural networks; genetic algorithms; land use; disaster preparedness
Simplified Customer Segmentation Applied to an Outbound Contact Center Dialer BIBAKFull-Text 83-88
  Telmo Ricardo Lopes Alberto; Pedro Mendes da Silva
Contact centers are a critical link between companies and their customers. In this context, outbound dialing represents a major business area for many companies, as they often need to reach a very large number of customers by phone or other media. In this scenario, it becomes a necessity to prioritize which customers should be contacted first, probably according to their expected business value. In this paper, we will keep our focus on customer segmentation for an outbound contact center dialer. This implies targeting different sets of customers (customer segments), with distinct priorities and staff for each segment, while taking into account all the business objectives. Our proposal is based on extending our existing outbound contact center management system to provide support for simplified customer segmentation in the context of outbound dialing. This system provides an interactive interface for handling typical contact center business requirements. Our main focus is enhancing the system's user experience, so that it allows the user to manage customer segments and dialing effectively, by using schedules, key performance indicators, multidimensional statistics, business segment prioritization, customer contact prioritization, and staffing management. Ultimately, we have shown how it was possible to enhance an outbound dialer with customer segmentation concepts, focusing on schedules, KPIs, multi-dimensional statistics, business segment and customer contact prioritization by business value, and staffing. Users of the new module find that their staff productivity and responsiveness to events regarding contact list quality has improved dramatically.
Keywords: contact center; customer segmentation; dialer; near real-time business intelligence; business applications
Find a Book! Unpacking Customer Journeys at Academic Library BIBAKFull-Text 89-95
  Alma Leora Culén; Andrea A. Gasparini
Academic libraries are especially poised to serve knowledgeable and technologically advanced user population: students and researchers. The technological advances are dictating significant changes for academic libraries. This paper is concerned with building awareness within the library around the need to re-think its role in academic life, its use of technology and willingness to co-innovate with users. The paper reports from four workshops that aimed to explore existing and future services offered by the academic library. Library employees, students and researchers were participants in all workshops. The participants were first informed about service design and its tools, and then engaged in creating customer journeys, using service design cards. The set of cards used was an of-the-shelf product, modified for the purpose, introducing images specific to the library and allowing for rating of services in terms of their importance. The paper reports on our findings from these workshops. One interesting finding is that librarians still focus mostly on physical space and personal services, such as organization of courses in the library, while students and researchers almost exclusively think of digital services, related to literature they need for their work.
Keywords: service design; service design cards; touch points; innovation; customer journeys; academic libraries
3D Web-Based Shape Modelling: Building up an Adaptive Architecture BIBAKFull-Text 96-102
  Ali Abdallah; Oleg Fryazinov; Valery Adzhiev; Alexander Pasko
3D web-based shape modelling and rendering is becoming an increasingly important research area. Many applications have emerged, both established ones, such as collaborative design and new ones, such as heterogeneous objects modelling along with their subsequent fabrication using 3D printing. In this paper, we explore a crucial issue of the technology, which is building a proper adaptive architecture for an interactive client-server based system with a particular emphasis on rendering aspects. We identify the most probable scenarios of executing modelling and rendering in terms of server-client communications and associated decision making, and then describe a number of case-studies, which allowed us to experiment with different rendering techniques in the context of various task distribution and communications mode of the adaptive interactive client-server based system. Finally, we present and analyse the results and suggest a number of practical recommendations. The main results of the paper are concerned with consideration of rendering.
Keywords: Adaptive architecture, 3D shape modelling, WebGL, Collaborative shape modelling, Function Representation

Usability and Universal Accessibility

Methodology for Designing User Test Environments to Evaluate Web Accessibility Barriers with Disabled Users BIBAKFull-Text 103-108
  Afra Pascual; Toni Granollers; Mireia Ribera; Jordi Coiduras
This work presents a new methodology for designing user tests that evaluate the impact of different Web accessibility barriers affecting people with disabilities. The methodology is based on several steps that help in the creation of Web content to be tested by users with specific disabilities. Several user tests have been carried out to check the validity of the steps defined in the methodology. The paper includes the methodology used, a case study and the key findings of the analysis. The results of the case study have been positive as the objective of providing a methodology has facilitated the creation of an evaluation environment: selection of the elements to be evaluated and the tasks to be performed by users who carried out the test. As a conclusion, we can state that the introduced methodology helps to include elements in user tests and optimizes the time and available resources needed for the preparation of an accessibility test.
Keywords: Design, User test, Barriers, Web accessibility, Users with disabilities
Comparing Recognition Methods to Identify Different Types of Grasps for Hand Rehabilitation BIBAKFull-Text 109-114
  Beatriz Leon; Angelo Basteris; Farshid Amirabdollahian
Grasping activities are extremely frequent in the set of activities of daily living. This causes severe impairments for stroke survivors, whose wrist and hand may suffer from a variety of symptoms such as spasticity, hypertone and muscular weakness. Intensive repeated movement performance is at the base of robot-therapy. Thus, patients may benefit, in terms of functional recovery, from the integration of grasp gestures in robot mediated exergaming. In this feasibility study, we developed and tested three methods for recognizing four different grasp postures performed while wearing an exoskeleton for hand and wrist rehabilitation after stroke. The three methods were based on the statistics of the produced postures, on neural networks and on support vector machines. The experiment was conducted with healthy subjects, with no previous injuries on the hand, during grasping of actual objects and then repeated using imaginary objects. We compared the three methods in terms of accuracy, robustness with respect to the size of the training sample, inter-subjects' variability, differences between different postures and evaluating the presence of real objects. Our results show that the support vector machine method is preferable in terms of both accuracy and robustness, even with a small training sample, with training times on the order of milliseconds.
Keywords: grasp posture recognition; stroke rehabilitation; Support Vector Machines; Neural Networks
Needs and Usability Assessment of a New User Interface for Lower Extremity Medical Exoskeleton Robots BIBAKFull-Text 115-120
  Yoon Jung Jeong; Euiyoung Kim; Homayoon Kazerooni
This paper presents an evaluation and recommendations for the improvement of the user interface (UI) of medical exoskeleton robots for people with mobility disorders. Existing UIs of currently available medical exoskeletons lack the flexibility to serve a diverse user group who require more customization. A UI prototype consisting of a glove with buttons attached on fingertips, and a display module for user feedback and/or instruction was developed and evaluated. For the evaluation of this UI prototype, multiple usability tests, guerrilla tests, interviews, and surveys were conducted with several crutch and manual wheelchair users. Finally, a set of final Glove UI design recommendations is illustrated based on the test subjects and interviewees' feedback; finger glove, two buttons, singleton walking method, and adjustable display position. A more thorough evaluation on this improved UI with more potential users of medical exoskeletons with various physical abilities remains as future work.
Keywords: Design for people with disabilities; User interface design; Exoskeleton; Glove Interface
Interactive Engagement Capabilities as an Indicator of E-Learning Systems' Usability BIBAKFull-Text 121-126
  Aljawharah Al-Muaythir; Khalid Alnafjan; Lamia Al-Kwai
Although many studies in the literature have investigated the usability of e-learning systems from different points of view, as far as the literature has been reviewed, not much research has been conducted to emphasize how interactive engagement functionalities supported by e-learning systems, affect their achieved usability Interactive engagement is easier to achieve in traditional learning environments than of e-learning environments. Therefore, a set of functionalities should be supported in e-learning systems to allow an acceptable level of interactive engagement. Furthermore, in this study some analysis and evaluation was conducted for a number of open source e-learning systems regarding their support for functionalities that aids in creating an interactively engaging learning environment. The evaluation included ATutor, Claroline, Dokeos, Integrated Learning, Information and Work Cooperation System (ILIAS), Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (Moodle), Online Learning and Training (OLAT), and Sakai. The evaluation result showed that Moodle and Dokeos achieved the best coverage of all possible interactive engagement-supporting capabilities available, thus proving its superiority over other e-learning systems included in this study in providing an interactively engaging learning environment.
Keywords: Interactive Engagement; Usability; E-learning; Open source

