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ACE Tables of Contents: 0405060708091011121314

Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology
Editors:Newton Lee
Location:Valencia, Spain
Dates:2005-Jun-15 to 2005-Jun-17
Standard No:ISBN: 1-59593-110-4; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: ACE05
Links:Conference Website (defunct)
Interactive and enjoyable interface in museum BIBAFull-Text 1-8
  Fusako Kusunoki; Takako Yamaguti; Takuichi Nishimura; Koji Yatani; Masanori Sugimoto
Exhibitions at a scientific museum are usually difficult for ordinary school pupils. To improve the issues of current explanation systems, we use Personal Data Assistant (PDA) devices. Recent PDAs have enough functionality for people to interactively, individually, but it is not easy to assist that school pupils learn scientific knowledge merely using PDA.
   This research examined the main focus of the design and implementation of visual interfaces for PDAs for such a learning system. We aims the visual interface for PDAs have more interactive and entertainment to engage for learning scientific knowledge. Experiments using two prototype systems (Pi-book and Pit A Pat) implemented in the Flash/MX software toolkit have suggested the effectiveness on the performance and functionality of the proposed method.
Scenario analysis based on linear logic BIBAFull-Text O1
  Frédéric Collé; Ronan Champagnat; Armelle Prigent
This paper deals with game analysis. We begin by the proposal of a terminology relevant to game scenario. Then, we propose an approach dedicated to analyze game scenarii. This approach consists in expressing a scenario by using a fragment of linear logic. This model is then translated into a Petri net model. This model allows us to generate the possible narratives for the given scenario that are at last analyzed. Morever, in addition to usual provable properties such as liveness and safety properties, we propose a new class of properties establishing conclusions with respect to the scenario relevance.
Possession techniques for interaction in real-time strategy augmented reality games BIBAFull-Text O2
  Keith Phillips; Wayne Piekarski
There have been a number of interactive games created for Augmented Reality (AR) environments. In this paper, interaction techniques to support Real-Time Strategy (RTS) games in AR environments are investigated. One limiting factor is that the user's position within the virtual environment must correspond to their position in the physical world. If it is obvious to the user there is no correspondence between the two, the illusion of a consistent environment will be broken. The primary problem with adapting an RTS game for an AR environment is that the player will need to manage a large force of life-sized military units, which cannot be done effectively if the user is confined to what they can see and how fast they can move in the physical world. In this paper, we introduce the use of AR-VR transitions and a new technique that is called possession, which attempts to address these problems. Possession essentially gives the player the ability to move inside the head of any of their units. This allows the user to see everything that is visible to that unit, and manage their forces with the usual interface even though they are detached from their own body. The possession technique allows control of units over large ranges, makes micromanagement of distant groups possible, and implements realistic views of the world that match what a user would expect in the physical world. Our user interface supports a more realistic interface than is possible in traditional desktop games. Our new techniques were implemented in an operational AR-RTS game that we have named ARBattleCommander.
Synthetic group dynamics in entertainment scenarios: creating believable interactions in groups of synthetic characters BIBAFull-Text O3
  Rui Prada; Ana Paiva
Today, many interactive games and virtual communities engage several users and synthetic characters, all interacting in the same virtual environment. In addition, these interactive scenarios, often present tasks to the participants that must be solved collaboratively. However, to achieve successful and believable interactions between users and such synthetic characters, the latter must be able to show a coherent and set of behaviours. Thus, in scenarios where users and syn-thetic characters interact as a group, it is very important that the interactions follow a believable group dynamics. Focusing on this problem, we have developed a model that supports the dynamics of a group of synthetic characters, inspired by theories of group dynamics developed in human social psychological sciences. The dynamics is driven by a characterization of the different types of interactions that may occur in the group. This characterization addresses socio-emotional interactions as well as task related interactions.
   We have implemented the model into the behaviour of synthetic characters that collaborate with the user in the resolution of tasks within a collaborative game. This game was used in an evaluation experiment which showed that the model had a positive effect on the users' social engagement in the group, namely on their trust and identification with the group.
RoboGamer: a robotic tv game player BIBAFull-Text O4
  Akihiko Shirai; Lionel Dominjon; Masafumi Takahashi
"RoboGamer" is a robotic system which is able to play a video game together with a human player. In previous computer game systems, the computers are always designed as enemies to the human. However, in this project, we realized a physically connected friendly computer player by a simple robotic system that is composed of a video camera, wire based force feedback display SPIDAR and a program that made with GPU fast image recognition without any modification for original video game system. RoboGamer has three functions that are autonomous play, augmented effects like force feedback and/or rich graphics for original old video game and collaboration play with A. I. and human player via force feedback on the joystick.
