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ACHI Tables of Contents: 0809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions

Fullname:Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions
Editors:Leslie Miller; Silvana Roncagliolo
Location:Valencia, Spain
Dates:2012-Jan-30 to 2012-Feb-04
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-61208-177-9
Links:Conference Website | Proceedings
Summary:The Fifth International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interaction, ACHI 2012, was proposed as a result of a paradigm shift in the most recent achievements and future trends in human interactions with increasingly complex systems. Adaptive and knowledge-based user interfaces, universal accessibility, human-robot interaction, agent-driven human computer interaction, and sharable mobile devices are a few of these trends. ACHI 2011 brings also a suite of specific domain applications, such as gaming, e-learning, social, medicine, teleconferencing and engineering.
    ACHI 2012 continues a series of events targeting traditional and advanced paradigms for computer-human interaction in multi-technology environments. The conference covers also fundamentals on interfaces and models, and highlights new challenging industrial applications and research topics.
  1. Computer Games and Gaming
  2. Usability and Universal Accessibility I
  3. Usability and Universal Accessibility II
  4. Other Domain Applications
  5. Interfaces I
  6. Interfaces II
  7. Interaction & Interface Design & Evaluation I
  8. Interaction & Interface Design & Evaluation II
  9. Human-robot Interaction
  10. Human-computer Interaction in Education and Training I
  11. Human-computer Interaction in Education and Training II
  12. Interactive Systems
  13. User Modeling and User Focus I
  14. User Modeling and User Focus II

Computer Games and Gaming

GPU Based Burning Process Simulation BIBAKFull-TextPDF 1-6
  Ran Jiao; Liu Yonggan; Hao Aimin
We present a method of simulating the process of burning phenomena on generic polyhedral objects. By mapping the object's surface to a 2D space, the fire front expansion can be calculated efficiently on GPU (Graphics Processing Unit). The state of decomposition is updated according to the fire front and the consumption of solid fuel. During the simulation loop, both the fire front and the solid fuel consumption are updated respectively. In order to achieve a better performance, most routines of the simulation are processed on GPU. The entire simulation could run at an interactive rate on a normal PC.
Keywords: burning; fire spreading model; deformation;
Context-dependent Action Interpretation in Interactive Storytelling Games BIBAKFull-TextPDF 7-10
  Chung-Lun Lu; Von-Wun Soo
In this paper, a framework of context-dependent behavior interpretation in interactive storytelling system is proposed. A user can act as one of the role characters in a story to interact with other virtual characters in the system. We implemented two levels of action interpretation: activity and behavior. A Microsoft Kinect sensor is used to acquire and recognize user's activities in terms of the information of its body joints that will be trained by a pre-learned model. Then, with multiple-context modeling and the recognized activities, a dynamic Bayesian network is adopted to disambiguate user's behaviors in terms of his intentional and subgoal structure.
Keywords: interactive storytelling; behabior interpretation
Developing User-Centered Video Game Concepts for Language Learning BIBAKFull-TextPDF 11-16
  Yorick Poels; Jan-Henk Annema; Bieke Zaman; Frederik Cornillie
This paper will report on an ongoing project which aims to develop video games for language learning through a user-centered and evidence-based approach. Therefore, co-design sessions were held with adolescents between 14 and 16 years old, in order to gain insight into their preferences for educational games for language learning. During these sessions, 11 concepts for video games were developed. We noticed a divide between the concepts for games that were oriented towards formal language learning (e.g. exercises on vocabulary) and video games that were centered around communication with other players or in-game characters.
Keywords: co-design, user-centered, games, language learning
Online Casinos: The Addiction Under Control Role of Web 2.0 and re-documentarisation BIBAKFull-TextPDF 17-21
  Karim Fraoua; Christian Bourret
In this work, we will consider how to design and implement tools or Information System based and enriched by a semantic search engines to the forums in the world of online gambling (articles, tutorials, etc.) supporting both textual and semantic expressions. On the basis of this new approach, based on neuro-economic field, we will look on addiction using neuroscience and game theory in order to construct an efficient Information System that takes into account the expectations and attitudes of players.
Keywords: online; gambling; addiction; neuroeconomy; game theory; information system

Usability and Universal Accessibility I

Evaluation of User Interface Satisfaction of Mobile Maps for Touch Screen Interfaces BIBAKFull-TextPDF 22-27
  Ya-Li Lin
User interfaces of mobile maps on mobile and tablet devices with a touch screen interfaces is evaluated in this study. A four-way factorial experiment compares the user interface satisfaction for two mobile touch devices (iPad/iPhone), two map types (Electronic Map/Mixed Map), two keyword searches (Landmark/District), and Chinese input methods (Hand-written/Phonetic notation). The experiment used forty-eight participants, each of whom was assigned three types of environmental spatial tasks: find targets, identify cardinal directions, and identify approximate distances. The individual differences between gender, the possession of a sense of direction and route knowledge on user's satisfaction were also examined. The results of the study verify that both the reliability and confirmative factor analysis model of the questionnaire for user interface satisfaction are good enough. In addition, the two-factor interactions and the main effects: Type, Keyword, and Input significantly affect the degree of user satisfaction.
Keywords: User Interface Satisfaction; Mobile Map; Mobile Spatial Interaction; Touch Screen; Sense of Direction
Tablet PCs -- An Assistive Technology for Students with Reading Difficulties? BIBAKFull-TextPDF 28-34
  Andrea A. Gasparini; Alma Leora Culén
This paper presents the results of a descriptive case study concerning adoption of iPad or other tablets as assistive technology. Two pilot studies concerning the adoption and use of the iPad for active reading in a teaching/learning situation have recently been conducted at elementary school level and at university level. In the course of both studies, students with reading difficulties were encountered. For each group of students, a key case has been chosen. The paper presents our findings regarding adjustments that needed to be made for these students and initial research on iPad usability for students with special education needs. By describing two instances, one involving a university student and the other two elementary school children, we hope to bring attention to application of ICT for students with reading difficulties. Students with this kind of impairment are often neglected in comparison to students with visual impairments or other disabilities. In one case, the iPad has been successfully integrated into students' life as an assistive technology. The cases may be both instructive and inspirational for educational situations involving students with similar disabilities as adjustments and applications used to help students do not involve any large investments in software or devices.
Keywords: assistive technology; iPad; reading difficulties; tablet PC; technology adoption
Spatial Ability and Map-Based Software Applications BIBAKFull-TextPDF 35-40
  Michelle Rusch; Sarah Nusser; Les Miller; Georgi Batinov; Kofi Whitney
Location-based applications are growing in importance as agencies are placing more and more computing into their field applications. The development of software for these applications needs to consider the wide range of user skills. The present work looks at the impact of spatial ability on a typical Census Bureau application (address verification). A study of a text guided software system for address verification was conducted. The participants were tested to determine their logical reasoning, visualization, and perspective taking abilities. The participants performed a set of address verification tasks using a tablet in a stationary environment. The study and results are presented and discussed.
Keywords: usability, spatial ability
A Presentation Support System by Expanding Embodiment with a Mobile Touchscreen Device BIBAKFull-TextPDF 41-46
  Michiya Yamamoto; Taku Murabayashi; Tomio Watanabe
Most of the people make presentations by using tools such as pointers. However, the use of information devices such as laser pointers and mice can restrict the presenter's embodied motions and actions. In this paper, we propose a presentation support system that can expand embodiment by using a portable touch screen device. First, we develop a prototype of the system by using an iPhone, and then, we perform experimental evaluation. Next, we performe the evaluation of the modes of PPTouch, and the effectiveness of the system in various situations is clarified. Then we performe comparison with conventional pointers, and evaluation by participants. Both experiments also show the effectives of PPTouch.
Keywords: presentation support; expansion of embodiment
Designing Mobile Apps for Visually Impaired and Blind Users BIBAKFull-TextPDF 47-52
  Javier Sanchez; Joaquín Selva Roca de Togores
Although mobile devices include accessibility features available for visually impaired users, the user interface of the majority of the mobile apps is designed for sighted people. It is clear that "Design for Usability" differs depending if the final user is a sighted user or a visually impaired user. This paper introduces the concept of "Low Vision Mobile App Portal", which provides a way to access mobile apps specifically designed for visually impaired users. Some design aspects will be described. Preliminary results show some of the low vision controls specifically design for visually impaired users.
Keywords: design; mobile App; visually impaired; blind; usability; low vision mobile portal; accessibility; iOS; iPhone