Interactive Systems

Interactive Systems Adaptation Approaches: A survey BIBAKFull-Text 127-131
  Imen Jaouadi; Raoudha Ben Djemaa; Hanene Ben Abdallah
Nowadays, the design and the development of user interfaces impose new requirements as a result of the diversity of platform with specifics characteristic. In this context, several approaches are proposed to develop adaptable user interfaces to context of use. This paper presents a review and classification according to different criteria of the most important research efforts in this field. In the light of this analysis, we propose to develop in the future researches a approach-based on model which adapts the functionality and user interface of an interactive system at run time.
Keywords: user interface; adaptation; context of use; HCI
A Tangible Directional-View Display for Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 132-134
  Youngmin Kim; Byoungha Park; Kwang-Soon Choi; Kwang-Mo Jung
A tangible directional-view display system that can provide different perspective views without any special glasses is introduced. The proposed system can display perspective floating five images in the space in front of the system with the help of concave mirrors. In addition, the proposed system adopted an ultrasonic focusing technology in order to providing immersive experiences and delivering the sense of touch. We will explain our proposed method and theoretical analysis that supports the proposed method will be provided.
Keywords: Interaction, Directional-View, Ultrasound
HANDY: A Configurable Gesture Recognition System BIBAKFull-Text 135-140
  Mahsa Teimourikia; Hassan Saidinejad; Sara Comai
With the growing usage of computer systems in daily life, a natural and intuitive Human Computer Interaction (HCI) method to support the embedding of computer systems in our environment seems necessary. Gestures are of utmost importance for the design of natural user interfaces. Hand gesture recognition to extract meaningful expressions from the human hand movements and postures is being used for different applications. However, the recognition of hand gestures that contain different hand poses can be challenging. In this paper, we propose a system (called HANDY) for hand gesture recognition that is flexible to be trained to recognize a variety of user-defined gestures defined as sequences of static hand postures. The system has been designed to be used in uncontrolled environments, to handle dynamic and cluttered backgrounds, and without the need of using any wearable sensor or any specific clothing. Evaluation results show a good average accuracy in gesture recognition.
Keywords: interactive systems; gesture-based interface; natural HCI; personalizable system
Concepts of Multi-artifact Systems in Artifact Ecologies BIBAKFull-Text 141-146
  Henrik Sørensen; Jesper Kjeldskov
The artifact ecologies emerging from the increasing number of interactive digital artifacts, capable of communicating with each other, have created a situation where software applications no longer need to be limited by the physical boundaries of a single artifact. In order to take advantage of the full potential of this situation, we first need to establish a common understanding of the interaction that crosses physical artifact boundaries. Eventually, this will help us understand and design multi-artifact systems that are more than the sum of its individual parts. In this paper, we analyze two multi-artifact systems from our prior work within the domain of music consumption and identify four concepts of multi-artifact interaction: Plasticity, migration, complementarity, and multi-user. We discuss the concepts in order to relate them to an artifact ecology thinking and identify implications for future work.
Keywords: artifact ecology, multi-artifact, music system