RoboGamer: development of robotic tv game player using haptic interface and GPU image recognition BIBAFull-Text O5
  Akihiko Shirai; Lionel Dominjon; Masafumi Takahashi
"RoboGamer" is a robotic system which is able to play a video game tegather with a human player. In previous computer game systems, the computers are always designed as enemies to the human. However, in this project, we realized a physically connected friendly computer player by a simple robotic system that is composed of a video camera, wire based force feedback display SPIDAR and a program that made with GPU fast image recognition without any modification for original video game system. RoboGamer has three functions that are autonomous play, augmented effects like force feedback and/or rich graphics for original old video game and collaboration play with A. I. and human player via force feedback on the joystick.
Painting the town red: configuring location-based games by colouring maps BIBAFull-Text 9-18
  Martin Flintham
ColourMaps enable designers to author location-based games by directly colouring over maps. This provides a simple, familiar and yet highly flexible approach to matching location-triggers to complex physical spaces. It also supports configuring and managing other aspects of a game, including setting start positions, filtering inaccurate position data, and underpinning orchestration tools. We describe the use and evolution of this approach to create four location-based games that have toured internationally over the past four years. From this, we draw out a general design for a ColourMap tool that includes concepts of multiple levels, multiple and specialized content layers within a level, and different options for triggering game events from user movements and other actions.
Natural interaction with virtual objects using vision-based six DOF sphere tracking BIBAFull-Text 19-26
  Derek Bradley; Gerhard Roth
A common task in computer entertainment is the ability to interact with virtual 3D objects. Interacting with these objects using standard computer input devices such as a mouse and keyboard can often be a difficult task. For this reason, Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) were developed to allow more natural interaction with complex virtual objects by manipulating physical objects in a familiar way. Applying the movements of a physical object to control the movement of a virtual object is often done by embedding devices in the physical object, or by passively tracking the object. We present a new TUI system that includes a passive optical tracking method to determine the six degree-of-freedom (DOF) pose of a sphere in a real-time video stream, and then apply the pose to a virtual object. Our tracking system is based on standard computer vision techniques and applications of 3D geometry. The pose of the sphere is accurately resolved under partial occlusions, allowing the object to be manipulated by hand without a tracking failure. We demonstrate the use of our TUI system to control virtual 3D objects in an interactive way, proving to be a useful tool for computer entertainment applications.
Untethered robotic play for repetitive physical tasks BIBAFull-Text 27-34
  Andrew G. Brooks; Matthew Berlin; Jesse Gray
Personal robots are an increasingly promising new platform for human entertainment. In particular, socially interactive game playing can be used as a mechanism for imparting knowledge and skills to both the robot and the human player. Simultaneous advances in untethered sensing of human activity has widened the scope for inclusion of natural physical movement in these games. In particular, this places certain human health applications within the purview of entertainment robots. Socially responsive automata equipped with the ability to physically monitor unencumbered humans can help to motivate them to perform suitable repetitions of exercise and physical therapy tasks. We demonstrate this concept with two untethered playful interactions: arm exercise mediated by play with a physical robot, and facial exercise mediated by expression-based operation of a popular video game console.
Introducing narrative principles into planning-based interactive storytelling BIBAFull-Text 35-42
  Leandro Motta Barros; Soraia Raupp Musse
There is a growing interest for interactive computational systems with emphasis in dramatic and narrative aspects, for artistic and entertainment applications. Interactive Storytelling (IS) is the research area that intends to allow the use of interactive computer systems as a new medium for storytellers. One approach used by IS researchers is the use of planning algorithms and STRIPS domains as the base for story generation. The present work explores methods that can be used to introduce some narrative principles into systems using the referred approach. In particular, this paper shows techniques that can be used to enforce the classical three-act structure, and to avoid stalls in the generated story when the player cannot correctly decide what to do.
Weekend battle: an entertainment system for improving workers' motivation BIBAFull-Text 43-50
  Itaru Kuramoto; Kazumasa Kashiwagi; Tomomi Uemura; Yu Shibuya; Yoshihiro Tsujino
Entertainment has the power to improve workers' motivation. This improvement affects their productivity. Based on this idea, we have proposed the entertainment system for workers in the working environment. Weekend Battle is a new entertainment system which extends the fun of competition and collection, and which solves the problems which we pointed out in the previous entertainment system. In Weekend Battle, workers rear their avatars at weekdays, and their avatars fight against each other at weekend. The growth at weekdays is related with whether their avatars win or not at weekend, so we expect that they will work harder than without Weekend Battle.