Usability and Universal Accessibility II

Building Bridges Between Elderly and TV Application Developers BIBAKFull-TextPDF 53-59
  José Coelho; Carlos Duarte; Pedro Feiteira; Daniel Costa; David Costa
The development of new digital TV systems and the design practices adopted in the development of new TV based applications often isolate elderly and disabled users. By considering them as users with special needs and not taking their problems into account during the design phase of an application, developers are creating new accessibility problems or just keeping bad old habits. In this paper, we describe a novel adaptive accessibility approach on how to develop accessible TV applications, by making use of multimodal interaction techniques and without requiring too much effort from the developers. By putting user-centered design techniques in practice, and supporting the use of multimodal interfaces with several input and output devices, we confront users, developers and manufactures with new interaction and design paradigms. From their evaluation, new techniques are created capable of helping in the development of accessible TV applications.
Keywords: multimodal, adaptation, developers, elderly
Analysis of Volumetric Tactile Symbols Produced with 3D Printing BIBAKFull-TextPDF 60-67
  Jaume Gual; Marina Puyuelo; Joaquim Lloveras
The morphological elements of design used for designing tactile maps and symbols for visually impaired users are points, linear, and areal elements. One of the main characteristics of these elements is their two-dimensional and graphic nature. However, since three-dimensional design came to be a fourth group of elements, volumetric elements, has come into use. The key questions of this study are: Is it possible to extend the range of a discriminatable set of symbols by using volumetric elements with height contrast extended in the Z axis? Can some formal variations of these volumetric symbols be distinguished using the sense of touch? The results of this study show that some tactile symbols with simple volumetric forms are easily recognizable using the sense of touch. In the absence of further studies, this could suggest an affirmative answer to the first research question posed.
Keywords: tactile symbols; tactile maps; inclusive design; visual impairment
Ethnographic Examination for Studying Information Sharing Practices in Rural South Africa BIBAKFull-TextPDF 68-74
  Amandeep Dhir; Imad Moukadem; Nobert Jere; Puneet Kaur; Sari Kujala; Antti Ylä-Jääski
This progress paper describes a study plan and research theme with the focus on information sharing practices, social habits and behavioral access patterns in the context of the mobile phone and ICT usage of rural users in the emerging economies such as South Africa. The aim is to design new solutions to support rural users and their economic existence. An ethnographic field study was performed in order to understand the living conditions of rural communities and the related problems and opportunities in the field of mobile phone and ICT usage. A variety of qualitative measures such as contextual inquiry, participant observation, design exercises, focus and individual interviews were used during the field. However, only preliminary results from field studies are described in this paper. In our study, we found that needs and expectations of the users dwelling in rural context of different emerging economies are very much different from that of developed world. Product designers must consider these needs in order to deliver successful ICT and mobile-based services.
Keywords: Emerging markets; ethnography; information sharing; oral culture; rural users
Accessibility Study of Rich Web Interface Components BIBAKFull-TextPDF 75-79
  Juliana Braga; Rafael Damaceno; Rodrigo Leme; Silvia Dotta
The use of the latest technologies to develop rich interfaces for websites could decrease your accessibility, making problematic the access for people with disabilities. Faced with this problem, this paper executed a study to evaluate the accessibility of rich components on the Web. The paper used WAI-ARIA recommendations as reference and analyzed the accessibility problems found in the Jboss Richfaces components library. The study demonstrates a methodology to make the analyzed rich components accessible.
Keywords: Rich Internet; accessibility; WAI-ARIA; Web 2.0
Virtualization Technology for Multi-display Systems BIBAKFull-TextPDF 80-83
  Igor Petukhov; Lyudmila Steshina; Ilya Tanryverdiev
The method for creation of multi-user multi-monitor systems designed for educational purposes is suggested. The method utilizes virtual machine technology which makes possible to create completely isolated user working environment, remote access to equipment and remote workstation administration. Standard interfaces like DVI, VGA or USB are used as data transmission channels along with network technologies. Such architecture facilitates the operator's work, making it more comfortable, and improves the quality and capabilities of the distant access to remote resources.
Keywords: multi-user multi-monitor systems; virtual machine technology; interface