Haptic Interfaces

Following a Robot using a Haptic Interface without Visual Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 147-153
  Ayan Ghosh; Lyuba Alboul; Jacques Penders; Peter Jones; Heath Reed
Search and rescue operations are often undertaken in smoke filled and noisy environments in which rescue teams must rely on haptic feedback for navigation and safe exit. In this paper, we discuss designing and evaluating a haptic interface to enable a human being to follow a robot through an environment with no-visibility. We first briefly analyse the task at hand and discuss the considerations that have led to our current interface design. The second part of the paper describes our testing procedure and the results of our first informal tests. Based on these results we discuss future improvements of our design.
Keywords: human robot interaction; haptic interface; support for no-visibility/visually impaired
Posture-Angle Perception and Reproduction Characteristics with Wrist Flexion/Extension Motions BIBAKFull-Text 154-159
  Yoshihiko Nomura; Tatsuya Ito
Comparing active and passive modes with wrist flexion/extension motions, the authors examined the posture angle perception and reproduction characteristics through psychophysical experiments using a mechanically haptic wrist interface: mean values and standard deviations of the perceptual/reproduced angle errors were obtained, and were examined by ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA). The characteristics can be applied to wearable haptic interfaces employing kinesthetic sensations in a form of an instruction scheme referred to as a "restrained instruction": the restrained instruction is based on the idea that the just-noticeable small amount of externally applied forces being would be enough for learners to trigger voluntary motions with their body elements.
Keywords: instruction; wrist; flexion; extension; perception: reproduction
Position and Force-direction Detection for Multi-finger Electrostatic Haptic System Using a Vision-based Touch Panel BIBAKFull-Text 160-165
  Taku Nakamura; Akio Yamamoto
This article proposes a method of detecting position and force-direction for multi-finger electrostatic haptic system using a vision-based touch panel. The system consists of a vision-based touch panel, a transparent ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) electrode on the panel, and multiple stimulators with markers. Analyzing positions of the markers with the vision-based touch panel, the proposed method can detect position and force-direction of each stimulator. Detection of applied force direction is imperative to reduce undesired stickiness of virtual walls in passive haptic rendering systems. The developed system could successfully reduced the stickiness, but its performance was limited due to the limited tracking performance of the touch panel.
Keywords: Surface haptics; Visuo-haptic; Passive haptic system
TouchPair: Dynamic Analog-Digital Object Pairing for Tangible Interaction using 3D Point Cloud Data BIBAKFull-Text 166-171
  Unseok Lee; Jiro Tanaka
Sensor-based pairing technology between digital objects for interactions are used widely (e.g., smart phone to Bluetooth headset). In addition, research about interactions between daily normal analog objects (e.g., a doll, Lego block) and digital objects has progressed and is also popular. However, such research can only involve interactions with pre-setup objects. The paired objects cannot be changed dynamically. In this paper, we propose a new analog-digital object pairing method by intuitive touch interactions using three-dimensional point cloud data. Several touch pairing methods are described in detail and paired objects are changed dynamically using the proposed method. In addition, a simple tangible interaction between two objects is described after pairing. Finally, we demonstrate the high recognition rate of the proposed method using experiments and describe our system's contribution.
Keywords: dynamic pairing; point cloud; tangible interaction; 3d gesture; human computer interaction

Principles, Theories, and Models

Rapid Prototyping Spiral for Creative Problem Solving in Developing Countries BIBAKFull-Text 172-177
  Shohei Aoki; Koichi Hori
In this paper, we focus on how we can assist the local designers in the developing countries to design and manufacture the problem solving products. Although there are a lot of examples of appropriate technology, most of them were designed by the experts who have professional knowledge. To solve this issue, we propose a design method rapid prototyping spiral, considering the conventional studies on creativity support. The rapid prototyping spiral is a quick iterating process of creating prototypes and getting feedbacks from the users. The advantage of this method is that it enables the designers to discover the hidden issues or the unconscious assumptions underlying the users or the community. Our method also takes advantage of the limitation of materials, which has been regarded as a negative aspect so far. We illustrate how our method is applicable to design in the developing countries, taking a project in Ghana as an example.
Keywords: Design method; Prototyping; Design space
Characteristics, Attributes, Metrics and Usability Recommendations: A Systematic Mapping BIBAKFull-Text 178-185
  Franciela Nissola; Fabiane Barreto Vavassori Benitti
The research scenario concerned about software usability addresses a wide range of characteristics, attributes and evaluation models. As result, we can observe the evaluators difficult in order to select the characteristics that best apply to the product that is being evaluated. By this way, this paper presents a systematic mapping in order to identify the main characteristics of usability evaluation related to web, desktop and mobile devices environments. As results, we selected 31 papers in order to perform data extraction and way possible to produce a list of 28 evaluation characteristics.
Keywords: Usability Evaluation; Systematic Mapping
Do I Really Have to Accept Smart Fridges? An Empirical Study BIBAKFull-Text 186-191
  Bushra Alolayan
Smart fridges have not taken off as rapidly as their creators would have wished. This raises questions about user attitudes towards the smart fridge. A small-scale empirical study, comprising 17 individual semi-structured interviews, results in identification key factors influencing user acceptance of the smart fridge. This leads to a new smart fridge acceptance model (SFAM). The SFAM modifies the well-known Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by adding social influence, technology anxiety and cost to the factors included in the original Technology Acceptance Model. The findings indicate that participants are willing to use such an innovation if it already exists.
Keywords: technology acceptance model; smart fridge; ubiquitous computing; acceptance factors
Nonintrusive Multimodal Attention Detection BIBAKFull-Text 192-199
  Hugo Jiawei Sun; Michael Xuelin Huang; Grace Ngai; Stephen Chi Fai Chan
With the increasing deployment of computers in a wide variety of applications, the ability to detect the user's attention, or engagement, is becoming more important as a key piece of contextual information in building effective interactive systems. For instance, one can imagine that a system that is aware of whether the user is attending to it would be able to adapt itself better to the user activities to enhance productivity. The ability to detect attention would also be useful for system analysis in designing and building better systems. However, much previous work in attention detection is either obtrusive or imposes demanding constraints on the context and the participants. In addition, most approaches rely on uni-modal signals, which are often limited in availability and stability. This paper attempts to address these two major limitations through a noninvasive multimodal solution, which allows participants to work naturally without interference. The solution makes use of common off-the-shelf items that could reasonably be expected of any computing environment and does not rely on expensive and tailor-made equipment. Using a three-class attention state setting, it achieves average accuracy rates of 59.63% to 77.81%; the best result being 77.81% for a general searching task, which shows 11.9% improvement over the baseline. We also analyze and discuss the contribution by individual features to different models.
Keywords: Affective computing; keystroke dynamics; facial expression; multimodal recognition; attention detection