   We implemented and evaluated Weekend Battle by an experiment for five weeks. The result indicated that Weekend Battle could improve the participants' motivation, and especially the competition could improve their productivity. Moreover, the entertainment system could produce the topic for their informal communication, so it was expected that it make their relationships better.
Exploring spatial narratives and mixed reality experiences in Oakland Cemetery BIBAFull-Text 51-60
  Steven Dow; Jaemin Lee; Christopher Oezbek; Blair Maclntyre; Jay David Bolter; Maribeth Gandy
The Historic Oakland Cemetery in downtown Atlanta provides a unique setting for exploring the challenges of location-based mixed-reality experience design. Our objective is to entertain and educate visitors about historically and culturally significant events related to the deceased inhabitants of the cemetery. We worked with the constraints and affordances of the physical environment of the cemetery to design an audio-based dramatic experience. The dramatic narrative is realized through voice actors who play the parts of cemetery residents and tell stories about the time periods in which they lived. The experience provides navigation and linearity through a main narrator who guides visitors to various gravesites. While at each grave, the visitor can choose from several categories of content using a handheld controller. Formative evaluations conducted with users in the cemetery indicate strengths of the current experience and suggest ideas for continued development.
Transforming your shadow into colorful visual media: multi-projection of complementary colors BIBAFull-Text 61-68
  Yugo Minomo; Yasuaki Kakehi; Makoto Iida
This paper proposes a real-time system that transforms your shadows on a floor into colorful visual media. This system is based on the effect of complementary color and multiprojection techniques. By exactly calibrating the system geometrically and photometrically, our system makes it possible to display various images such as texture animation, colorful picture, text and live videos in your shadows without any digitized artifact or latency. Since it can display any images you like, it is applicable for various purposes such as media art, entertainment, and advertisement.
Characterization of user behavior in a multi-player online game BIBAFull-Text 69-74
  Michael Kwok; Gary Yeung
In recent years, multi-player online games (MOGs) have gained enormous popularity and become a major trend in the entertainment industry. Much research has been focusing on improving the performance and scalability of MOG systems. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the study of user behavior. As with other complex interactive applications, a good understanding of user behavior is important to the design of MOG systems. In this paper, we discuss the advantages of a user behavior workload model to the software industry and the research community, and describe a method to develop such a model. For illustrative purposes, we study user behavior by using the measurement data collected from an existing MOG system. This includes the characterization of the interarrival time of logon users, the transition probability of avatars within the virtual environment, the residence time at a room, and the session length. Our results not only provide an insight into user behavior in MOGs, but they are also useful in the development of workload models in performance studies of MOG systems.
Teddy-bear based robotic user interface BIBAFull-Text 75-82
  Noriyoshi Shimizu; Naoya Koizumi; Maki Sugimoto; Hideaki Nii; Dairoku Sekiguchi; Masahiko Inami
A Robotic User Interface (RUI) is part of a concept in which a robot is used as an interface for human behavior. Our RUI, which we have been developing for communications, is a system for interpersonal exchanges that uses robots as agents for physical communication. In this paper, we propose a new type of RUI for interactive entertainment. This RUI enables people to directly interact with the information world.
Development of an automatic pool trainer BIBAFull-Text 83-87
  Lars Bo Larsen; Rene B. Jensen; Kasper L. Jensen; Søren Larsen
This paper presents the development of an automatic pool trainer (APT). The rationale behind the user interface design is outlined and the system architecture and modules are described. The APT utilises a camera and a projector for visual in-and output to the system. In addition, the user can issue spoken commands to an interface agent acting as a personification of the system. The camera and projector are placed unobtrusively in the ceiling above the pool table and no modifications of the table or other equipment (cues, pool balls, etc.) are required by the system. The camera is used to detect the positions and movements of the pool balls as well as user hand gestures. The projector will display menus, text and graphics directly on the surface of the table. Optionally, the communication can be carried out by speech via the interface agent. Several user tests have shown high degree of user acceptance and that users quickly become familiar with the system and use it as intended. It is discussed how the concept can be extended to other games (or variants) than pool.
