HCI Bibliography Home | HCI Conferences | ACHI Archive | Detailed Records | RefWorks | EndNote | Hide Abstracts
ACHI Tables of Contents: 0809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions

Fullname:Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions
Editors:Sergiu Dascalu; Ivan Poupyrev
Location:Cancun, Mexico
Dates:2009-Feb-01 to 2009-Feb-07
Standard No:ISBN: 978-0-7695-3529-6
Links:Conference Website | Proceedings
Summary:The Second International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interaction, ACHI 2009, was originally proposed as a result of a paradigm shift in the most recent achievements and future trends in human interactions with increasingly complex systems. Adaptive and knowledge-based user interfaces, universal accessibility, human-robot interaction, agent-driven human computer interaction, and sharable mobile devices are a few of these trends. ACHI 2009 brings also a suite of specific domain applications, such as gaming, e-learning, social, medicine, teleconferencing and engineering.
    The ACHI 2009 continues a series of events targeting traditional and advanced paradigms for computer-human interaction in multi-technology environments. The conference covers also fundamentals on interfaces and models, and highlights new challenging industrial applications and research topics.
  1. INTER I
  3. USER
  6. GAMES
  10. HAPTIC
  15. ACCESS
  16. Poster


The Design of a Multimodal Platform: Experimentation of Record & Replay BIBAKFull-Text 1-6
  Antoine Bouyer; Florent Chuffart; Lionel Courval
This article presents the design and a user experimentation of a multimodal service based on an experimental multimodal platform. It describes the technical realization of the platform and the development of a multimodal service. Lastly, it presents the results of an experimentation with users applying this service. These results show that users prefer multimodal interactions and are more efficient with this kind of interface.
Keywords: Multimodality, design, user experimentation, mobility
Comparing Gesture and Touch for Notification System Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 7-12
  Maria Karam; Jason Chong Lee; Travis Rose; Francis Quek; Scott McCrickard
We explore some of the characteristics of multimodal input interaction spaces for notification systems within a multi-tasking environment like a command and control center using two promising interaction methods: gestures and touch based input through a laboratory experiment comparing both techniques. Results of our study suggest that gestures are better suited for multi-tasking situations because they are less interruptive than touch interaction to users' primary tasks and are subjectively preferred by users in certain situations.
Keywords: gestures, notification systems, touch, multitasking
Clustering Based on Data Attribute Partition and Its Visualization BIBAKFull-Text 13-18
  Yonggong Ren; Alma Leora Culén
Clustering algorithms are the core technique of data mining, machine learning, pattern matching, bioinformatics and a number of other fields. This paper proposes a new clustering method based on attribute partitioning and a novel data visualization method. In a nutshell, the idea for our method is based on two steps: 1) cluster data set using primary and secondary attributes of data; 2) map color stimulus spectrum to RGB color space and visualize clustering using the chromaticity diagram of J.C. Maxwell (Maxwell's triangle). The experiments show that the algorithm is very efficient. In addition it is simple and easy to implement. Our visualization algorithm aims at helping the user to get an overview of data as well as in prediction and decision making processes.
Keywords: data visualization, clustering, data mining, chromaticity diagram
Model-Driven Instrumentation of Graphical User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 19-25
  Mathias Funk; Philip Hoyer; Stefan Link
In today's continuously changing markets newly developed products often do not meet the demands and expectations of customers. Research on this problem identified a large gap between developer and user expectations. Approaches to bridge this gap are to provide the developers with better information on product usage and to create a fast feedback cycle that helps tackling usage problems. Therefore, the user interface of the product, the central point of human-computer interaction, has to be instrumented to collect accurate usage data which serves as basis for further improvement steps. This paper presents a novel engineering approach that combines model-driven user interface development and flexible instrumentation with runtime monitoring. In its application, it enables observation integration into products which provides comprehensive data about usage and thus allows for fast feedback cycles and consequently increased software quality. A case-study demonstrates the applicability of this approach.
Keywords: Model-driven development, software development process, user interfaces, observation, instrumentation, monitoring, model transformation, UML, profile, GUI event logging


Facial Expression Recognition with 3D Deformable Models BIBAFull-Text 26-31
  Christoph Mayer; Matthias Wimmer; Martin Eggers; Bernd Radig
We present a fully automated three-dimensional model-based, real-time capable approach to distinguish six universal facial expressions from visual images of human faces. The face model is fitted to the images of a publicly available data base. From the model parameters two sets of features are computed, person-specific and non-person-specific to estimate the facial expression visible in the current image sequence. We integrate the complex, state-of-the-art Candide-3 face model, which is specifically appropriate for facial expression recognition [13] and is also publicly available, which further increases the comparability of our approach. Our experimental evaluation presents recognition rates of the six basic facial expressions defined by Ekmanet al [6].
Enabling Opportunistic Navigation in Location-Based Notification Systems BIBAKFull-Text 32-37
  Scott Kelly; Ben Hood; Jason Chong Lee; Miten Sampat; Leigh Lally; D. Scott McCrickard
Device-assisted navigation is rapidly becoming a major topic in computer science. PDAs and other small devices are enabling the introduction of navigational assistants to many different spaces. These areas are generally filled with points of interest with which users may choose to interact with. The natural behavior of users in such a space is to explore, interacting with objects the user deems worthy of further interaction. We call this behavior 'opportunistic navigation.' In this paper we define the challenges associated with and put forward several criteria for enabling opportunistic navigation in Location-Based Notification Systems. Our criteria have been implemented in the form of a prototype navigational assistant, SeeVT-ART, and have undergone a preliminary field test.
Keywords: location-based notification systems, opportunistic navigation, SeeVT
A Multi-modal User Interface for Agent Assistant Systems BIBAKFull-Text 38-43
  Ahmed Kamel
An agent structure is presented for communication between users and agent systems through multiple communication modes. Two application systems are also presented; and e-mail monitoring system for keeping track of the user's e-mail while the user is away from the office, and a web-based event monitoring system for monitoring events such as weather alerts.
Keywords: Agents, user interfaces, multi modal
Word Sequence Models for Single Text Summarization BIBAKFull-Text 44-48
  René Arnulfo García-Hernández; Yulia Ledeneva
The main problem for generating an extractive automatic text summary is to detect the most relevant information in the source document. For such purpose, recently some approaches have successfully employed the word sequence information from the self-text for detecting the candidate text fragments for composing the summary. In this paper, we employ the so-called n-grams and maximal frequent word sequences as features in a vector space model in order to determine the advantages and disadvantages for extractive text summarization.
Keywords: Extractive summarization; text models; text mining; maximal frequent sequences