Computer Games and Gaming

Gamification of a Project Management System BIBAKFull-Text 200-207
  Darius Ašeriškis; Robertas Damaševicius
n serious contexts for enhancing the value of a service or a product for its users. We describe psychological foundations and social motives for gamification, its principles and concepts, game rules (mechanics) and elements of game as well as techniques and patterns of gamification. As a case study, we analyze gamification of a Trogon Project Management System. For evaluation of gamified interface, we propose to use WCAG 2.0 rules, adapted for evaluating color contrast of game layer interfaces, and System Usability Scale (SUS) to evaluate usability of gamification.
Keywords: gamification; game design; game mechanics, interface; usability
Non Intrusive Measures for Determining the Minimum Field of View for User Search Task in 3D Virtual Environments BIBAKFull-Text 208-213
  Zahen Malla Osman; Jérôme Dupire; Alexandre Topol; Pierre Cubaud
In this paper, we report on an experiment to determine the minimum field of view that permits the user to perform an effective search task in a 3D virtual environment, by analyzing how the user controls the virtual camera. Our study exploits a model based on the use of several novel non-intrusive temporal and quantitative measures of visual attention, such as: fixation, gaze, and movement. Seven out of ten measures gave significant results with the same findings.
Keywords: Field of view, virtual environment, video games, visual attention
Creating a Social Serious Game. An Interdisciplinary Experience Among Computer Scientists and Artists from UNLP Faculties BIBAKFull-Text 214-221
  Javier Francisco Díaz; Laura Andrea Fava; Luciano Nomdedeu; Carlos Pinto; Yanina Hualde; Leo Bolzicco; Vicente Bastos Mendes Da Silva
This article describes the interdisciplinary work carried out by teachers and students of the Faculties of Fine Arts and Informatics in La Plata city, to develop a serious game for social networks related with Argentine native peoples. The game presented is a serious video game, innovative for social sciences, which promotes more effective learning processes than traditional methods, adding to social networks the ability to transmit knowledge, besides favoring socialization, cooperation and entertainment. The artists, computer scientists, anthropologists and primary school teachers who are part of the team believe that this game help understand and become aware of the historical and current issues of native peoples, seeking to strengthen the concept of Argentina as a multiethnic and multicultural country. The most important aspect of this serious game, called Raices, is to provide an innovative interactive interface to encourage the interests of school children in learning cultural history of Argentinean aboriginal communities. Also, the paper would be a guidance for other teams who would like to do similar work.
Keywords: Serious Game; Social Game; Heritage Culture; Games for kids; Games with kids
What Games Do BIBAKFull-Text 222-228
  Jari Due Jessen; Carsten Jessen
When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return of the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games achieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative study we conclude that both board games and computer games are actors that produce experiences by exercising power over the user's abilities, for example their cognitive functions. Games are designed to take advantage of the characteristics of the human players.
Keywords: computer games; board games; Actor Network Theory; interaction; game research; game design

Interfaces I

Towards Essential Visual Variables in User Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 229-234
  Johanna Silvennoinen
This paper focuses on visual variables in user interface design from the user perspective. Visual design of user interfaces is essential to users interacting with different software. The study is conducted with 3E-templates for users to express their impressions by writing and drawing regarding visual website design. The data is analyzed with qualitative content analysis through interpretation framework. The results of this study provide new insights into user-centered visual user interface design. The results indicate which are the most essential visual variables in user interface design and therefore should be emphasized in user-centered design that promotes positive UX and, thus, benefit user-centered visual UI design. The results of this study are beneficial for researchers in the field of visual aesthetics in human-computer interaction and to user interface designers.
Keywords: visual user interface design; visual variables; user-centered design; human-computer interaction
Traffic Light Assistant -- What the UsersWant BIBAKFull-Text 235-241
  Michael Krause; Alexander Rissel; Klaus Bengler
In a driving simulator experiment, a prototypical traffic light phase assistant is assessed. The main research issue: How would a user customize the system? As a sideline, data is gathered with a special Detection Response Task (DRT), the Tactile Detection Task (TDT), in conjunction with an auditory cognitive task as reference. Recorded gaze data, driving behavior, subjective ratings with a System Usability Scale (SUS) and an AttrakDiff2-questionnaire are also reported. The subjects were able to customize ten parameters of the traffic light assistant system. The so personalized system configuration showed no great enhancement in the subjective ratings; thus, the later application implementation will include only little configuration features for the user. However, the test persons exhibited a willingness to be informed about speeding by a speed alerting function within the traffic light assistant system. The performance (reaction time) of the TDT is interpreted as a measure for the cognitive load while using the interface. The auditory cognitive task prolonged the reaction times for a tactile detection task more than the traffic light information system. The glance times are in line with current guidelines and the driving behavior shows a potential benefit for safety. Thus, the reported experiment evaluates an interface for use while driving with objective metrics regarding distraction and subjective results related to usability and joy-of-use.
Keywords: in-vehicle information system; IVIS; nomadic device; tactile detection task; TDT; glance duration
Evaluation of Window Interface in Remote Cooperative Work Involving Pointing Gestures BIBAKFull-Text 242-251
  Ryo Ishii; Kazuhiro Otsuka; Shiro Ozawa; Harumi Kawamura; Akira Kojima; Yukiko Nakano
Gazes and pointing gestures are important in performing collaborative work involving instructions with shared objects. However, in general video conferencing systems, the geometrical consistency of size and positional relationships of remote spaces are not displayed correctly on the display screen. This inhibits the transmissions of gazes and pointing gestures vis-a-vis shared objects. It is thus important to demonstrate how gazes and gestures can be smoothly transmitted by video and develop an advanced system that can do it. We previously proposed a "MoPaCo" window interface system that can reproduce a communication partner's space within a display as if the display were a glass window to achieve geometrical consistency between remote spaces. Experiment results demonstrated it enables users to feel the distance between themselves and their conversational partners on video is about the same as in a face-to-face situation and the partner is actually present. We also consider MoPaCo can generate video images that smoothly transmit gazes and pointing gestures; this paper describes experimental tests of the system's effectiveness in doing so. Results suggest MoPaCo allows users to accurately identify target objects as they could under face-to-face conditions through an actual glass window. Results of experiments on conversation quality show MoPaCo facilitates smooth conversation and communication among users and strengthens their memories of the conversations, suggesting the users actively engage in conversation and the system makes a strong impression on them.
Keywords: Remote cooperative work; full gaze awareness; pointing gesture; window interface