Other Domain Applications

A Generic Approach to Interactive University Timetabling BIBAKFull-TextPDF 84-89
  Michael Zeising; Stefan Jablonski
Room utilization is a problem for universities most notably when students do not have to enroll for the courses they want to attend. In this case, the only information available is the examination regulation of their respective course of study. In this paper, it will be illustrated how student constraints can be inferred from these regulations and how they can be used to reduce the task to a well understood problem. Furthermore, an innovative user interface based on these constraints which enables highly interactive university course scheduling will be presented. In order to support a wide range of environments, the approach rests upon a very general domain model and does not depend on a specific solver technology.
Keywords: interactive timetabling, decision support systems, examination regulations, planning user interfaces
The Utility of Controlled Vocabularies within Bookmark Management Tasks BIBAKFull-TextPDF 90-94
  Siu-Tsen Shen; Stephen D. Prior
This research investigates the utility of adopting a controlled vocabulary approach to bookmark management. An initial user survey conducted for this research has shown that just over half the population use bookmarks to save important websites and that 75% of these people use up to three sub-levels only. The bookmark facility within all current web browsers is therefore underutilized and the argument that users need and want greater freedom and flexibility to create their own unique file structure is disputed. We conclude that users need a simple, logical and contextual system of bookmark management which complements their daily lives.
Keywords: controlled vocabulary; bookmark management; web browser; information search; information retrieval
Designing Multi-Modal Map-Based Interfaces for Disaster Management BIBAKFull-TextPDF 95-100
  Volker Paelke; Karsten Nebe; Christian Geiger; Florian Klompmaker; Holger Fischer
The access to current and reliable maps and data is a critical factor in the management of disaster situations. Standard user interfaces are not well suited to provide this information to crisis managers. Especially in dynamic situations conventional cartographic displays and mouse based interaction techniques fail to address the need to review a situation rapidly and act on it as a team. The development of novel interaction techniques like multi-touch and tangible interaction in combination with large displays provides a promising base technology to provide crisis managers with an adequate overview of the situation and to share relevant information with other stakeholders in a collaborative setting. However, design expertise on the use of such techniques in interfaces for real-world applications is still very sparse. We are, therefore, conducting interdisciplinary research with a user and application centric focus to establish real-world requirements, to design new multi-modal mapping interfaces, and to validate them in disaster management applications. Initial results show that tangible and pen-based interaction are well suited to provide an intuitive and visible way to control who is changing data in a multi-user command and control interface.
Keywords: post-WIMP user interfaces; natural user interfaces; mapping; geo-visualization; multi-touch interaction; pen-based interaction; tangible interaction
Multilingual Ontology Alignment Based on Visual Representations of Ontology Concepts BIBAKFull-TextPDF 101-105
  Srdan Mihic; Dragan Ivetic
Image search represents one of the most frequent user actions on the Internet. Existing image search engines do not understand the images they return, nor do they support multilingualism. These issues can be addressed with the introduction of a semantic layer. The semantics is encoded in ontologies, which contain structured information about a domain of application. In order to provide semantic interoperability between (multilingual) ontologies, it is necessary to obtain semantic correspondences -- ontology alignments. Various strategies have been proposed for multilingual ontology alignment. In this concept paper, the idea of alignment discovery based on semantic similarity of visual representations of ontology concept is explored.
Keywords: multilingual ontologies; ontology alignment; image retrieval; multimedia semantics
TsoKaDo: An Image Search Engine Performing Recursive Query Recommendation Based on Visual Information BIBAKFull-TextPDF 106-111
  Lazaros Tsochatzidis; Athanasios Kapoutsis; Nikos Dourvas; Savvas Chatzichristofis; Yiannis Boutalis; Konstantinos Zagoris
This paper tackles the problem of the user's incapability to describe exactly the image that he seeks by introducing an innovative image search engine called TsoKaDo. Until now the traditional web image search was based only on the comparison between metadata of the webpage and the user's textual description. In the method proposed, images from various search engines are classified based on visual content and new tags are proposed to the user. Recursively, the results get closer to the user's desire. The aim of this paper is to present a new way of searching, especially in case with less query generality, giving greater weight in visual content rather than in metadata.
Keywords: Image Retrieval; Metadata; Image Annotation; Query Recommendation Systems

Interfaces I

Head Nod and Shake Gesture Interface for a Self-portrait Camera BIBAKFull-TextPDF 112-117
  Shaowei Chu; Jiro Tanaka
Interactive interfaces and applications are a flourishing research area. In this paper, we introduce a head gesture interface for a digital camera shooting self-portrait pictures. Natural head nodding and shaking gestures can be recognized in real-time, using optical-flow motion tracking. A double head nod triggers the camera shutter to take shots. Continuous nodding or shaking triggers a zooming interface to zoom the user's face in or out. To make the recognition robust, a safe zone analysis of the head region was conducted to quickly exclude any insignificant head motion, and thresholds of moving direction and length of head motion were selected in a preliminary set-up step. A finite state machine was used to recognize head gestures. Our results show that the proposed head gesture recognition method is a promising interface for a self-portrait camera.
Keywords: head gesture; self-portrait; human computer interaction; optical-flow; motion tracking
Towards 3D Data Environments using Multi-Touch Screens BIBAKFull-TextPDF 118-121
  Francisco R. Ortega; Armando Barreto; Naphtali Rishe; Malek Adjouadi
The increase in availability of multi-touch devices has motivated us to consider interaction approaches outside the limitations associated with the use of a mouse. The problem that we try to solve is how to interact in a 3D world using a 2D surface multi-touch display. Before showing our proposed solution, we briefly review previous work in related fields that provided a framework for the development of our approach. Finally, we propose a set of multi-touch gestures and outline an experiment design for the evaluation of these forms of interaction.
Keywords: Multi-Touch; 3D Interaction; 3D Navigation; Gestures
User Interface for Trust Decision Making in Inter-Enterprise Collaborations BIBAKFull-TextPDF 122-127
  Puneet Kaur; Sini Ruohomaa; Lea Kutvonen
Trust decisions on inter-enterprise collaborations involve a trustor's subjective evaluation of its willingness to participate in the specific collaboration, given the risks and incentives involved. In earlier work, we have built support on automating routine trust decisions based on a combination of risk, reputation and incentive information. Non-routine cases must be dealt with by human users, who require access to supporting information for their decisions; further, their needs differ somewhat from the needs of automation tools. This paper presents work in progress to provide a usable user interface for manual trust decisions on inter-enterprise collaborations in situations where automated decisions cannot be made. We have implemented a trust decision expert tool and are in the process of evaluating it and incorporating it into a broader collaboration management toolset.
Keywords: trust decisions, reputation, risk, inter-enterprise collaboration, expert tool
Human Operator Perspective to Autonomic Network Management BIBAKFull-TextPDF 128-134
  Marja Liinasuo; Iina Aaltonen; Hannu Karvonen; Beatriz Fuentes; Alfonso Castro
Autonomic Communications is a promising approach for the management of future networks, based on providing self-management and other self-x capabilities to the network elements. Network Governance approach aims to develop new methods for operators to efficiently manage this intelligent infrastructure, ensuring human-to-network communication. This paper presents an interview-based analysis of the expertise of human network operators in their network management activity and the derived requirements for the governance of a self-managed network from a human point of view. The requirements cover the aspects of trust, division of labor between human operators and self-x functionalities, self-x design and human-to-network interface.
Keywords: autonomic networks; self x; Network Governance; human operators; human factors
Contents Enforme: Automatic Deformation of Content for Multi-features without Information Loss BIBAKFull-TextPDF 135-140
  Hiroaki Tobita
We introduce a deformation technique that enlarges the feature areas in an image while retaining the information in the non-feature areas. Our main purpose is to provide an effective thumbnail that is useful for practical use in small display devices (e.g., cellular phones, digital cameras, and game devices). Even though many approaches to achieve our purpose have been developed, they are not useful because they require enough time to calculate features. In contrast, our approach can quickly deform image features based on a rapid segmentation technique that our laboratory has proposed. Moreover, our system calculates each segmented area, so it can treat multi-features as deformation elements. As a result, the feature areas were enlarged and the non-feature areas were reduced at almost processing speed, and the total information contained in the original image was retained. Our smooth deformation technique is useful not only for image deformation, but also for a wide variety of contents such as net-meeting and video contents. In this paper, we describe the concept underlying the image enforme technique and its applications.
Keywords: Deformation; Information Retrieval; Video Compression; Zooming; Thumbnail; Net-meeting