An Expectation-Based Model of Web Search Behaviour BIBAKFull-Text 49-56
  Anthony Cox; Maryanne Fisher
An important issue when evaluating a search tool is the satisfaction that is expressed by its users. While there are many factors that affect satisfaction, we believe that users' expectations affect their evaluation of a query's response, and in turn, their satisfaction. We validate this perspective by measuring individuals' expectation, judgement of response quality, and overall satisfaction for a set of queries. Our experiment indicates that, when responses are grouped according to whether they confirm or disconfirm users' expectations, expectation significantly correlates with both query response quality and user satisfaction. However, response quality better correlates with satisfaction than does expectation, suggesting that expectation is not the only factor that influences the determination of response quality.
Keywords: WWW Search, User Behaviour, Expectation
Vairë: A Tool to Improve the Usability in Embedded Applications Based on User Adjustment BIBAKFull-Text 57-62
  Mauro Teófilo; Alexandre Martini; Wesley Silva
The usability is being considered an incisive factor of the application's success of mobile computation segment, it is based on user experience conception limitation, so any techniques, method or idea which could improve the mobile user experience, must be carefully studied. The Vairë tool uses Mandos method of interaction for infrastructure support and together they propose a new interaction form founded on the fact that the way of using an embedded application in a mobile phone varies in accordance to the user. The Vairë is a visual tool for improvement of Mandos usage experience in an application, adapting the same in agreement with user's will, giving the user interface design power to the most interested one: the user.
Keywords: usability, mobile computation, visual tool
Predictability of a Human Partner in a Pursuit Tracking Task without Haptic Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 63-68
  Raphaela Groten; Jens Hölldampf; Angelika Peer; Martin Buss
We are interested in whether humans create a model of their partner when they jointly manipulate an object in a virtual task without haptic feedback. In such a scenario the partner is perceived as a disturbance because she/he is responsible for inconsistencies between the visual and proprioceptive feedback of the individual. To gain basic knowledge on the predictability of such disturbances we compare a pre-recorded human partner with predictable (time delay) and unpredictable (random) disturbances and two additional control conditions in a pursuit tracking task. Results indicate that the influence of the pre-recorded partner is partly predictable, therefore we assume that a model of the partner's behavior is built by the human.
Keywords: human-human interaction, feedback disturbance, pursuit tracking task, movement predictability
Scene-Motion Thresholds Correlate with Angular Head Motions for Immersive Virtual Environments BIBAKFull-Text 69-74
  Jason Jerald; Frank Steinicke; Mary Whitton
To better understand motion perception in immersive virtual environments, we conducted a user study to quantify perception of scene motion as subjects yawed their heads. We measured psychometric functions of scene-velocity thresholds for different head motions and then extracted 75\% thresholds, creating scene-velocity thresholds as functions of three measures of head motion: 1) Angular Range, 2) Peak Angular Velocity, 3) and Peak Angular Acceleration. We also measured scene-velocity thresholds for four phases of head motion: 1) the Start of the head turn, 2) the Center of the head turn, 3) the End of the head turn, 4) and All of the head turn. Scene-velocity thresholds increased as head motion increased for all tested conditions.
Keywords: scene motion, virtual environments
A Structured Approach to Support 3D User Interface Development BIBAKFull-Text 75-81
  Juan Manuel González-Calleros; Jean Vanderdonckt; Jaime Muñoz-Arteaga
Given its current state of the art, Model-Based UI Development (MBDUI) is able to fulfill the major requirements of desktop and mobile applications, such as form-based user interfaces that adapt to the actual context of use. More recent research deals with the development of 3D interactive multimodal environments. Though user-centered design is more and more driving the design of these environments, less attention is devoted to the development processes than to interactive tools supporting isolated phases in the realization process. In this paper we present an attempt to structure an approach to support 3DUIs development by introducing a MBDUI compliant method. The development method is articulated on three axes: models and their specification language, approach, and tools that support the method based on the underlying models.
Keywords: 3D user interfaces, transformational approach, virtual reality, world model, scene model, model driven engineering


Programming Style: Influences, Factors, and Elements BIBAKFull-Text 82-89
  Anthony Cox; Maryanne Fisher
As a consequence of various situational and personal factors, programmers use a variety of styles when performing software development and maintenance tasks. In this paper, we develop a contextual framework that links situational, task-oriented, and individual factors to a set of traits. These traits are expressed as behavioural modifiers, and thus, influence one's performance of tasks such as computer programming, as well as influencing the skills upon which programming is based (e.g., problem solving, planning). To demonstrate the use of the framework, we examine how risk-tolerance is influenced by contextual factors and show how this trait influences programming style. We also document some preliminary components of programming style.
Keywords: Programmer Behaviour, Programming, Programming Style, Programming Strategy
A Model-Driven Development Approach Focusing Human Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 90-96
  Stefan Link; Philip Hoyer; Tilmann Kopp; Sebastian Abeck
Human interaction like entering some data, making decisions etc. has to be dealt with as an integral part of today's business processes and the supporting IT likewise. Hence, human interaction leads to an increased complexity in software development and software systems. Current business- and model-driven development approaches provide promising means to deal with this complexity. Diverse aspects of the business process and the supporting software system are captured in models and automatically transformed to the source code of a desired platform. In the context of human interaction however, there remains a lack of precise models for specifying human interaction aspects. Thus, an extensive manual development and configuration effort is necessary leading to expensive software, badly configured interfaces and frustrated users. In this article, we therefore demonstrate a model-driven development approach focusing on human interaction as an integral part of business processes and software systems likewise. A case study fortifies the applicability of our approach.
Keywords: Model-Driven Development, Human Interaction, Workflows
Knowledge Reuse through Categorical Breakdown Analysis: A Method for Collaborative Systems Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 97-102
  Will Humphries; D. Scott McCrickard; Dennis Neale
Designing CSCW systems that support the widely varying needs of targeted users is difficult. There is no silver bullet technology that enables users to effectively collaborate with one another in different contexts. We propose a method of collaborative systems evaluation that enables novice evaluators to make insightful observations about the systems they evaluate at a level comparable to experts in certain situations. These observations come in the form of a categorical breakdown analysis of a laboratory study. The quantity and type of breakdowns can then be connected to recommended CSCW tools and features developed and described in the related literature. We conducted a study to explore the results generated when the method was applied by both experts and novices in the field of CSCW. We observed that experts found the method to be usable, and that novices capitalized on the knowledge embodied in the breakdown categories to make categorizations similar to those of experts.
Interaction with Information Graphics: A Content-Based Approach BIBAKFull-Text 103-110
  Anna Kämäräinen; Pertti Saariluoma
Understanding information graphics rely on thought process of graphics' reader, and thinking has the most important role in interpretation and exploitation. We are interested in the cognitive mechanisms underlying interaction with information graphics. In this study, we studied those cognitive processes which are employed when interacting with information graphics. Based on these experiments, we have separated four different types of thought processes which occur during the interactions with information graphics. We propose that these thought processes are apperception, restructuring, reflection and construction.
Keywords: cognitive science, interaction, content-based