Artistic brushstroke representation and animation with disk b-spline curve BIBAFull-Text 88-93
  Hock Soon Seah; Zhongke Wu; Feng Tian; Xian Xiao; Boya Xie
A novel modeling and representation approach for brushstroke and animation is proposed in this paper based on disk B-spline curve (DBSC). This method represents not only the 2D region of the stroke but also its centerline so that various attributes like scalar and vector field can be applied to the stroke. Given two or more animation drawings represented by DBSC, the intermediate frames can be automatically generated to form a smoother sequence, either linearly or non-linearly. Moreover, compared to other models like polygon and triangle mesh, DBSC allows more flexible manipulation of brushstroke. With smaller dataset, DBSC has advantages to store and transmit the model across the network thus may be suitable to online games and animation.
Combining body sensors and visual sensors for motion training BIBAFull-Text 94-101
  Doo Young Kwon; Markus Gross
We present a new framework to build motion training systems using machine learning techniques. The goal of our approach is the design of a training method based on the combination of body and visual sensors. We introduce the concept of a Motion Chunk to analyze human motion and construct a motion data model in real-time. The system provides motion detection and evaluation and visual feedback generation. We discuss the results of user tests regarding the system efficiency in martial art training. With our system, trainers can generate motion training videos and practice complex motions precisely evaluated by a computer.
InStory: a system for mobile information access, storytelling and gaming activities in physical spaces BIBAFull-Text 102-109
  Nuno Correia; Luís Alves; Helder Correia; Luis Romero; Carmen Morgado; Luís Soares; José C. Cunha; Teresa Romão; A. Eduardo Dias; Joaquim A. Jorge
This paper describes the work carried out in the InStory project. InStory has the goal of defining and implementing a platform for mobile storytelling, information access, and gaming activities. The platform has a flexible computational architecture that integrates heterogeneous devices, different media formats and computational support for different narrative modes and gaming activities. The system is driven and validated by a set of story threads and narratives that are centered on the exploration of physical spaces. This exploration is combined with the perspective of sharing information between users and providing historic context. The project also wants to explore the social aspect of shared narratives and activities, with the idea that the technology can provide new innovative approaches to social participation in different types of events.
Designing sound for a pervasive mobile game BIBAFull-Text 110-116
  Inger Ekman; Laura Ermi; Jussi Lahti; Jani Nummela; Petri Lankoski; Frans Mäyrä
We examine the role of sound design in pervasive mobile games. As a case study, we present the sound design and evaluation of a working prototype game called The Songs of North. A play-test with 19 players was conducted over a two-week period. The results imply that using sound information can facilitate physical movement as a main game mechanic. However, using sound to convey information is still an unfamiliar game mechanic to many sighted players. The research highlights the importance of social playability in the sound design of mobile games. Also, some insights on the role of sound in producing immersive gaming experiences are discussed.
Achieving fairness in multiplayer network games through automated latency balancing BIBAFull-Text 117-124
  Sebastian Zander; Ian Leeder; Grenville Armitage
Over the past few years, the prominence of multiplayer network gaming has increased dramatically in the Internet. The effect of network delay (lag) on multiplayer network gaming has been studied before. Players with higher delays (whether due to slower connections, congestion or a larger distance to the server) are at a clear disadvantage relative to players with low delay. In this paper we evaluate whether eliminating the delay differences will provide a fairer solution whilst maintaining good gameplay. We have designed and implemented an application that can be used with existing network games to equalize the delay differences. To evaluate the effectiveness of the approach we use a novel method involving computer players (bots) instead of human players. This method provides some advantages over difficult and time-consuming human usability trials. We show that bots experience similar unfairness problems as humans and demonstrate that the application we have developed significantly improves fairness.
Rokkatan: scaling an RTS game design to the massively multiplayer realm BIBAFull-Text 125-132
  Jens Müller; Jan Hendrik Metzen; Alexander Ploss; Maraike Schellmann; Sergei Gorlatch
While massively multiplayer online role-playing games involve large numbers of simultaneous players, two other popular game classes -- first person action and real-time strategy games -- are still rarely discussed for massively multiplayer gaming. This paper presents our work on Rokkatan, an online game which implements the common concept of real-time strategy in a scalable multiplayer design. In order to allow hundreds of users to participate in a single game session, Rokkatan uses our proxy-server network architecture which provides the required scalability and responsiveness required for a fast-paced gaming style. An analytical scalability model integrated into Rokkatan allows to forecast the maximum number of simultaneous players. Our experiments demonstrate good prediction quality of the model and high scalability of Rokkatan, which allows several hundreds of users to participate in a single game session.