Interfaces II

Authenticated Tangible Interaction using RFID and Depth-Sensing Cameras BIBAKFull-TextPDF 141-144
  Florian Klompmaker; Holger Fischer; Helge Jung
Interactive large screen displays like tabletops or walls can enhance the interaction between humans and computers. A major topic is the collaboration between multiple simultaneous interacting people. However, most systems suffer from the problem that a distinction of different users is not possible. Hence, in this paper the authors present a work in progress approach of combining various existing technologies in order to enable personalized authenticated tangible interactions on a tabletop. Therefore, authentication using Radio-Frequency Identification in combination with depth-sensing cameras is used. We demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, the multiple advantages for interaction and give an outlook on further activities and lessons learned.
Keywords: natural user interfaces; multitouch interaction; tangible interaction; interactive table; authentication
Generic Brain-computer Interface for Social and Human-computer Interaction BIBAKFull-TextPDF 145-149
  Julita de la Vega Arias; Christoph Hintermüller; Christoph Guger
After suffering a more severe disease like spinal cord injury or stroke patients are often not able to interact or even communicate with their environment anymore, especially at the beginning of rehabilitation. Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) can substitute this temporarily lost communication channels and might support rehabilitation by providing an alternative way for controlling a computer only by thoughts without any muscle activity. This enables the patient to communicate by writing letters on the screen, to stay socially in contact with friends or people outside the rehabilitation facility by participating in games like Second Life, where they may appear as healthy persons. Another application isto control items in their room connected to the BCI system like the lights which can be turned off and on as it can be done in a virtual smart home without leaving the bed. In this paper, the technology of such BCIs and the mentioned applications are described utilizing the P300 approach. A generic BCI interface is presented, which allows controlling them and concurrently and transparently switching among them. The results of a recent study show that a BCI can be used by patients suffering from cervical spinal cord injury almost as well as by healthy people which encourages us to think it may assist rehabilitation regarding the social aspect. A variety of BCI can be implemented with the aim of provide them a more active and accessible lives.
Keywords: Brain-Computer Interface; BCI; P300; Visual Evoked Potentials; speller; Second Life; Virtual Smart Home
A Conversational System to Assist the User when Accessing Web Sources in the Medical Domain BIBAKFull-TextPDF 150-154
  Marta Gatius; Tsetsegkhand Namsrai
The aim of our research is to develop a framework of personal conversational assistants, adapted to different types of tasks and users. In particular, we have focused on how a conversational assistant can help the users in several situations related to the medical domain, and thus can help people take care of their health. In this paper we describe how the cultural assistant could help the user in four situations: finding a new specialist, finding the closest pharmacy, consulting a specific drug prescription and making an appointment to see the doctor. Our proposal is based on the integration of language, dialogue and ontologies to assist the user when accessing different types of web sources: informational and transactional services, dictionaries, maps. We have focused in a set of selected scenarios were a conversational assistant can be useful and the conceptual and linguistic resources needed are limited.
Keywords: Keywords-conversational web assistant systems; ontologies; medical domain
Face Detection CUDA Accelerating BIBAKFull-TextPDF 155-160
  Jaromír Krpec; Martin Nemec
Face detection is very useful and important for many different disciplines. Even for our future work, where the face detection will be used, we wanted to determine, whether it is advantageous to use the technology CUDA for detection faces. First, we implemented the Viola and Jones algorithm in the basic one-thread CPU version. Then the basic application is widened to the multi-thread CPU version. Finally, the face detection algorithm is also implemented for the GPU using CUDA technology. At the end, final programs are compared and the results are presented in this paper. For our future plans, the speed-up of face detection is very important. By supporting CUDA technology, the process of the face detection showed considerable speed-up.
Keywords: CUDA; GPU; Face Detection; Viola and Jones algorithm
User Attention in Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-TextPDF 161-164
  Pekka Isomursu; Minna Isomursu; Mari Ervasti
The multichannel information (over)flow emerging in modern mobile multimedia devices creates a situation where the user's attention is a valuable asset for which different channels have to compete. This paper explores issues that help in effective use and maintenance of the user's attention level in such environment. We demonstrate with examples how the user's attention level can maintain high at different stages of task switching and execution.
Keywords: mobile Internet; attentive user interface; user interface; UI; ambient notification; human factors; design

Interaction & Interface Design & Evaluation I

Semiautomatic Evaluation of Websites Usability BIBAKFull-TextPDF 165-169
  Eva Garcia; Antonio Garcia-Cabot; Luis de-Marcos; Salvador Oton; Jose-Ramon Hilera
This paper presents a semiautomatic evaluation method of usability in websites. Expert review is done in this case using a template based on the ISO 9241-151 guidelines that provides numerical and graphical results. Such results permit to observe the aspects of usability that are missed on the evaluated website. This template has many applications as it can be used both to evaluate websites and to teach heuristic evaluation method for students who are studying subjects of usability.
Keywords: Usability evaluation; usability guidelines; heuristic evaluation; web usability
Motion-sound Interaction Using Sonification based on Motiongrams BIBAKFull-TextPDF 170-175
  Alexander Refsum Jensenius
The paper presents a method for sonification of human body motion based on motiongrams. Motiongrams show the spatiotemporal development of body motion by plotting average matrices of motion images over time. The resultant visual representation resembles spectrograms, and is treated as such by the new sonifyer module for Jamoma for Max, which turns motiongrams into sound by reading a part of the matrix and passing it on to an oscillator bank. The method is surprisingly simple, and has proven to be useful for analytical applications and in interactive music systems.
Keywords: sonification; motion; motiongram; jamoma
Touchscreen Interfaces for Visual Languages BIBAKFull-TextPDF 176-179
  Michael Hackett; Philip T. Cox
Through the construction of a simple mock visual programming language (VPL) editor, this study compares two different styles of touchscreen interface and demonstrates the natural fit between touch input and visual programming. The touchscreen removes a layer of indirection introduced by the mouse and allows for a more direct relationship -- literally "hands on" -- with the objects on the screen. The addition of "multi-touch" also opens up intriguing possibilities for two-handed, immersive interfaces, with the potential for greater efficiencies than possible with the mouse's single point of interaction.
Keywords: Touchscreens; visual programming; bimanual; user interfaces; kinaesthetic feedback
Design Guidelines for Hybrid 2D/3D User Interfaces on Tablet Devices - A User Experience Evaluation BIBAKFull-TextPDF 180-185
  Katri Salo; Leena Arhippainen; Seamus Hickey
There is a growing proliferation of 3D based applications in tablet devices, but there is a lack of studies evaluating user experiences of these user interfaces. In particular, most of these applications use a mix of overlaid 2D controls and embedded 3D controls for user interactions and there is little current understanding on how users perceive and experience these controls. This paper presents the results of a user experience evaluation made for the user interface of four 3D applications running on two different tablet devices. A number of results are obtained. First, the results show that users wish that applications had less 2D overlaid icons and more space for touch gesture interactions. Second, the number of on screen control elements complicates the activity and provides a more disappointing experience. Third, avatar control was difficult as there were no tips or clear cues on how to use them. Fourth, users expected to control and interact with the applications by using direct touch gestures in the 3D space. As a result, design guidelines for hybrid 2D/3D user interfaces were created.
Keywords: 3D; hybrid; tablet; user experience; user interface
A Usage-Centered Evaluation Methodology for Unmanned Ground Vehicles BIBAKFull-TextPDF 186-191
  Jurriaan van Diggelen; Rosemarijn Looije; Tina Mioch; Mark Neerincx; Nanja Smets
This paper presents a usage-centered evaluation method to assess the capabilities of a particular Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) for establishing the operational goals. The method includes a test battery consisting of basic tasks (e.g., slalom, funnel driving, object detection). Tests can be of different levels of abstraction, and be performed in a virtual or real environment. In this way, several candidate UGV's in a procurement program can be assessed, and thus compared. Also, it can give directions to research on improving human-robot interfaces. A first case study of this methodology conveyed capability differences of two alternative user interfaces for a specific UGV with their operational impact.
Keywords: Human-robot cooperation; Performance evaluation