Training and Educating Undergraduate Students in the Discipline of HCI BIBAKFull-Text 111-116
  Cynthia Y. Lester
An incoming freshman student stops by your office because he/she has read that your research area is HCI and desires to work with you. As teachers and academic advisers, how should we assist our students in choosing courses that will be beneficial to their study of HCI, but that will also provide the breadth that undergraduate studies provide? How should we as researchers assist our students in developing skills that will be beneficial to conducting research in HCI? How should we as teacher-researchers ensure that our student graduate from our universities adequately prepared? The aim of this paper is to present the HCI curriculum, to present the rationale for students to gain training in certain HCI-related areas that also provide for the breadth required in an undergraduate degree program, and to also suggest ideas for future work.
Keywords: HCI curriculum, HCI undergraduate research, Interdisciplinary
A Study of the Acceptability of a Web 2.0 Application by Higher-Education Students Undertaking Collaborative Laboratory Activities BIBAKFull-Text 117-125
  Sandy El Helou; Denis Gillet; Christophe Salzmann; Chiu Man Yu
This paper presents the findings of a study on the acceptability in higher education of a Web 2.0 collaborative application, namely eLogbook. The latter offers several features for sustaining collaboration and supporting personal and group learning. It was introduced to students taking a laboratory course that spans over one semester and mainly consists of in-class group experiments. In this paper, we present eLogbook. We then describe our hypotheses as well as the qualitative and quantitative methods used to evaluate the usefulness and usability of eLogbook in a formal learning context. Finally, we discuss our findings and its implications.
Keywords: Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, Engineering Education, Remote Laboratory, Social Software
Evaluation of the Cognitive Process during Mental Imaging of Two- or Three-Dimensional Figures BIBAFull-Text 126-129
  Koji Kashihara
The reaction time and the accuracy in the brain images of 2D or 3D figures were studied. The image task for the frame of a 3D object from 2D figures (2D-3D task) in the brain had the longest reaction time (p, the probability value of a statistical hypothesis test, < 0.01); the accuracy of this task was decreased compared to that of the other tasks. The reaction time in the 2D-3D task had a significant difference compared with that in the mental image of three 2D figures mainly requiring working memory (p < 0.05). Because of the effective view of the simple 3D object compared with the 2D-3D task, illustration of a 3D shape will be an effective method in a field requiring quick judgment based on high accuracy, such as clinical assessment.
The Effectiveness of Personalization in Delivering E-learning Classes BIBAKFull-Text 130-135
  Leyla Zhuhadar; Elizabeth Romero; Robert Wyatt
In this paper we present an evaluation methodology of personalized delivery of multimedia resources in an e-learning platform that takes advantage of web 2.0 technologies and its standards, such as (i) streaming using RSS and Atom feeds, (ii) searching using meta-data search engine, (iii) delivering using ubiquitous computing and (iv) personalized learning. Our framework consists of the following phases: (1) tracking the preferred delivery mechanism for each student model, (2) measuring the effect of the semantic profile time window parameter, (3) clustering students models based on similarity metrics on the delivery preferences and (4) comparing the results between personalized and non-personalized delivery. One important aspect of our approach is the combination of personalization and the data driven extraction (via clustering) of the students models based on similarity metrics. Our experimental results show that personalized delivery increases the usage of e-learning materials and the percentage of reviewing multimedia resources if these materials are delivered in ways that fit students preferences.
Keywords: Personalization, User Profile, Clustering, Design Architecture, Algorithms, Experimentations


A Hybrid Bounding Volume Algorithm to Detect Collisions between Deformable Objects BIBAKFull-Text 136-141
  F. A. Madera; A. M. Day; S. D. Laycock
An algorithm to detect collisions between both rigid and deformable objects is presented. The approach exploits benefits of a Bounding Volume Hierarchy (BVH) and a Feature-based method. The BVH decomposes the three dimensional polygonal objects into a hierarchy of spheres. The lowest level of the hierarchy is formed utilising spheres which bound 1-rings surrounding each vertex of the original mesh. Spatial coherence is exploited during construction to ensure that adjacent 1-rings are joined first. This promotes tighter bounding volumes as the objects deform. Experiments were carried out to analyse the performance of the method when varying the BVH construction to consider octrees and binary trees. To illustrate the enhancement the approach provides it has been compared against standard Sphere and Axis-aligned Bounding Volume Hierarchies.
Keywords: collision detection, deformable objects, bounding volume hierarchy
SCRABBLE.GZ: A Web-Based Collaborative Game to Promote the Galician Language BIBAKFull-Text 142-147
  Guillermo de Bernardo; Ana Cerdeira-Pena; Oscar Pedreira; Diego Seco
We present in this paper a web-based version of a Scrabble game, describing its architecture and some implementation details. This architecture makes possible a high degree of interactivity, so that the players perceive the game as being played in real-time. Furthermore, no client-side plug-in or applet is used. These properties are achieved by means of a carefully designed architecture that uses AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) for data exchange. This architecture guarantees low load on the server, so complex computations relative to the game logic can be done in real-time. Moreover, data structures and algorithms were designed to efficiently access a custom Galician dictionary, which supports the game functionalities. We show in this paper how this data structures and algorithms provide an efficient method to create a Scrabble move generation algorithm. We also show how the combination of these with the architecture proposed provides a fully interactive web application that can handle complex calculations over a very large lexicon with real-time appearance.
Keywords: e-entertainment, AJAX, collaborative game, Galicia
A Simulation of a Billiards Game Based on Marker Detection BIBAKFull-Text 148-151
  Lucio T. De Paolis; Giovanni Aloisio; Marco Pulimeno
Performance improvements in graphics hardware have made it possible to visualize complex virtual environments and provided opportunities to interact with these in a more realistic way. In this paper a Virtual Reality application for simulating a billiards game is presented. A real billiard cue is used and its movements are reproduced in the virtual environment using a visual marker detection system. No force feedback is provided to the player. In the game simulation the virtual environment has been built using the development environment OpenSceneGraph and rigid body dynamics have been simulated utilizing the PhysX physics engine. ARToolkit was the visual marker-based detection system utilized to replicate the movements of the real cue used by the player in the virtual environment.
Keywords: billiards game, marker detection, simulation
FPS Extensions Modelling ESGs BIBAKFull-Text 152-155
  John R. Rankin; Sandra Sampayo Vargas
In this paper we show that the FPS paradigm has metaphorical correspondences with a low level category of ESGs. Extensions of the FPS paradigm lead to simple concept learning lessons analogous to the needs of teachers for the development of low level ESGs for use in classroom teaching. The main FPS extension discussed in this paper is the FSM module. The teacher is not required to recompile any code but simply to provide the data representing the FSM corresponding to each concept learning lesson in the target ESG. The purpose of this research is not to develop the full ESG but rather to show that the FSM module coupled with other extensions to the FPS game development tools provides a means for building future ESG development tools.
Keywords: First Person Shooter, Serious Games, Finite State Machines, Game Engine