Interfaces II

Smartphone-Based 3D Navigation Technique for Use in a Museum Exhibit BIBAKFull-Text 252-257
  Louis-Pierre Bergé; Gary Perelman; Mathieu Raynal; Cédric Sanza; Marcos Serrano; Minica Houry-Panchetti; Rémi Cabanac; Emmanuel Dubois
3D Virtual Environment (3DVE) comes up as a good solution for transmitting knowledge in a museum exhibit. However, interaction techniques involved in such settings are mostly based on traditional devices such as keyboard and mouse. Recently, the popular use of smartphone as a personal handled computer lets us envision the use of mobile device as an interaction support with these 3DVE. In this paper, we focus on the navigation task inside a 3DVE and we propose to use the smartphone as a tangible object. Physical actions on the smartphone trigger translations and rotations in the 3DVE. In order to prove the interest in the use of the smartphone, we compare our solution with available solutions: keyboard-mouse and 3D mouse. User experiments confirmed our hypothesis and particularly emphasizes that visitors find our solution more attractive and stimulating.
Keywords: interaction with smarpthone, 3D navigation, museum exhibit, experiment
A 3D Interface to Explore and Manipulate Multi-scale Virtual Scenes using the Leap Motion Controller BIBAKFull-Text 258-263
  Bruno Fanini
Gesture-based interaction models can be efficient and simpler to understand if designed to correspond to common user interactions with the physical world. This paper presents a 3D interface and its implementation to quickly perform navigation and manipulation tasks in multi-scale and multi-resolution 3D scenes using a low-cost consumer sensor: the Leap Motion controller. The developed system has the goal of exploring the potential of accurate hands and fingers tracking alongside mid-air 3D gestures, to investigate specific design advantages and issues they present in such complex environments.
Keywords: Gesture-based interaction; 3D manipulation; real-time; multi-scale
Touchscreen User Motion Anticipation for Usability Improvement BIBAKFull-Text 264-270
  Tetsuyou Watanabe; Sawako Furuya
This paper proposes a method for improving touchscreen usability by anticipating user motions. Reaction speed and simple structure are important for good touchscreen usability. With this in mind, we present a system that can estimate a desired position for user motion by anticipating a motion several time steps ahead, using only sensors attached to the touchscreen. User motion that changes suddenly may not have the Markov property. We present here a novel methodology based on an Auxiliary Particle Filter (APF) with parameter estimation to deal with this issue. User motion is anticipated by regarding the motion in terms of parameters. We demonstrate the validity of our approach through experiments.
Keywords: Auxiliary particle filter; anticipation; user intention; touchscreen; table device; user interface
Panoramic Interaction with Interval Data Based on the Slider Metaphor BIBAKFull-Text 271-276
  Phillip Kilgore; Marjan Trutschl; Urska Cvek
Users utilize information visualization tools to explore their multivariate data in two- and three-dimensional environments in order to uncover patterns, form hypotheses or pursue questions of interest; they filter, search, zoom, and interact with the data. We first present a short survey of interactive selection mechanisms for information visualization and related work. We follow with our panoramic range slider and show the examples of its application and utility and present results of a case study. Finally, we elucidate on the advantages that the panoramic range slider can provide while identifying areas of further refinement.
Keywords: range selection; range slider; linear control; interval data interaction; query inversion; visualization interaction; graphical user interfaces