A logic-based tool for interactive generation and dramatization of stories BIBAFull-Text 133-140
  Angelo E. M. Ciarlini; Cesar T. Pozzer; Antonio L. Furtado; Bruno Feijó
A key issue in interactive storytelling is how to generate stories which are, at the same time, interesting and coherent. On the one hand, it is desirable to provide means for the user to intervene in the story. On the other hand, it is necessary to guarantee that user intervention will not introduce events that violate the rules of the intended genre. This paper describes LOGTELL, a tool we have been developing for interactively generating and dramatizing stories. We focus on the specification of a formal logic model for events and characters' behaviour. Based on the model, the user can interact with the tool at various levels, obtaining a variety of stories agreeable to individual tastes, within the imposed coherence requirements. The system alternates stages of goal inference, planning, user intervention and 3D visualization. Our experiments have shown that the system can be used not only for entertainment but also to help in the creation and adaptation of stories in conformity with a specified genre.
An extensible platform for interactive, entertaining social experiences with an animatronic character BIBAFull-Text 141-148
  Sabrina Haskell; Andrew Hosmer; Eugenia Leu
The fields of human-robot interaction and entertainment robotics are truly interdisciplinary, combining the best of computer science, psychology, and mechanical engineering. However, they are areas which have thus far been largely limited to technical specialists, excluding animators, writers, and other artists from the development of interactive content. We attempt to open these fields to non-technologists through an easily extensible platform for the rapid development of social interactions between humans and animatronic characters. Specifically, the Interbots Platform consists of 1) a servo-driven animatronic character named Quasi and 2) a suite of tools to author decisions, animate the character, and design complete, interactive, entertaining social experiences. We have created a graphical editor to author behaviors for the character, as well as extensions for Alias Maya and Macromedia Director, empowering artists already familiar with these applications to create animatronic-enabled content. The usability of the Interbots Platform was verified when interdisciplinary student teams of artists and computer scientists were able to create engaging entertainment experiences with Quasi in two-week development cycles.
Human scale haptic interaction with a reactive virtual human in a realtime physics simulator BIBAFull-Text 149-155
  Shoichi Hasegawa; Ishikawa Toshiaki; Naoki Hashimoto
In this paper, we propose a framework for haptic interaction with a reactive virtual human in a physically simulated virtual world. The user controls an avatar in the virtual world via human scale haptic interface and interacts with the virtual human through the avatar. The virtual human recognizes the user's motion and reacts to it. We create a virtual boxing system as an application of the proposed framework. We performed an experiment to evaluate the validity of the reaction of the virtual human. We get confirmation that proposed framework creates realistic reactions and users can easily estimate the input motions of the avatar.
Emotional agent model and architecture for NPCs group control and interaction to facilitate leadership roles in computer entertainment BIBAFull-Text 156-163
  Abdennour El Rhalibi; Nick Baker; Madjid Merabti
The paper reports work involving the use of academic artificial intelligence to create realistic portrayals of leadership roles in computer game entertainment. In response to a perceived lack of depth and realism in the team relationship dynamics of modern gaming, the project developed a human agent architecture, multiagent system, and demonstrative game application. The agent architecture was based partially on research into social psychology, and utilized emotion and belief representations to drive action selection. Agent interaction and relationship development was produced on the basis of the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma (IPD), through which a team's success came to be determined by its members' choices to cooperate or compete with its leader.
Relations between selected musical parameters and expressed emotions: extending the potential of computer entertainment BIBAFull-Text 164-171
  Jan Berg; Johnny Wingstedt
A fundamental aspect of music is its ability to express emotions. To develop and extend the potential of music in computer entertainment, a deeper understanding of music's emotional aspects is essential. An experiment was designed to explore the suitability of a specially designed interface (REMUPP) as a means to investigate how musical parameters can contribute to expressing the emotions of 'happiness' and 'sadness'. In the experiment, a number of subjects listened to music examples where the musical performance was governed by a set of musical parameters that were controlled by the subject. The subjects adjusted the parameter settings to best express a given emotion. These settings were recorded and analyzed. The experiment verifies the REMUPP tool as a valid means for the investigation of musical parameters and emotion. Issues of importance for realization of music in the computer entertainment context are also addressed.