Nervixxx: A Video Performance System with Neural Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 156-163
  Satoru Tokuhisa
Nervixxx introduces neural computing to overcome the limit of conventional performance systems that uses tangible computing and physical computing. Specifically, we utilized the EEG (electroencephalogram) which is the most informative of the biosignals, and the EMG (electromyogram) which has a high controllability. Users manipulate the tangible objects that are the major function of this system. This intuitively enables to mix and apply visual effects as a motion graphics data. At the same time, users can control the playing speed and the parameter for each effect by wearing wireless EMG sensors on each of their arms. Also, users' brain waves can be used in real-time as a motion graphics data by wearing an EEG sensor. By introducing neural computing to tangible computing, it not only realizes the intuitive manipulation of applications but also increases the attractiveness of the actual performance. Moreover, the individuality of each user is reflected in the performer's ability to express him or herself.
Keywords: EMG, EEG, VJ, performance, tangible, tabletop
Quality Characteristics of Collaborative Systems BIBAKFull-Text 164-168
  Ion Ivan; Cristian Ciurea
This paper describe the new concepts of collaborative systems quality evaluation. There are identified structures of collaborative systems. The paper define the quality characteristics of collaborative systems. There are proposed a metric to estimate the quality level of collaborative systems. There are performed measurements of collaborative systems quality using a specially designed software.
Keywords: collaborative systems; quality characteristics; metric
Understanding Social Robots BIBAKFull-Text 169-174
  Frank Hegel; Claudia Muhl; Britta Wrede; Martina Hielscher-Fastabend; Gerhard Sagerer
Research on social robots is mainly comprised of research into algorithmic problems in order to expand a robot's capabilities to improve communication with human beings. Also, a large body of research concentrates on the appearance, i.e. aesthetic form of social robots. However, only little reference to their definition is made. In this paper we argue that form, function, and context have to be taken systematically into account in order to develop a model to help us understand social robots. Therefore, we address the questions: What is a social robot, what are the interdisciplinary research aspects of social robotics, and how are these different aspects interlinked? In order to present a comprehensive and concise overview of the various aspects we present a framework for a definition towards social robots.
Keywords: Social Robots, Human Robot Interaction, Design, Anthropomorphism
UIML Based Design of Multimodal Interactive Applications with Strict Synchronization Requirements BIBAKFull-Text 175-180
  Philip Leroux; Vincent Verstraete; Filip De Turck; Piet Demeester; Kristof Thys; Kris Luyten
As the variety in network service platforms and end user devices grows rapidly, content providers must constantly adapt their production system to support these new technologies. In this paper, we present a middleware platform for deploying highly interactive (television) applications over a diverse collection of networks and end user devices. As the user interface of such interactive applications may vary depending on the capabilities of the different target devices, our middleware uses UIML for the description of generic user interfaces. Our middleware platform also provides a pluggable support for new networks. A factor that highly complicates the design is the need for strict synchronization between an interactive application and video or audio data that is broadcasted. In order to support a maximum of functionality, downloadable application logic is used to provide the interactive services. As a test case, an evaluation setup was built, targeting both set-top boxes and mobile phones.
Keywords: UIML, MHP, Interactivity, DVB-H, Synchronization, IP Datacast, Middleware Architecture
3D Audio Perception System for Humanoid Robots BIBAKFull-Text 181-186
  Norbert Schmitz; Carsten Spranger; Karsten Berns
An audio system is one of the basic components of a humanoid robot designed for natural interaction. For many interaction purposes it is sufficient to use the sound detection and localization as attention system for the vision system. In this paper the audio perception module of the robot ROMAN is presented including the integration into the existing control structure and the localization algorithm using a microphone array with 6 microphones. The reduction of data into so called sector maps is presented and the interaction with the control architecture is shown.
Keywords: Sound Localization, Audio Perception


Efficient Collision Algorithm for the 3D Haptic Interaction with Solid Organs in Medical Environments BIBAFull-Text 187-192
  F. J. Badesa; M. L. Pinto; J. M. Sabater; J. M. Azorin; J. Sofrony; P. Cardenas
Using haptic (the sensing of touch) technology as an interface in medical and surgical procedures is a large interesting goal because of the benefits involved. This work presents a developed tool for evaluating the performance of a classic 2D-3D processing of a stack of medical preoperative images, and a new version of an efficient and simple algorithm for the integration of the haptic sense in a medical 3D environment generated from the 3D reconstruction. First of all, the developed tool for the 2D segmentation and 3D reconstruction is presented. The classical pipeline for surface 3D reconstruction is reviewed under a parametrical point of view. These parameters will play an important role in the analysis of the haptic behavior. Besides, all the parameters of the reconstruction are accessible and can be modified on-line during the reconstruction procedure. Later, the software architecture used for the integration of the haptic devices is described. The haptic rendering algorithm is detailed, including the collision detection algorithm (a simple ray-tracing scheme programmed using VTK capacities) that is used with the medical images. Finally, some results of the evaluation of the behavior of this algorithm are resumed.
Haptic Palpation for the Femoral Pulse in Virtual Interventional Radiology BIBAKFull-Text 193-198
  T. Coles; N. W. John; D. A. Gould; D. G. Caldwell
Interventional Radiology is a rapidly expanding speciality using minimally invasive techniques to treat a multitude of clinical problems. Current work in progress aims to create an affordable virtual training tool to reduce training times and patient risk during a trainee practitioners learning cycle. The procedure of arterial catheterisation has been broken down into a number of subtasks, one of which requires an operator to locate the femoral artery pulse by palpation. This is performed in preparation for a needle insertion to allow the entry of a guide wire and catheter into the patient. This paper presents the current state of research into a unique solution for affordable haptic simulation of pulse palpation in a virtual environment.
Keywords: Interventional Radiology, training, palpation, femoral artery, simulation
Deformation Planning for Robotic Soft Tissue Manipulation BIBAKFull-Text 199-204
  Jerzy Smolen; Alexandru Patriciu
This paper presents a model based approach to the soft tissue deformation planning. The deformable object is manipulated through boundary displacements induced by robot manipulators controlled in position. The manipulated boundaries are maneuvered such that the control points defined on the deformable object converge to the desired locations. The proposed control is based on a Jacobian transformation between the set of manipulated point displacements and the control point displacements computed using a meshless model (Reproducing Kernel Particle Method -- RKPM) of the deformable object. RKPM is employed for this study as it has been proven to accurately handle large deformations and requires no re-meshing algorithms. Simulations show that a model with a coarse particle grid can produce Jacobian transforms that accurately control a more physically real and refined model. The next step is to perform a physical study on a tissue phantom interacting with a dual arm manipulator.
Keywords: robot, robot-environment interaction, deformable models