Interaction & Interface Design & Evaluation II

An Error Analysis Model for Adaptive Deformation Simulation BIBAKFull-TextPDF 192-199
  Umut Kocak; Karljohan Lundin Palmerius; Matthew Cooper
With the widespread use of deformation simulations in medical applications, the realism of the force feedback has become an important issue. In order to reach real-time performance with sufficient realism the approach of adaptivity, solution of different parts of the system with different resolutions and refresh rates, has been commonly deployed. The change in accuracy resulting from the use of adaptivity, however, has been paid scant attention in the deformation simulation field. Presentation of error metrics is rare, while more focus is given to the real-time stability. We propose an abstract pipeline to perform error analysis for different types of deformation techniques which can consider different simulation parameters. A case study is also performed using the pipeline, and the various uses of the error estimation are discussed.
Keywords: physically based, deformation, multi-resolution, perception, error, analysis
On the Evaluation of Auditory and Head-up Displays While Driving BIBAKFull-TextPDF 200-203
  Christina Dicke; Grega Jakus; Saso Tomazic; Jaka Sodnik
In this paper, we propose a low cost, laboratory based testing framework for in-vehicle interfaces. Exemplified by a comparison between an auditory interface, a Head-up display, and a combination of both we show how task completion times, driving penalty points, mental workload, and subjective user evaluations of the interfaces can be collected through different logging systems and user questionnaires. The driving simulator used in the experiment enables the simulation of varying traffic conditions as well as different driving scenarios including a highway and a busy city center. Only some preliminary results are reported in this paper.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; auditory interface; head-up display; car simulator; driving performance
Evaluating the Usability and the Communicability of Grid Computing Applications BIBAKFull-TextPDF 204-207
  Cristian Rusu; Silvana Roncagliolo; Arturo Figueroa; Virginica Rusu; Dorian Gorgan
Usability is a main attribute of any interactive software system. Its relevance for Grid Computing applications is expected to increase, as the technical knowledge of grid users will gradually decrease. Usability evaluation for Grid Computing applications brings new challenges. A set of specific usability heuristics was defined and validated. The paper presents a Grid Computing communicability study and evaluates the communicability's impact on applications' usability.
Keywords: usability; communicability; grid computing applications; semiotic engineering; usability heuristics
Practical Usability in XP Software Development Processes BIBAKFull-TextPDF 208-217
  Zahid Hussain; Martin Lechner; Harald Milchrahm; Sara Shahzad; Wolfgang Slany; Martin Umgeher; Thomas Vlk; Christina Koeffel; Manfred Tscheligi; Peter Wolkerstorfer
This paper describes the experiences made and lessons learned in an Extreme Programming (XP) software development project. We investigate the potential of XP to produce user experience-optimized products by including HCI experts in the team. We relate the software development method to user-centered design instruments and propose solutions to different user experience integration problems. Additionally, the practicability of different HCI instruments regarding solving those problems is examined. The analyzed instruments and methods are: user studies, personas, usability tests, user experience expert evaluations, and extended unit tests. The conclusion provides tips and tricks for practitioners.
Keywords: Agile Methods; Extreme Programming; Usability; User Experience; User-Centered Design

Human-robot Interaction

Emotion Recognition Through ANS Responses Evoked by Negative Emotions BIBAKFull-TextPDF 218-223
  Eun-Hye Jang; Byoung-Jun Park; Yeongji Eum; Sang-Hyeob Kim; Chul Huh; Jin-Hun Sohn
Emotion recognition using physiological responses is one of the core processes to implement emotional intelligence in human-computer interaction (HCI) research. The purpose of this study was to investigate emotion-specific ANS responses and test recognition rate using classification algorithm when negative emotion such as fear, surprise, and stress was evoked. The results of one-way ANOVA toward each parameter, there were significant differences among three emotions in skin conductance response (SCR), number of SCR (NSCR), skin temperature (SKT), and high frequency of HRV (HF). Results of emotion recognition applied to statistical method, i.e. linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and 4 machine learning algorithm, i.e. classification and regression tree (CART), self organizing map (SOM), Naïve Bayes and support vector machine (SVM) for emotion recognition showed that an accuracy of emotion classification by SVM was the highest and by LDA was the lowest. This can be helpful to provide the basis for the emotion recognition technique in HCI as well as contribute to the standardization in emotion-specific ANS responses.
Keywords: emotion recognition; machine learning algorithm; ANS responses
Identification of Optimal Emotion Classifier with Feature Selections Using Physiological Signals BIBAKFull-TextPDF 224-229
  Byoung-Jun Park; Eun-Hye Jang; Sang-Hyeob Kim; Chul Huh; Jin-Hun Sohn
The purpose of this study is to identify optimal algorithm for emotion classification which classify seven different emotional states (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, surprise, and stress) using physiological features. Skin temperature, photoplethysmography, electrodermal activity and electrocardiogram are recorded and analyzed as physiological signals. For classification problems of the seven emotions, the design involves two main phases. At the first phase, Particle Swarm Optimization selects P% of patterns to be treated as prototypes of seven emotional categories. At the second phase, the PSO is instrumental in the formation of a core set of features that constitute a collection of the most meaningful and highly discriminative elements of the original feature space. The study offers a complete algorithmic framework and demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach for a collection of selected data sets.
Keywords: emotion classification, physiologial signals, prototypes, feature selection, particle swarm optimization
Interacting with Navigation Devices: A Case Study BIBAKFull-TextPDF 230-235
  Javier Calle; Esperanza Albacete; Enrique Sánchez; Dolores Cuadra
The paper aims to study the adequacy of interactive capabilities in commercial navigation devices. In order to do this, an experiment is proposed and two sets of results are obtained and analyzed: one resulting from the application of objective metrics; and the other one, from subjective answers of the device users when queried about their experience. To the extent that these interactive capabilities are found to be inadequate, it is the goal of this study to ascertain (1) whether a more natural, human-like interaction paradigm (i.e., natural interaction) ought to be incorporated into these kinds of devices and, if so, (2) the extent to which their interactive capabilities improve as a result. For this, a direct comparison of device interactive capabilities with those of human beings is necessary. Study results suggest that the incorporation of natural interaction in navigation devices may help respond to certain device interactive inadequacies as well as to the user dissatisfaction which those inadequacies engender.
Keywords: Guiding Service; Natural Interaction; Evaluation
Kalman Filter for Tracking Robotic Arms Using low cost 3D Vision Systems BIBAKFull-TextPDF 236-240
  Enrique Martinez-Berti; Antonio-José Sanchez-Salmerón; Francesc Benimeli
This paper describes a platform which allows humans to interact with robotic arms using augmented reality. Low cost "kinect" cameras (Xbox 360) are used for tracking human skeletons and locations of robot's end effectors. The main goal of this paper is to develop robust trackers on this platform. Concretely, a Kalman filter is used for tracking robotic arms using data received from these sensors. It comes to finding a low cost platform for human-robot interactions.
Keywords: low cost vision system; Kalman filter; augmented reality; kinematics; Human-machine interaction
Predicting Performance and Situation Awareness of Robot Operators in Complex Situations by Unit Task Tests BIBAKFull-TextPDF 241-246
  Tina Mioch; Nanja J. J. M. Smets; Mark A. Neerincx
Human-in-the-loop field tests of human-robot operations in high-demand situations provide serious constraints with respect to costs and control. A set of relatively simple unit tasks might be used to do part of the testing and to establish a benchmark for human-robot performance and situation awareness. For an urban search and rescue ('tunnel accident') scenario, we selected and refined the corresponding unit tasks from a first version of a test battery. First responders (fire-men) conducted these unit tasks with a state-of-the-art robot and, subsequently, had to perform the 'tunnel accident' mission in a realistic field setting with the same robot. The 'Detect objects' unit task proved to partially predict operator's performance and the operator's collision awareness in the scenario. Individual differences, particularly age, had a major effect on performance and collision awareness in both the unit tasks and scenario.
Keywords: Human-robot cooperation; Performance evaluation