Interaction Devices

Electronic Health Records and the Challenge to Master the Patients' Pathways. Proposals Around a Comparative Analysis (France / Spain) BIBAKFull-Text 277-284
  José Maria Biedma; Christian Bourret
Issues about patients' pathways and interoperability of Information Systems are at the heart of the challenges faced by Healthcare Systems to control costs and also to improve quality of care. We propose a comparative analysis of the issue of computerized patients' records in France and Spain highlighting requirements, similarities and differences and new possibilities of actions. Most of the challenges faced by the Healthcare Systems converge on this issue. After an analysis of the broader context of Healthcare Systems in these two countries, which have different designs, but have also similar problems, we'll examine the issue of the Healthcare record ownership, then the access to its data and its handling of doctors' personal notes. We'll also discuss ethics' issues and especially that of medical confidentiality. We'll then consider the central topic of interoperability linked to different approaches: national in France and at the level of the Autonomous Communities in Spain. The changes are only at their beginning. The use of these new socio-digital tools necessarily meets the European dimension, the issue of using open data and that of digital territories in Healthcare.
Keywords: Electronic Health Records; Healthcare; patients' pathways; access; interoperability
Resocialization and Metaphor of Social Networks BIBAKFull-Text 285-287
  Tréton Cécile; Bourret Christian
The subject of this publication focuses on the isolation problem. This can be considered a health and social problem since it has adverse health consequences to seniors. The objective of this research is to identify the relational patterns of the elderly in order to help recreate a network of relationships suited to their unique needs. The research method questions relationship dynamics, which include interactions with for example, alliances and desalliances, common points and affinities, meeting places including the use of social networks on the web. We study the new relational technologies around the notion of situation, described by Alex Mucchielli. The proposed work will rely on observation methods and interviews with isolated elderly. We want create a model of intervention which uses narrative methods for understand how the person built its social network.
Keywords: ICT; social networks; isolated elderly; situation; frames; life stories; empathy; relational technologies
Transparent Electrostatic Actuator with Mesh-structured Electrodes for Driving Tangible Icon in Tabletop Interface BIBAKFull-Text 288-293
  Ryuta Iguchi; Takuya Hosobata; Akio Yamamoto
This paper proposes a transparent electrostatic actuator for actuating tangible objects in a tabletop interface. The actuator is a planar actuator with two degrees-of-freedom, capable of actuating a small dielectric sheet placed on top. The feature of the actuator is in having mesh-structured electrodes, patterned on a transparent film using a conductive polymer. By applying pulse voltages to the electrodes, electrostatic force act on the charges induced on the sheet to produce step-wise motion. The transparency of the actuator enables this actuation while maintaining the visibility of graphics on a visual display underneath. To demonstrate the suitability of the actuator for a tabletop interface, we constructed a simple human-computer interaction system, in which a physical icon travels on the actuator placed on a flat panel display. In the demonstration, the user could interact with the computer by handling active and passive tangible icons. The actuator used in the system could actuate a small icon in a broad area of 300 mm by 300 mm, with application of 500 V pulse voltages.
Keywords: tangible media; tabletop interface; human-computer interaction; surface actuator; electrostatic actuator
Interaction with Real Objects and Visual Images on a Flat Panel Display using Three-DOF Transparent Electrostatic Induction Actuators BIBAKFull-Text 294-299
  Norio Yamashita; Kota Amano; Akio Yamamoto
This paper describes a new type of computer-user interactions through an actuated real object and visual images on a liquid crystal display (LCD). The interactions are realized by three degrees-of-freedom (three-DOF) transparent electrostatic induction actuators placed on the display. The dynamic interaction was realized using asynchronous driving characteristics of the induction actuator. The actuator does not interfere with visual images on the screen because of the optical transparency of the actuator. The actuator is equipped with eight sets of one-DOF actuators, which enables three-DOF driving, XY translation and rotation, of sheet objects. Fundamental performances of the actuator regarding the 3-DOF motions are investigated. Also, a prototype interactive application is demonstrated.
Keywords: electrostatic actuator; transparent; three-DOF; visual interaction;

Human-Computer Interaction in Education

Design Practice in Human Computer Interaction Design Education BIBAKFull-Text 300-306
  Alma Leora Culén; Henry N. Mainsah; Sisse Finken
As the need for Human Computer Interaction (HCI) designers increases so does the need for courses that best prepare students for their future work life. Multidisciplinary teamwork is what very frequently meets the graduates in their new work situations. Preparing students for such multidisciplinary work through education is not easy to achieve. In this paper, we investigate ways to engage computer science students, majoring in design, use, and interaction (with technology), in design practices through an advanced graduate course in interaction design. Here, we take a closer look at how prior embodied and explicit knowledge of HCI that all of the students have, combined with understanding of design practice through the course, shape them as human-computer interaction designers. We evaluate the results of the effort in terms of increase in creativity, novelty of ideas, body language when engaged in design activities, and in terms of perceptions of how well this course prepared the students for the work practice outside of the university.
Keywords: HCI education; interaction design; studio; design education; multidisciplinary teamwork
Role of Student Interaction Interface in Web-Based Distance Learning BIBAKFull-Text 307-312
  Marina Mladenova; Diana Kirkova
This article presents a subject to debate the question of the role of learner-interface interaction in distance education. This role is considered in the aspect of possibilities of distance learning in the three main areas of human perception: cognitive, psychophysical and emotional. The results are of the first phase of a study conducted by the authors on the impact of learner-interface interaction in web-based training on the result achieved, including training courses in ICT students at the University of Forestry - Sofia.
Keywords: web-based distance education; learner-interface interaction; interactive communication
Experimental Study into the Time Taken to Understand Words when Reading Japanese Sign Language BIBAKFull-Text 313-318
  Mina Terauchi; Keiko Watanabe; Yuji Nagashima
We are conducting research in areas such as linguistic and cognitive analysis of sign language, and animation, with the aim of assisting the hearing impaired with communication. It was already assumed that hearing-impaired people recognize the meaning of sign language words while the sign language movement is being performed. Based on the results of dialog-based analysis of sign language however, we predicted that hearing-impaired people would understand the meaning of sign language words during the "transition" stages. For the purposes of this paper, we compiled a series of experiment sentences and conducted an experiment to determine the timing with which hearing-impaired people recognized target words in each sentence. The results of the experiment indicated that hearing-impaired people recognized a high percentage of words during the "in-transition" stage. Based on these results, we can assume that hearing-impaired people understand sign language sentences by effectively utilizing hand shapes, movements and information such as expressions and intonation. The challenge for the future is how to harness this information to improve the comprehension abilities of students undergoing sign language education.
Keywords: Sign Language; predict recognition; transition;
Aurora -- Exploring Social Online Learning Tools Through Design BIBAKFull-Text 319-324
  Peter Purgathofer; Naemi Luckner
Teaching is an integral part of our work at university and we strive to achieve a high quality in teaching our students. Yet, we face classes with up to 800 students per semester and do not have the resources to ensure a close rapport with each and every one of them. For the last 6 years we have been working on an online solution for this problem, with the aim of letting students take responsibility of a large part of their own learning process. The e-learning system Aurora envelops a number of components ranging from organizational and informational tools to discussion systems and student portfolios. Students are invited to participate actively in this online learning environment and are presented with a variety of options they can choose from in order to accumulate enough credits to pass their courses. Over the years of developing Aurora, issues and inadequacies of the system became apparent and lead us to change our system design iteratively, learning from its shortcomings.
Keywords: Asynchronous Interaction, E-Learning, E-Portfolio, Electronic Note Taking, Backchannel, Teaching, Design, Newsfeed
Continous Learning Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 325-330
  Christian Grund Sørensen
In most situations where teaching is involved, the need for learner feedback is of utmost importance. Rhetorical theory of communication (concepts of aptum and kairos) underscores the significance of understanding foreknowledge (Gadamer). Since foreknowledge is by nature assessed prior to the learning experience and observed learning outcomes are assessed after the experience, a temporal gap in assessment is obvious. The aim of this paper is to suggest a method for observing learner attitudes, interests and level of learning in realtime during the learning experience. This is exemplified through the use of the Conceptual Pond application to facilitate an insight for the educator into the process of learning and immersion of the learner. Two use cases are discussed in detail as well as the consequences for teaching.
Keywords: education; assessment; Conceptual Pond; kairos; aptum, continous