From Isolation to Communication: A Case Study Evaluation of Robot Assisted Play for Children with Autism with a Minimally Expressive Humanoid Robot BIBAKFull-Text 205-211
  Ben Robins; Kerstin Dautenhahn; Paul Dickerson
The general context of the work presented in this paper is assistive robotics with our long-term aim to support children with autism. This paper is part of the Aurora project that studies ways in which robotic systems can encourage basic communication and social interaction skills in children with autism. This paper investigates how a small minimally expressive humanoid robot KASPAR can assume the role of a social mediator -- encouraging children with low functioning autism to interact with the robot, to break their isolation and importantly, to facilitate interaction with other people. The article provides a case study evaluation of segments of trials where three children with autism, who usually do not interact with other people in their day to day activity, interacted with the robot and with co-present adults. A preliminary observational analysis was undertaken which applied, in abbreviated form, certain principles from conversation analysis -- notably attention to the context in which the target behaviour occurred. The analysis was conducted by a social psychologist with expertise in using conversation analysis to understand interactions involving persons with an ASD. The analysis emphasises aspects of embodiment and interaction kinesics and revealed unexpected competencies on the part of the children. It showed how the robot served as a salient object mediating and encouraging interaction between the children and co-present adults.
Keywords: Assistive Technology, Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), Autism therapy, Robot Assisted Play
Multimodal Robot/Human Interaction in an Assistive Technology Context BIBAKFull-Text 212-218
  Ray Jarvis
This paper outlines the framework of a complex system to demonstrate multimodal spatial and transactional intelligence in a robot which supports aged, frail, or otherwise disabled people in a domestic assistive technology context. The intention is that the robot be able to navigate around a known multi-room environment along optimal, collision-free paths in search and retrieval of requested objects such as spectacles, books etc. and must also be capable of tracking and following humans and of reminding them of times for meals, medication etc. and to lead disoriented subjects to their meal place at appropriate times and even dispense medication, if necessary. The modes of communication interchanges with the supported human include spoken speech and gestures (including eye gaze direction) within the context of situational analysis which accommodates recent history, temporal factors and individual user behavioural models. This paper provides an overview of an ambitious research project in its early stages but where many components have already been refined through earlier work.
Keywords: Multimodal, Assistive Technology, Robot/Human Interaction
Five Weeks in the Robot House -- Exploratory Human-Robot Interaction Trials in a Domestic Setting BIBAKFull-Text 219-226
  Kheng Lee Koay; Dag Sverre Syrdal; Michael L. Walters; Kerstin Dautenhahn
This paper presents five exploratory trials investigating scenarios likely to occur when a personal robot shares a home with a person. The scenarios are: a human and robot working on a collaborative task, a human and robot sharing a physical space in a domestic setting, a robot recording and revealing personal information, a robot interrupting a human in order to serve them, and finally, a robot seeking assistance from a human through various combinations of physical and verbal cues. Findings indicate that participants attribute more blame and less credit to a robot than compared to themselves when working together on a collaborative task. Safety is a main concern when determining participants' comfort when sharing living space with their robot. Findings suggest that the robot should keep its interruption of the user's activities to a minimum. Participants were happy for the robot to store information which is essential for the robot to improve its functionality. However, their main concerns were related to the storing of sensitive information and security measures to safeguard such information.
Keywords: HRI, Social Robots, Longitudinal Study, Robot House
Adaptive Training Strategy of Distal Movements by Means of a Wrist-Robot BIBAKFull-Text 227-233
  Lorenzo Masia; Nestor Nava Rodriguez; Maura Casadio; Pietro Morasso; Giulio Sandini; Psiche Giannoni
This paper presents the design, and performance of a high fidelity three degree-of-freedom wrist exoskeleton robot, for neuroscience study, training and rehabilitation. The IIT-Wrist is intended to provide kinesthetic feedback during the training of motor skills or rehabilitation of reaching movements. Motivation for such applications is based on findings that show robot-assisted physical therapy aids in the rehabilitation process following neurological injuries. In the present paper the IIT-Wrist haptic robot is described in terms of kinematics and haptics features to meet specific requirements for a safety human-machine interaction. In relation with a feasibility study in the field of robot therapy a preliminary training of stroke patient was performed. The task consisted in tracking a target using one degree of freedom at time: Flexion/Extension, Adduction/Abduction, Pronation/Supination separately. The target motion is harmonic and tracking is aided by a suitable force field. The preliminary study with three patients shows the stability and the efficacy of the control scheme.
Keywords: wrist robot, rehabilitation robotics, adaptive training