Human-computer Interaction in Education and Training I

Evaluation of Cognitive Effort in the Perception of Engineering Drawings as 3D Models BIBAKFull-TextPDF 247-250
  Florin Girbacia
In this paper, an experiment aiming at estimating the cognitive complexity of engineering drawings by measuring the reaction time and the accuracy of mentally reconstructing 3D objects from engineering drawings is presented. The performed experiment emphasizes the complexity that the engineer is facing in the product development process, shown by increased reaction time and reduced accuracy of 3D reconstructed objects. The precision and the reaction time were not considerably improved by using 3D stereoscopic viewing. Based on the results obtained from the experiment, a new class of technical drawings called Augmented Reality Technical Drawings (ARTD) is proposed. This solution enhances the visual perception by co-locating the 3D virtual object with the corresponding engineering drawing and offers the quick recognition of the object with less perceptive ambiguities.
Keywords: computer aided design; product development; engineering drawings; mental reconstruction
A Recommendation Method Based on Contents and User Feedback BIBAKFull-TextPDF 251-255
  So Ryoung Kim; Sang Min Choi; Yo Sub Han; Lae Hyun Kim
Nowadays, user is provided with many contents, which the previous search engines failed to find, thanks to various recommendation systems. These recommendation algorithms are usually carried out using collaborating filtering algorithm, which predicts user's preference, or contents based algorithm, which calculates on the basis of the similarity between contents. In addition to the above algorithms, many algorithms using user's context have been recently developed. Based on the previous researches, this paper proposes a new system to categorize contents information into various factors and learn user's selection. First, we divide information of items into four types and make user preference pattern using each information type. The information types can express more various user preferences and user preference pattern can calmly deal with user preference. Then, we calculate the score for recommendation using user preference pattern. That is, our system is constructed on these three modules: item analyzing module, user pattern analyzing module and recommendation score module. Lastly, we provide entire system flow to show how they work.
Keywords: Recommend method, Learning algorithm, User Preference, Recommendation system
Developing a Human Computer Interaction Course for an Information Technology Major BIBAKFull-TextPDF 256-261
  Cynthia Lester
It has been reported that even in the slowing economy in the United States, that the field of technology will continue its projected growth in the job market through the year 2018. Consequently, many institutions have begun to offer degrees that specialize not just in engineering or computer science, but in information technology, as well. Degrees are offered at the associate's, bachelor's, master's, and PhD levels from a variety of two-year and four-year institutions. Students who major in information technology explore management and information theory. More specifically, students focus on current technology trends and applications as it relates to the business and communication applications of computing with special emphasis on e-business, e-commerce and business computing. As a result of the merger between technology and business many of the degree programs especially at the undergraduate and graduate levels offer specific courses in human factors in information systems or human-computer interface to cover designing systems with human behavior in mind. The aim of this paper is to present the development of an undergraduate human computer interaction course for a newly developed information technology major leading to a bachelor's degree in information technology. The paper presents the teaching pedagogy selected for the course; course description including course outcomes and topics; and, student assessments. Also discussed are challenges in the development of the course as it relates to being cross-listed for enrollment by both information technology and computer science majors.
Keywords: Human computer interaction; information technology; undergraduate students
Physical Instructional Support System Using Virtual Avatars BIBAKFull-TextPDF 262-265
  Tomoaki Ogawa; Yasushi Kambayashi
Certain sports such as martial arts and dance have sets of good typical motion types. These motion types were abstracted from the physical movements of excellent practitioners. They are devised for instruction purpose, and are optimal movements of the target sports. It is extremely important for learners to learn these typical motion types. Traditionally the transfer of such typical motion types is done by in-person instructions. Therefore it is considered that it is not suitable for distance learning environment. We have developed a support system to convey this motion types by way of communication networks. In this paper, we propose a real-time physical instructional support system. The instructor and the learners communicate with each other by the virtual humanoid 3D-CG avatars through the Internet. By using this system, it is possible for the instructor to demonstrate his motions, and for learners to obtain the instructor's movements at distant places. The obtained information is beyond simple camera images. Because the system provides the three-dimensional perspectives and it superimposes the instructor's movements on the learner's avatars as well as provides a means of real-time direct communication.
Keywords: sport; Kinect; MMDAgentt; remote instruction