User Modeling and User Focus I

Interpreting Psychophysiological States Using Unobtrusive Wearable Sensors in Virtual Reality BIBAKFull-Text 331-336
  Alberto Betella; Daniel Pacheco; Riccardo Zucca; Xerxes D. Arsiwalla; Pedro Omedas; Antonio Lanatà; Daniele Mazzei; Alessandro Tognetti; Alberto Greco; Nicola Carbonaro; Johannes Wagner; Florian Lingenfelser; Elisabeth André; Danilo De Rossi; Paul F. M. J. Verschure
One of the main challenges in the study of human behavior is to quantitatively assess the participants' affective states by measuring their psychophysiological signals in ecologically valid conditions. The quality of the acquired data, in fact, is often poor due to artifacts generated by natural interactions such as full body movements and gestures. We created a technology to address this problem. We enhanced the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM), an immersive space we built to conduct experiments on human behavior, with unobtrusive wearable sensors that measure electrocardiogram, breathing rate and electrodermal response. We conducted an empirical validation where participants wearing these sensors were free to move in the XIM space while exposed to a series of visual stimuli taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Our main result consists in the quantitative estimation of the arousal range of the affective stimuli through the analysis of participants' psychophysiological states. Taken together, our findings show that the XIM constitutes a novel tool to study human behavior in life-like conditions.
Keywords: Affect analysis, affective states, ecological validity, EDR, HRV, wearable sensors, XIM
Trace-based Task Tree Generation BIBAKFull-Text 337-342
  Patrick Harms; Steffen Herbold; Jens Grabowski
Task trees are a well-known way for the manual modeling of user interactions. They provide an ideal basis for software analysis including usability evaluations if they are generated based on usage traces. In this paper, we present a method for the automated generation of task trees based on traces of user interactions. For this, we utilize usage monitors to record all events caused by users. These events are written into log files from which we generate task trees. We validate our method in three case studies.
Keywords: task; tree; generation; usage-based; traces
Modeling User's State During Dialog Turn Using HMM For Multi-modal Spoken Dialog System BIBAKFull-Text 343-346
  Yuya Chiba; Masashi Ito; Akinori Ito
Conventional spoken dialog systems cannot estimate the user's state while waiting for an input from the user because the estimation process is triggered by observing the user's utterance. This is a problem when, for some reason, the user cannot make an input utterance in response to the system's prompt. To help these users before they give up, the system should handle the requests expressed by them unconsciously. Based on this assumption, we have examined a method to estimate the state of a user before making an utterance by using the non-verbal behavior of the user. The present paper proposes an automatic discrimination method by using time sequential non-verbal information of the user. In this method, the user's internal state is estimated using multi-modal information such as speech, facial expression and gaze, modeled using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM).
Keywords: multi-modal information processing; user's state; spoken dialog system
Modeling the Determinants of Medical Information Systems BIBAKFull-Text 347-350
  Majed Alshamari; Mohamed Seliaman
Saudi Arabia's healthcare sector is rapidly moving towards fully automating medical records in all hospitals throughout the country to create the ability to have the medical information move from hospital to hospital as announced in ambitious e-health program. In spite of the wide adoption of IT systems in healthcare sector, very little limited research has been conducted to investigate health and medical information systems perceived usability within the Saudi context. This paper attempts to fill the gap in the literature of medical information systems usability by modeling the usability determinants of Medical Information Systems within the context of Saudi Arabia.
Keywords: Usability testing; usability measures; medical system