Reconfiguration of Vibro-tactile Feedback Based on Drivers' Sitting Attitude BIBAKFull-Text 234-242
  Andreas Riener; Alois Ferscha
The today mainly incorporated sensory modalities vision and hearing are most often highly charged due to an increasing number, as well as a rising complexity of diversified assistance systems in vehicles. These systems, originally developed for "supporting" the driver in its tasks, increasingly directs to operation errors caused by cognitive overload. The sense of touch -- as additional interaction channel -- should have the ability to release cognitive load from visual and auditory channels by adapting in a natural, intuitive and non-distracting manner. A drawback of haptics is that feedback is reliant to both driver and environmental conditions. For instance, different sizes and weights of drivers' result in a changed haptic perceptivity, and vibro-tactile feedback potentially is interpreted erroneous due to personal sitting attitudes. A vibro-tactile seat, endowed with a set of unobtrusive embedded sensors and actuators, is proposed to counter action these issues. The input channel is used for determining the occupied seating surface and, in addition, is also responsible for observing disruptive vibrations, originating in the environment. These information is employed in order to reconfigure vibro-tactile output dynamically with the aim to guarantee consistent haptic perception for any person.
Keywords: Vibro-tactile Interaction, Tactile Sensing, Haptic Seat, Dynamic Feedback
Networked Haptic Cooperation Using Remote Dynamic Proxies BIBAKFull-Text 243-248
  Zhi Li; Daniela Constantinescu
Networked haptic cooperation entails direct interaction among users as well as joint manipulation of virtual objects. To increase the realism of both types of interactions, this paper introduces remote dynamic proxies. Remote dynamic proxies are second order dynamic representations of users at the remote peer sites. They are generated according to dynamics laws and are controlled by the user whom they represent through a virtual coupler. Hence, they move in a physically intuitive manner and do not suffer from position discontinuities due to network packet transmission limitations. The remote dynamic proxies are integrated into a distributed control architecture for networked haptic cooperation. An experimental comparison of the new controller to two recently proposed controllers demonstrates smoother rendering of contact between users, as well as stable cooperation for larger network delays.
Keywords: networked haptic cooperation, haptic rendering, remote dynamic proxies
Modelling Perceptual Elements of Music in a Vibrotactile Display for Deaf Users: A Field Study BIBAFull-Text 249-254
  Maria Karam; Gabe Nespoli; Frank Russo; Deborah I. Fels
The Model Human Cochlea (MHC) is a sensory substitution technique for presenting music as multiple discrete channels of vibrotactile stimuli. The MHC prototype was introduced to a group of Deaf senior citizens at a community centre, where they could try the chair, and provide us with feedback about their experience. Preliminary results from this work suggest that the MHC can potentially offer a more effective means of expressing basic emotional information from music in a vibrotactile display when the signals more closely match the perceptual elements of the music such as melody and instrument parts. We describe the MHC prototype and present the results of our field study, which extends our lab experiments with the MHC to include Deaf and hard of hearing participants in a real world setting.
Haptic Teleoperated Robotic System for an Effective Obstacle Avoidance BIBAKFull-Text 255-260
  Nadia Garcia-Hernandez; Vicente Parra-Vega
A novel haptic teleoperated scheme for an efficient obstacle avoidance under human guidance is introduced. A remote robot immersed in an environment with obstacles is guided by a user using the end-effector of a haptic device. The system provides force feedback to the user when he approaches a potential field surrounding an obstacle. The user assigns the potential fields to the obstacles based on subjective judgments, i.e. a loose fitting potential field whether the obstacle is fragile or tough, to avoid a close approach to it. Obstacle avoidance experiments under visual and force feedback were performance and the results confirm the effectiveness of this scheme.
Keywords: Haptic; Teleoperation; Obstacle; Avoidance


A Preliminary Experiment of Checking Usability Principles with Formal Methods BIBAKFull-Text 261-270
  Steinar Kristoffersen
Theoretical computer science has been occupied with formal methods since the beginning. It has had its share of challenges, though. Often, excessive additional work is required to re-specify applications precisely in a new formalism, so that they can be analyzed algorithmically. With more model-based software engineering, this may have changed. In many instances, specifications are now complete and updated throughout the systems development life-cycle, primarily to drive rather than to document the process. Thus, formal approaches have become more realistic. This paper looks at one experiment with automatic usability evaluation, based on a structured user interface specification. It shows that there are promising results ahead. Examples of automatic usability evaluation based on a widely-use user-interface specification language are presented. Benefits of formal specification cannot be reaped, however, unless this approach is bolstered by a purposeful design of the modeling techniques and languages themselves. Thus, some requirements of the formalisms for model-based usability engineering conclude the paper.
Keywords: Automatic usability evaluation, model checking, XUL (XML User Interface Language), Maude, rewriting logic
Spatial Auditory Interface for Word Processing Application BIBAKFull-Text 271-276
  Jaka Sodnik; Sašo Tomazic
In this paper we evaluate two different auditory interfaces for word processing application. The interfaces are in the form of hierarchical menu structures and use spatial sounds in two different spatial configurations. The first menu -- AH -- has a ring shaped horizontal configuration of the sound sources, whereas the second -- AV -- has a vertical configuration of the sound sources. Spatial sounds are used to increase the information flow between the user and the application. In this way, multiple sources (i.e. menu commands) can be played and perceived simultaneously. The main goal of the experiment was to choose the most efficient interface based on a user study with 16 test subjects. The test subjects were asked to perform five different tasks with two auditory interfaces and a normal visual GUI. The variables observed in the user study were: task completion times, navigation performance and various subjective evaluations. The AV interface proved to be the most efficient and user friendly and will therefore be used in further experiments.
Keywords: auditory interfaces, spatial sound, word processing application, human-computer interaction
Concept and Design of a Contextual Mobile Multimedia Content Usability Study BIBAKFull-Text 277-282
  Zahid Hussain; Martin Lechner; Harald Milchrahm; Sara Shahzad; Wolfgang Slany; Martin Umgeher; Peter Wolkerstorfer
The popularity of consuming multimedia content on mobile phones is increasing more and more, not only because of the availability of the technical infrastructure, but also because of the mobility in modern society. We are developing a mobile multimedia streaming application. The crucial factor for such applications in order to be adopted and successful is user acceptance. This paper presents the preliminary concept and design of a contextual mobile multimedia content usability study. The study is conducted within are search project on agile software development methodologies with special emphasis on Extreme Programming and continuous usability evaluation. Past work included satisfaction of the needs of end users by means of focusing on user-experience in all steps of the development process. To gain scientific relevant data, the careful design of a study is considered most important. The study which will be conducted in October 2008 will give insights into mobile HCI concerning the coherence of content types, consumption times, and consumption contexts.
Keywords: Mobile Usability
Investigating the Comprehension Support for Effective Visualization Tools -- A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 283-288
  Harkirat Padda; Ahmed Seffah; Sudhir Mudur
There is an increasing interest in computer-based visualizations to provide insights and ease understandings of complex information. However, many of the proposed visualization tools/techniques seldom find real use in practice. The main reason is that they do not adequately address the issue of easing comprehensibility of underlying information. Through a case study with two static software visualization tools -- SA4J (Structural Analysis for Java) and Creole, we investigate the comprehension support of these tools with the help of a set of comprehension criteria that assess how efficiently and effectively users are able to grasp the underlying design intent along with applied interaction mechanisms.
Keywords: Comprehension, Visualization, Criteria, Empirical Evaluation