Human-computer Interaction in Education and Training II

Situated Cognitive Engineering: The Requirements and Design of Automatically Directed Scenario-based Training BIBAKFull-TextPDF 266-272
  Marieke Peeters; Karel van den Bosch; John-Jules Ch. Meyer; Mark A. Neerincx
Serious games enable trainees to practice independently of school, staff, and fellow students. This is important as amount of practice directly relates to training efficacy. It is also known that personalized guidance elevates the benefits of training. How to achieve automated guidance, for example to be used in serious games, is a yet unsolved issue. This paper uses the situated Cognitive Engineering method to analyze the operational demands, theoretical foundations and technological opportunities for the design of an automatically directed scenario-based training system (AD-SBT). AD-SBT guides training by selecting scenarios that match the trainee's competency level, by monitoring the training process, and by offering appropriate support. Three instructional principles are used: adapt training to the trainee's cognitive characteristics, strengthen the trainee's will to learn, and foster transfer of learned skills. This paper reports evidence taken from the literature and by means of a use case simulation to validate and verify the presented requirements for AD-SBT and the underlying claims. Results show that the introduced requirements baseline and the resulting design for AD-SBT form a good starting point for future refinement and prototyping.
Keywords: director; scenario; training; cognitive engineering
Augmented Reality in Minimally Invasive Surgery BIBAKFull-TextPDF 273-277
  Lucio Tommaso Paolis De De Paolis; Giovanni Aloisio Aloisio
The advantages of the Minimally Invasive Surgery are evident for the patients, but these techniques have some limitations for the surgeons. In medicine, the Augmented Reality (AR) technology allows surgeons to have a sort of "X-ray" vision of the patient's body and can help them during the surgical procedures. In this paper we present two applications of Augmented Reality that could be used as support for a more accurate preoperative surgical planning and also for an image-guided surgery. The first AR application can support the surgeon during the needle insertion for the Radio-frequency Ablation of the liver tumours in order to guide the needle and to have a precise placement of the instrument within the lesion. The augmented visualization can avoid as much as possible to destroy healthy cells of the liver. The second AR application can support the surgeon in the preoperative surgical planning by means of the visualization of the 3D models of the organs built from patient's medical images and in the choice of the best insertion points of the trocars in the patient's body.
Keywords: Augmented Reality, medical images, minimally invasive surgery, laparoscopic pediatric surgery, RF ablation
Increased Cognitive Load in Resolution of Problems Caused by Human Error on New Aircrafts BIBAKFull-TextPDF 278-284
  Edgard Martins
The flaws in the commitment of decision-making in emergency situations and the lack of perception related to all elements associated with a given situation in a short space of time indicate, often, lack of situational awareness. Automation always surprises the crews and often prevents them from understanding the extent of this technology that is very common in aircraft units with a high degree of automation. These facts are discussed in a subtle way by aircraft drivers who can not do it openly, as it might create an impression of professional self-worthlessness (self-deprecation). This leads to common questions like: What is happening now? What will be the next step of automated systems? This type of doubt would be inadmissible in older aircraft because the pilot of those machines works as an extension of the plane. This scenario contributes to emotional disorders and a growing hidden problem in the aeronautical field. These unexpected automation surprises reflect a complete misunderstanding or even the misinformation of the users. It also reveals their inability and limitations to overcome these new situations that were not foreseen by the aircraft designers. Our studies showed a different scenario when the accident is correlated with systemic variables. It has identified the problems or errors that contribute to the fact that drivers are unable to act properly. These vectors, when they come together, may generate eventually a temporary incompetence of the pilot due to limited capacity or lack of training in the appropriateness of automation in aircraft or even, the worst alternative, due to a personal not visible and not detectable non-adaptation to automation. We must also consider in the analysis the inadequate training and many other reasons, so that we can put in right proportion the effective participation or culpability of the pilot in accidents. Our doctoral thesis presents statistical studies that allow us to assert that the emotional and cognitive overload are being increased with automation widely applied in the cockpits of modern aircraft, and also that these new projects do not go hand in hand with the desired cognitive and ergonomic principles.
Keywords: New technologies; Automation; Human error
Using Social Media for Collaborative Learning in Higher Education: A Case Study BIBAKFull-TextPDF 285-290
  Na Li; Sandy El Helou; Denis Gillet
This paper investigates the acceptability of using social media for collaborative learning in the context of higher education. A social media platform, Graasp, is used to support students' learning activities in a project-based course. An evaluation of Graasp regarding its usefulness as a collaboration platform, a knowledge management site, and a gadget container, was conducted with the course participants. Quantitative and qualitative assessment methods used in the evaluation, as well as the main findings are presented.
Keywords: social media, collaborative learning, knowledge management, E-Learning 2.0
AlgoPath: A New Way of Learning Algorithmic BIBAKFull-TextPDF 291-296
  Estelle Perrin; Sébastien Linck
This paper presents a new way of learning algorithmic: AlgoPath is a virtual world in which variables are represented by 3D figures carrying a backpack and the sequence of instructions is represented by a stone path. The interface of AlgoPath helps students to avoid common mistakes. The world of AlgoPath gives them a mental representation of algorithms. Students are more prone to learn because AlgoPath changes the level of difficulty. They can forget the off-putting syntax and grammar of algorithmics. AlgoPath is ludic and students feel they are more playing than learning.
Keywords: 3D-based training; education; algorithmics; ludic teaching

Interactive Systems

Alleyoop: Interactive Information Retrieval System with Sketch Manipulations BIBAKFull-TextPDF 297-302
  Hiroaki Tobita
The Alleyoop system enables users to retrieve information through sketch manipulations. A number of information retrieval systems already enable users to casually search and browse through the Web. These systems are useful for conventional input forms where a user uses a keyboard to input a keyword to a dialog box. However, they are not suitable for pen-based input styles. Users of pen-based computers have to input a query to a fixed dialog box by drawing the query. In contrast, the Alleyoop system is designed for pen-based computing, so users can interactively retrieve information through sketch manipulations. When a user draws a closed curve and a keyword, information nodes related to the keyword are collected automatically inside the closed curve. The user can also create a Venn diagram by continuously drawing closed curves and keywords, and form more complex queries for information retrieval. Moreover, the system allows the user to create a layout by drawing strokes freely, so he/she can set the information nodes on the layout and see them in detail. In this paper, we describe our Alleyoop system and how it can be effectively applied.
Keywords: Retrieval; Information Visualization; Sketch and Paint Manipulations; Interactive System
Interactive Hand Gesture-based Assembly for Augmented Reality Applications BIBAKFull-TextPDF 303-308
  Rafael Radkowski; Christian Stritzke
This paper presents an Augmented Reality (AR) assembly system for the interactive assembly of 3D models of technical systems. We use a hand tracking and hand gesture recognition system to detect the interaction of the user. The Microsoft Kinect video camera is the basis. The Kinect observes both hands of a user and the interactions. Thus, a user can select, manipulate, and assemble 3D models of mechanical systems. The paper presents the AR system and the interaction techniques we utilize for the virtual assembly. The interaction techniques have been tested by a group of users. The test results are explained and show that the interaction techniques facilitate an intuitive assembly.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Interaction; Interactive Assembly
A Dance Training System that Maps Self-Images onto an Instruction Video BIBAKFull-TextPDF 309-314
  Minoru Fujimoto; Tsutomu Terada; Masahiko Tsukamoto
Owing to recent advancements in motion capture technologies, physical exercise systems that use human interaction technologies have been attracting a great deal of attention. There are already various approaches in place that support motion training methods by using motion capture technology and wearable sensors to analyze body motion. In this study, our basic idea was to change the appearance of a dancer in an instruction video to that of the user, who we assume would be interested in seeing what they would look like if they could perform so well. We developed a motion training system that maps the user's image onto an instruction video. Evaluation results demonstrated that our proposed method is effective for motion training in specific situations.
Keywords: motion capture; motion training
Interaction in Augmented Reality by Means of Z-buffer Based Collision Detection BIBAKFull-TextPDF 315-318
  Yasuyuki Souma; Hidemi Yamachi; Yasuhiro Tsujimura; Yasushi Kambayashi
We propose a new interaction method in AR (augmented reality) using a depth sensor and a collision detection method with the Z-buffer. The method generates 3D models of the real world in real-time and performs interaction between the real and virtual world. In order to provide the real-time collision detection between the models of real world and those of virtual world, we have developed a detection method called Cyber Radar. This technique uses two sets of depth values of the Z-buffer that is generated through the orthographic projection. One is obtained through rendering the virtual space from the sensor object toward a target point. This set does not have the depth values of the sensor object. Another one is obtained through rendering only the sensor object in the reverse direction. From these two depth value sets, we obtain the distance between the sensor object and others for each pixel. This technique requires only one or two rendering processes and it is independent from the complexity of object's shape, deformation or motion. In this paper, we evaluate the interaction using this method and report the problems to be solved.
Keywords: Cyber Radar; depth sensor; Z-buffer; collision detection; object detection