User Modeling and User Focus II

An Embodied Group Entrainment Characters System Based on the Model of Lecturer's Eyeball Movement in Voice Communication BIBAKFull-Text 351-358
  Yoshihiro Sejima; Tomio Watanabe; Mitsuru Jindai; Atsushi Osa; Yukari Zushi
We have developed a speech-driven embodied group entrained communication system called "SAKURA" for enabling group interaction and communication. In this system, speech-driven computer-generated (CG) characters called InterActors with functions of both speakers and listeners are entrained as a teacher and some students in a virtual classroom by generating communicative actions and movements. In this study, for enhancing group interaction and communication, we analyze the eyeball movements of a lecturer communicating in a virtual group by using an embodied communication system with a line-of-sight measurement device. On the basis of the analysis results, we propose an eyeball movement model that consists of a saccade model and a model of the lecturer's gaze at the audience, called "group gaze model." The saccade model reveals eyeball movement with a delay of 0.20 s with respect to the lecturer's head movement. A group gaze model reveals the rate of the lecturer's gaze (Center: 60%, Left-side: 27%, Right-side: 13%). Then, we develop an advanced communication system in which the proposed model is used with SAKURA. Using this system, we perform experiments and carry out sensory evaluation for determining the effects of the proposed model. The results reveal that the proposed model is effective for group interaction and communication in the speech-driven embodied group entrainment characters system.
Keywords: Human Interface; Human Interaction; Embodied Communication; Group Interaction; Eyeball Movement
Persona Usage in Software Development: Advantages and Obstacles BIBAKFull-Text 359-364
  Jane Billestrup; Jan Stage; Lene Nielsen; Kira Storgaard Hansen
The Personas technique has been promoted as a strong tool for providing software developers with a better understanding of the prospective users of their software. This paper reports from a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about Personas and their usage in software development companies. The questionnaire survey was conducted in a limited geographical area to establish the extent of Personas usage within all companies in the chosen region and determine whether software development companies used Personas during the development process. Several issues were identified as reasons for either not using the technique or for poor application of it. The study showed that 55% of the respondents had never heard about Personas. Among those who had heard about the Personas technique, the following obstacles towards usage of the technique were identified: Lack of knowledge of the technique, lack of resources (time and funding), Sparse descriptions -- when applied and Personas not being integrated in the development.
Keywords: Personas, software development, questionnaire survey, grounded theory
Effects of Wind Source Configuration of Wind Displays on Property of Wind Direction Perception: Width of Wind Velocity Distribution and Accuracy of Wind Source Alignment BIBAKFull-Text 365-370
  Takuya Nakano; Yuya Yoshioka; Yasuyuki Yanagida
We examined the property of wind direction perception at the frontal region of the head to find a guideline for optimal wind source arrangement. In previous experiments, localized winds produced by a single compact fan were used as stimuli. Such a localized wind is rather different from the natural uniform wind in a real environment. Because the subjects might be able to judge the wind direction based on the facial region hit by the wind, the performance of discriminating the direction of a localized wind may be different from that for a uniform wind. Thus, in this study, we examined the human ability to discriminate the wind direction using a uniform wind that covered the entire face and compared the result with that for a localized wind. We measured the Just Noticeable Difference (JND) in wind direction perception and found that there was a significant difference between the JND for a uniform wind and that for a localized wind.
Keywords: Wind sensation, Sensory property, JND
Usability Evaluation of Digital Games for Stroke Rehabilitation in Taiwan BIBAKFull-Text 371-376
  Mei-Hsiang Chen; Lan-Ling Huang; Chang-Franw Lee
This study aimed to compare the effectiveness and usability of using conventional devices, Wii and XaviX, in rehabilitation, and to propose advices to improve the digital game design. A clinical trial was implemented to evaluate the effectiveness and the usability of using Wii and XaviX in rehabilitation; they were assessed by stroke patients. Twenty-eight stroke patients were divided in three groups: Conventional, Wii, and XaviX groups. The results can be summarized into the following points: (1) The effectiveness index in each group indicated improvements for upper extremity function in stroke patients. However, the effectiveness indexes of each assessment between three groups do not have significant differences. (2) All patients in this clinical trial had fun when using the digital gaming devices for rehabilitation. (3) The suggestions for improving the design in digital games are as follows: to increase difficulty, and the response time, levels of the games need adjustment; to record movement data and game scores each time, the hand controller must be interchangeable for the users; the controller should be adjustable to fit different hand dimensions of the patients; the game and controller movements need to be designed to correspond to real-life activities; and the controller's operation needs to be simplified. In order to make these devices more suitable to use in rehabilitation, a comprehensive follow-up design development based on these proposed guidelines would be necessary in order to embody design improvements of the devices.
Keywords: commercial video game; stroke; upper extremity rehabilitation

Human-Robot Interaction

BOrEScOPE -- Exoskeleton for Active Surgeon Support during Orthopedic Surgery BIBAKFull-Text 377-380
  Peter Pott; Markus Hessinger; Roland Werthschützky; Helmut Schlaak; Eugen Nordheimer; Essameddin Badreddin; Achim Wagner
The use of robots in a medical environment is a challenging task not only for system development but also for the actual application in this demanding environment. Robots are used to enhance surgery quality in terms of precision, application of new therapies, or to improve ergonomics -- only to name a few reasons. The approach described in this paper is to provide a lightweight exoskeleton worn by the orthopedic surgeon. It is intended to be used during drilling tasks at the spine and to enhance precision as the surgeon is led by optic, acoustic, and haptic perception. The parallel flux of forces and the inherently mobile robot base allow the surgeon to directly maintain responsibility for surgery. Not only the mechanical design of the system but also the control is decomposed into several levels. To do so, a behavior-based approach is used. The system's design criteria are briefly described and first results are presented. The exoskeleton is composed of an anthropomorphic arm actuated by twisted-string actuators. This leads to a lightweight construction. To provide sufficiently fast and precise information about the spatial position and its time derivations, optical and inertial tracking is used. A User Guidance Opto-Acoustic Display is utilized to provide the surgeon with information on position and orientation of the tool in six degrees of freedom with respect to the desired trajectory. First experimental results derived that the intended workspace meets the surgical requirements and the user guidance system enables the surgeon to follow the desired trajectory by intuitive user guidance.
Keywords: exoskeleton; orthopedic surgery, human-machine interaction; twisted-string actuation; behavior-based system decomposition
A Real-Time Architecture for Embodied Conversational Agents: Beyond Turn-Taking BIBAKFull-Text 381-388
  Bahador Nooraei; Charles Rich; Candace Sidner
We describe the design, implementation and use of a middleware system, called DiscoRT, to support the development of virtual and robotic conversational agents. The use cases for this system include handling conversational and event-based interruptions, and supporting engagement maintenance behaviors, such as turn-taking, backchanneling, directed gaze and face tracking. The multi-threaded architecture of the system includes both "hard" and "soft" real-time scheduling and integrates with an existing collaborative discourse manager, called Disco. We have used the system to build a substantial conversational agent that is about to undergo long-term field studies.
Keywords: engagement; interruption; turn-taking; backchannel; barge-in; schema; BML; arbitration
Communicative Capabilities of Agents for the Collaboration in a Human-Agent Team BIBAKFull-Text 389-394
  Mukesh Barange; Alexandre Kabil; Camille De Keukelaere; Pierre Chevaillier
The coordination is an essential ingredient for the human-agent teamwork. It requires team members to share knowledge to establish common grounding and mutual awareness among them. In this paper, we propose a behavioral architecture C2BDI that allows to enhance the knowledge sharing using natural language communication between team members. We define collaborative conversation protocols that provide proactive behavior to agents for the coordination between team members. We have applied this architecture to a real scenario in a collaborative virtual environment for training. Our solution enables users to coordinate with other team members.
Keywords: Human interaction with autonomous agents, Cooperation, Dialogue Management, Decision-Making