Why Developers Insert Security Vulnerabilities into Their Code BIBAKFull-Text 289-294
  Kaarina Karppinen; Lyly Yonkwa; Mikael Lindvall
Modern software systems are difficult to test due to their distributed nature, and increased security complicates testing even further. Our hypothesis is that some security vulnerabilities are actually introduced due to developers' need to facilitate testing that software requirements have been implemented correctly. If these temporary security vulnerabilities are not removed before the software is delivered, there is a great risk that they may become fielded security vulnerabilities. In this paper, we study the relationship between such security vulnerabilities and developers' need to improve the testability of an application to facilitate unit and integration testing. We trace detected vulnerabilities to characteristics of the software that made testing difficult and therefore led to testability improvements. We discuss how the need to increase testability may relate to a form of developer usability, and what the ways of dealing with the problem of security vulnerabilities as a consequence of increasing testability are.
Keywords: Security, testability, usability
Evaluation and Modeling of User Performance for Pointing and Scrolling Tasks on Handheld Devices Using Tilt Sensor BIBAKFull-Text 295-300
  Hamed H. Sad; Franck Poirier
We experimentally test the effectiveness and reliability of the accelerometer-based tilt sensor as an interaction device for pointing and scrolling tasks on handheld devices. The touch screen and stylus based interfaces on these devices requires using two hands: one for holding the device and the other for driving the stylus. In our experiment, the participants use only one hand to interact with the same interfaces. In addition to freeing one hand, using the tilt sensor doesn't hide a part of the device's tiny screen. Two different interfaces are used in the experiment: one for testing pointing and targeting without scrolling and the other is for testing them with scrolling. Using the experiment results we developed a model for the prediction of the execution time for both tasks.
Keywords: evaluation, pointing, scrolling, modeling
Usability and Security Patterns BIBAKFull-Text 301-305
  Andrei Ferreira; Cristian Rusu; Silvana Roncagliolo
Some authors argue that it can be complicated to build systems with both usability and security, but the reality is that there is no real conflict between these two properties. Certainly, it takes more work to build systems that have the properties of usability and security, but in many cases it is a matter of doing just a good job not miracles. The purpose of this paper is to establish patterns that allow to align both usability and security aspects.
Keywords: Usability, Security, Design patterns
Virtual Reality-Based Scenarios for Visuo-motor Conflicts Studies: Preliminary Results BIBAKFull-Text 306-309
  L. Demougeot; N. Mollet; A. Sciutti; R. Chellali; T. Pozzo
This preliminary study looks into how visual information affects motion planning in a gravitational environment. Recently, it has been shown that goal-directed tasks, e.g. simple pointing actions, are performed using a combination of a priori knowledge and closed-loop information, coming from proprioceptive-vestibular and visual feedback. In particular it has been observed that visual information is used by the central nervous system to reorganize motor planning when visuo-motor conflicts occur. The aim of our work is to investigate deeper the contribution of the visual channel in motor planning by means of virtual reality tools. Indeed, virtual reality technology is used here to modify the nature of visual input, leading to test several scenarios from minimalist and impoverished scenes to fully immersive and realistic environments. In fact we want to understand how the richness of the visual information is relevant in influencing our motor planning. We describe here our experimental setup and protocols. Moreover we present some preliminary results and we discuss the ongoing developments.
Keywords: visuo-motor conflict, arm kinematics, gravity force, motor planning, virtual reality


Virtual Environments and Scenario Languages for Advanced Teleoperation of Groups of Real Robots: Real Case Application BIBAKFull-Text 310-316
  Nicolas Mollet; Luca Giulio Brayda; Ryad Chellali; Jean-Guy Fontaine
This paper deals with the usage of Virtual Reality and Scenario Languages in the field of teleoperation: how to enable a group of teleoperators to control, in a collaborative way, groups of real robots, in turn collaborating with each other to achieve complex tasks; such tasks include inspecting a dangerous area or exploring a partially unknown environment. The main goal is to obtain efficient, natural and innovative interactions in such a context. We first present the usage of Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVE) to obtain a unified, simplified, virtual abstraction of distributed, complex, real robots. We show how this virtual environment offers a peculiar ability: to free teleoperators from space and time constraints. Then we present our original usage of Scenario Languages to describe complex and collaborative tasks in a natural and flexible way. Finally, we validate the proposed framework through our Teleoperation platform ViRAT.
Keywords: teleoperation, robotics, virtual reality, scenario languages, augmented reality
Rapid Software Prototyping Using Ajax and Google Map API BIBAKFull-Text 317-323
  Francis Rousseaux; Kevin Lhoste
Nowadays, when the evolution of IT tools is faster than ever, the user's needs are evolving even faster. For a software company such a context is difficult to be handled because, within a classical development cycle, the development of an application takes several months or years delivery. A rapid software prototyping could be very useful in those cases helping the user to rethink its needs in terms of functionalities and interfaces. We study how the emergence of new web tools, which allow developers to use a large predefined set of data and functionalities through free public APIs (e.g., Google maps) can help to achieve rapid software prototyping. This article will use a real-time example of rapid software prototyping for military applications. In the first part, we show past difficulties for designing such systems. In the second part, we show how the rapid prototyping strategy becomes relevant with the emergence of web tools. In the third part we present the technical implementation of the project. Finally we conclude about perspectives and limitations of this method.
Keywords: Rapid software prototyping, Ajax, GIS, Geopolitical risk and crisis management, Collections
How Applicable is Your Evaluation Methods -- Really? Analysis and Re-design of Evaluation Methods for Fun and Entertainment BIBAKFull-Text 324-328
  Charlotte Wiberg; Kalle Jegers; Heather Desurvire
This paper presents an approach to analyze and re-design evaluation methods. The domain explored in this paper is evaluation methods for evaluating fun and entertainment. However, the approach presented may be applied in other domains as well. The approach is conceptually described and two examples of processes where the approach were used in practice are further discussed. As the map of IT applications and digital media is continuously re-designed, there is a constant need of re-designing evaluation methods.
Keywords: usability, methods, evaluation of fun, re-design of methods
gReader: A Universally Designed, Device-Independent Email Client BIBAKFull-Text 329-335
  Lindsay D. Grace
This paper describes the design, development and user study of a text-to-speech system for reviewing email messages. The system retrieves messages, converts them to audio files, and facilitates transferring the messages to a portable listening device. This study reviews the efficacy of such a system and compares the users' ability to comprehend spoken audio messages verses written messages. According to the study the system was successful, but the user interest in the design was only moderate.
Keywords: Universal Accessibility, Text-to-Speech, Universal Design, Email, Portable Communication Device, Portable Entertainment Device, User Study