User Modeling and User Focus I

The Effect of Metacognition in Cooperation on Team Behaviors BIBAKFull-TextPDF 319-325
  Kohei Nonose; Taro Kanno; Kazuo Furuta
Teams and teamwork are indispensable, especially when tackling difficult and complex tasks that cannot be easily addressed by a single individual. Because breakdowns in team cooperation can cause accidents, much research attention has been devoted to studies on team cooperation, and many measurements and training of teamwork have been proposed. Traditional studies have often focused on observational teamwork behaviors to measure and enhance teamwork. In order to better measure and enhance teamwork, it is believed that it is necessary to focus on the cognitive mechanisms that underlie teamwork. This study focuses on metacognition in cooperation that underlies team cooperation, and aims to investigate the importance of metacognition in cooperation. The comparisons of metacognition in cooperation and team performance indexes suggest that an improvement of metacognition in cooperation will enhance team performance and that certain types of metacognition in cooperation are important for positive teamwork.
Keywords: team cooperation, cognition, measurements, training
Educational Playability Analyzing Player Experiences in Educational Video Games BIBAKFull-TextPDF 326-335
  Amer Ibrahim; Francisco Luis Gutiérrez Vela; Natalia Padilla Zea
Educational video games constitute some of the main edutainment applications currently on the market. However, the development of video games as educational tools is very difficult due to their multidisciplinary nature (fun and education). Player Experience is a good measure of the level of fun and education presented to players and determines, to some extent, the success of an educational video game. This paper examines the importance of the role of Player Experience in motivating and enhancing the concept of learning through play, and highlights the role of Educational Playability attributes as suitable and effective tools to analyze and measure the experience obtained by a player during a game. The paper also discusses the role of a balanced Educational Video Game that provides a good level of motivation and engagement in order to improve player experience.
Keywords: Playability; Player Experience; Educational Video Game
User Experience: Buzzword or New Paradigm? BIBAKFull-TextPDF 336-341
  Dominique Scapin; Bernard Senach; Brigitte Trousse; Marc Pallot
This paper explores User Experience, a rather novel and popular view on human-computer interaction, through an extensive review of the literature. After introducing its polysemous nature, this paper describes the origins of User Experience, its scope, components and various definitions. Then, User Experience methods are surveyed, distinguishing processes, frameworks, and specific methods. The conclusion identifies a set of issues about the needs for increased User Experience maturity.
Keywords: User Experience, Usage, HCI, New Paradigm, Hedonic, Pragmatic, Methods
Enhancing Automatic Detection of Frustration Induced During HCI with Moment-based Biosignal Features BIBAKFull-TextPDF 342-347
  Dimitris Giakoumis; Dimitrios Tzovaras; George Hassapis
Enhancing HCI systems with the capability to detect user's frustration and respond appropriately is a significant challenge. In this line, biosignal features based on the theory of orthogonal Krawtchouk and Legendre moments are assessed in the present work over their ability to enhance accuracy in automatic detection of frustration, which is induced through HCI, during video-game playing. Experimental evaluation, conducted over a multi-subject dataset over frustration detection showed that conventional features, typically extracted from Galvanic Skin Response and Electrocardiogram in the past, achieved correct classification rate (CCR) of 83.59%. Fusing these conventional features with moment-based ones extracted from the same modalities resulted to significantly higher accuracy, at the level of 93%. Furthermore, moment-based features lead also to over 10% increase in CCR when the aim was to identify both bored and frustrated cases, within a 3-classs affect detection problem.
Keywords: automatic frustration detection, biosignals, moment-based features, video game-playing

User Modeling and User Focus II

Adaptivity Considerations for Enhancing User-Centric Web Experience BIBAKFull-TextPDF 348-353
  Marios Belk; Panagiotis Germanakos; Panagiotis Zaharias; George Samaras
User Experience (UX) design relates to the creation of models that affect user experiences during interaction with a system, while the incorporation of cognitive factors in the personalization process of Web systems might provide a more user-centric approach. This paper explores the influence specific cognitive factors may have on UX qualities to be used as adaptivity factors for personalizing and improving users' experiences in commercial Web-sites. A user experience evaluation was conducted where 96 students navigated in an existing commercial Web-site for a problem-based task. A user experience measurement was performed so as to assess users' perceptions regarding the pragmatic, hedonic and attraction qualities of the environment. It has been observed that specific cognitive factors have considerable influence on specific qualities of user experience. To this end, such findings are encouraging for further investigation of the possible impact of cognitive factors in terms of enhancing the personalization process of commercial Web-sites so as to achieve better user experience.
Keywords: User-adaptive systems; User Modeling (UM); User Experience (UX); Cognitive Factors
Modality Preferences of Different User Groups BIBAKFull-TextPDF 354-359
  Benjamin Weiss; Sebastian Müller; Matthias Schulz
In order to examine user group differences in modality preferences, participants of either gender and two age groups have been asked to rate their experience after interacting with a smart-home system offering unimodal and multimodal input possibilities (voice, free-hand gesture, smartphone touch screen). Effects for gender, but not for age (younger and older adults) have been found for modality preferences. Women prefer touch and voice over gesture for many scales assessed, whereas men do not show this pattern consistently. Instead, they prefer gesture over voice for hedonic quality scales. Comparable results are obtained for technological expertise assessed individually. This interrelation of gender and expertise could not be solved and is discussed along with consequences of the results obtained.
Keywords: multimodal dialog system; evaluation; user factors
Users' Trust and Secure Feeling towards Cloud Services BIBAKFull-TextPDF 360-365
  Kaarina Karppinen
The paper describes the study in which end users' trust and feeling of security in regard to cloud services are examined. Trust and security are one of the key issues within cloud where people use a shared pool of computing resources for the storage of their data and thus do not have control over the management of their own data content. An online survey was conducted in three countries (Finland, USA and Japan) with more than 3000 respondents. The twelve cloud trust creators that were identified by cloud software experts in our earlier study were picked, and asked the end users to rank how important those factors are for them when deciding if it is secure to use a service in the cloud. The results show that ease of use has the biggest effect on the secure feeling towards cloud services, followed by the language and the price of the service. Some differences were visible between the countries. These as well as the differences for the results between genders, age groups and expertise levels of the respondents are presented in this paper.
Keywords: cloud services; end users; security; trust