Machine-Generated Multimedia Content BIBAKFull-Text 336-341
  Nathan Nichols; Kristian Hammond
In this paper we describe an automated system, and its attendant set of techniques and tools, that is able to generate novel multimedia experiences. Using existing online sources, external textual and multimedia repositories, and user preferences, the system builds a customized audio/visual experience for the user. We discuss one application in detail: News at Seven, an automatically generated, personalized news show. Beginning with a set of user preferences, the system is able to find relevant text, process that text, and supplement it with images, video, and blogger responses. The final output of the system is an online Flash presentation that uses animated avatars with generated speech and is modeled after traditional nightly news broadcast. We see this work as the beginning of an overall approach to machine-generated content.
Keywords: machine generated content, multi-media, rich media, news
Interface Design for MicroBiomanipulation and Teleoperation BIBAKFull-Text 342-347
  Leonardo Mattos; Darwin Caldwell
Current challenges in biomanipulations for life-sciences research include extensive operator training, low success rates and low consistency of operations. These problems were tackled here through the use of teleoperation techniques and the development of a unified interface for simultaneous control of all devices used for standard biomanipulations. The developed system was created with high-end commercial biomanipulation equipment similar to those currently in use at many research laboratories, and also included game joysticks for teleoperated control. These were integrated into a single system through the design of modular component abstractions and the implementation of a central control structure. This structure enabled the creation of an open, flexible and user-friendly biomanipulation system for improved operation performance. This paper describes the design and implementation of such system.
Keywords: Biomanipulation, Teleoperation, Cell injection
Control Concept for a Hydraulic Mobile Machine Using a Haptic Operating Device BIBAKFull-Text 348-353
  Henning Hayn; Dieter Schwarzmann
A control methodology for the operation of a hydraulic excavator using a haptic operating device is developed. The main idea is to use position controllers for both the excavator and the operating device where both control loops output the reference position to the other, i.e., two position controlled systems are placed in a feedback loop with each other. The human operator acts as an input disturbance to the operating device. This approach allows intuitive operation of the machine and gives the operator haptic feedback of the boom position. Internal model control (IMC) is employed to design the position controllers for both the hydraulic manipulator and the operating device. To this end, a simplified design rule for the IMC filter and a novel anti-windup approach for models with pure integrators are proposed. The master-slave control methodology is exemplified on an 18 ton excavator; measurement results are given.
Keywords: haptic, master-slave system, excavator, Phantom Omni, internal model control
Ground Truth Verification Tool (GTVT) for Video Surveillance Systems BIBAKFull-Text 354-359
  Amol Ambardekar; Mircea Nicolescu; Sergiu Dascalu
As cameras and storage devices have become cheaper, the number of video surveillance systems has also increased. Video surveillance was (and mostly is) done by human operators on a need-to-know basis. The advent of new algorithms from the computer vision community, and increased computational power offered by new CPUs have shown a strong possibility of automating this task. Different approaches have been proposed by computer scientists to solve the difficult problem of content recognition from video data. They use many different videos to prove their usefulness and accuracy. A careful comparison and evaluation needs to be done to find the most suitable method under given conditions. To compare the results given by video surveillance applications, the ground truth needs to be established. In the case of computer vision, the ground truth needs to be provided by humans, making it one of the most time-consuming tasks in the evaluation process. This paper presents a tool (GTVT) that allows the user to establish the ground truth for a given video. GTVT presents a user-friendly interface to perform the cumbersome task of ground truth establishment and verification.
Keywords: computer vision, video surveillance, ground truth verification, human computer interaction


Applying the Chilean Educational Experience in HCI to Peruvian Undergraduate and Graduate Programs BIBAKFull-Text 360-364
  Jose Antonio Pow-Sang; Cristian Rusu; Claudia Zapata; Silvana Roncagliolo
The importance of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) education for software professionals should be evident and well understood, when designing computing programs, at all levels. Unfortunately there is a lack of HCI courses in Peruvian computing programs. Changing curricula is often difficult and involves a long bureaucratic process. However, making small changes in courses' approach and emphasis only requires good will from the professors. The current paper presents a proposal to introduce HCI topics and/or courses in the Informatics Engineering curricula at Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, based on the Chilean educational experience at Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaúso.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction, Computer Science Curricula, Usability
Improving Usability of HTA Charts BIBAKFull-Text 365-368
  Raja Jamilah Raja Yusof; Khairuddin Hashim
This paper proposes improving the usability of HTA (Hierarchical Task Analysis) chart through redefinition. The plans in the existing HTA chart (HTAe) are replaced with symbols giving a proposed representation of HTA chart (HTAs). An empirical experiment was done on both types of chart, the HTAe and the HTAs, to see whether there is an improvement on the usability of HTA chart. An analysis was done on the score given for each task done correctly in interpreting the chart. An improvement was recorded. Lastly, a further redefinition of HTA chart was done based on results of the experiment carried out.
Keywords: hierarchical task analysis, human computer interaction, software engineering, usability
Toward the Study of Sign Language Coarticulation: Methodology Proposal BIBAFull-Text 369-374
  Jérémie Segouat; Annelies Braffort
This article proposes a methodology to study coarticulation in sign language. Our aim is to provide information in sign language (SL) thanks to a displayed signing avatar performing SL predefined animations. Therefore, we explain the approach we have chosen to model coarticulation, and animate our avatar. We also propose a definition of what coarticulation is, based on an overview of the literature, and we present the linguistic basis our model will be build on. We explain the methodology we are setting up, based on corpus analysis, and our evaluation protocol. We are aware of the various implications our study will have on several aspects for the deaf community and the SL.
Using an Error Detection Strategy for Improving Web Accessibility for Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 375-380
  Alfred, Sr. Taylor; Les Miller; Sree Nilakanta; Jeffry Sander; Saayan Mitra; Anurag Sharda; Bachar Chama
The ability to use the Internet can provide an important contribution to an older adult's quality of life. Communication via email with family, friends and service providers has become a critical factor for improving ones ability to cope with modern society as individual's age. The problem is that as users age, natural physical and cognitive impairments make it more difficult for them to use the required technology. The present study investigates the use of error detection as a means of improving web access amongst older adults. Specifically, error detection strategies are compared to observation as a means of identifying the impairments of Internet users.
Keywords: web access, older adults, usability
Designing and Evaluating Interactive Television from a Usability Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 381-385
  César A. Collazos; Cristian Rusu; José L. Arciniegas; Silvana Roncagliolo
Interactive television (iTV) is the convergence of television with digital media technologies. iTV must be treated as a unique medium with its own set of constraints and opportunities. A set of principles to follow, when designing iTV applications, is presented. Heuristics to be applied when evaluating iTV applications' usability is described.
Keywords: Usability, Interactive television, Design guidelines, Usability heuristics


Animation Generation Process for Sign Language Synthesis BIBAKFull-Text 386-390
  M. Delorme; M. Filhol; A. Braffort
In this paper, we propose a new process for Sign Language synthesis. Our approach is based on a geometric description of signs to animate a signing avatar. We work as follows: the signs are divided in timing units and treated separately in a sequential process. The final results are merged into a global animation file describing the whole sign in terms of articulatory angles for a skeleton.
Keywords: SL, NLP, Animation Synthesis, Signing Avatars