MonkeyBridge: autonomous agents in augmented reality games BIBAFull-Text 172-175
  István Barakonyi; Markus Weilguny; Thomas Psik; Dieter Schmalstieg
MonkeyBridge is a collaborative Augmented Reality (AR) game employing autonomous animated agents embodied by lifelike, animated virtual characters and "smart" physical objects. The game serves as a pilot application to examine how "smart" software and hardware components capable of observing and reacting to events in the physical and virtual world can be useful in AR applications. We describe the implementation details of our test setups as well as how autonomous agents offer a rich gaming experience in AR games.
Reflections on the methodology of pervasive gaming BIBAFull-Text 176-179
  Bo Kampmann Walther
The paper introduces four axes of pervasive gaming (PG): mobility, distribution, persistence, and transmediality. Further, it describes and analyses three key units of PG (rules, entities, and mechanics) as well as discusses the role of space in PG by differentiating between tangible space, information embedded space, and accessibility space.
Fully automated texture tracking based on natural features extraction and template matching BIBAFull-Text 180-183
  Rafael Bastos; José Miguel Salles Dias
In this work we propose a novel approach to real-time texture tracking and registration, based on natural feature extraction from planar objects and template matching, Our method is oriented to planar objects with arbitrary textures but with rectangular topologies and well contrasted contours and does not require any external fiducial marker, either for the set-up or the tracking phases. Once the initial pose condition is obtained, previous planar object information is used to compute subsequent planar object's pose, so that the time coherence of the input video stream is exploited. Our system is completely automated and produces real-time efficient tracking which can be applied to entertainment AR applications and other. The paper discusses also the novelty of the approach, in relation to other existing texture tracking algorithms.
The CaveUT system: immersive entertainment based on a game engine BIBAFull-Text 184-187
  Jeffrey Jacobson; Marc Le Renard; Jean-Luc Lugrin; Marc Cavazza
We describe recent developments in the CaveUT software, which supports immersive virtual reality installations based on the Unreal Tournament game engine. CaveUT implements several high-end VR features such as real-time stereoscopy with head and hand tracking. We demonstrate the use of CaveUT in the SAS Cube™, a PC-based CAVE™-like immersive four-screen display. One of the main advantages of the system is to support fully immersive VR while retaining the game engine's advanced features for interaction and behavioral (or AI) systems. We illustrate the use of CaveUT on two installations: an artistic VR installation and an immersive interactive storytelling system.
Networked equilibrium sharing system "balance seat" BIBAFull-Text 188-191
  Nobuya Suzuki; Takahiro Kobayashi; Hiroshi Yasuda
This paper presents a networked system connecting real space, which is shared and operated by three people.
   We made three pneumatic triple-axis motion platforms as a system to share a "sense of balance" with other people, and examined control methods for this system. Cylinders, which go up and down due to air pressure are used as actuators, and by moving the cylinders up and down while performing position control, the system can make the platform tilt.
   Since we use three platforms, an important issue was how to incorporate the interaction of the user to control the system. Therefore, we considered and experimented with four control models.
The 3D interactive visit to Piazza dei Miracoli, Italy BIBAFull-Text 192-195
  Marcello Carrozzino; Andrea Brogi; Franco Tecchia; Massimo Bergamasco
This paper present an innovative VR application where the users, guided through structured narrative paths, are able to explore the space and the history of Piazza dei Miracoli in Pisa. The application was realized in the course of a research project whose objective was to create a complete multimedia system related to the renowned monumental complex. In order to be accessible from a wide audience, the application is hosted in a dedicated website. Several optimization techniques and a novel state-of-the-art 3D web technology were used to take in account issues related to VR real-time constraints and the limited web bandwidth.
"DELEM -- Delayed Mirror" BIBAFull-Text 196-199
  Gregorio Jimenez; Francisco Sanmartín; Emanuele Mazza
DELEM is an interactive installation involving the tracking of the viewer and the processing in real time of the sound and the image obtained in video, which is subject to time-based alterations. The program application is Max/MSP/Jitter, which features allow us to reinforce the aesthetic experience of the viewer seeing the changing relations in terms of image, sound and time that he/she establishes with his/her movement in the space.
Nano-Scape: experiencing aspects of nanotechnology through a magnetic force-feedback interface BIBAFull-Text 200-203
  Laurent Mignonneau; Christa Sommerer
In this paper we describe an interactive system called "Nano-Scape" which we developed in 2001 for the public exhibition "Science + Fiction" at the Sprengelmuseum in Hannover. The project was supported by the Volkswagenstiftung Germany and has been on tour through Europe and Asia. The aim of "Nano-Scape" is to let visitors intuitively experience aspects of nanotechnology by interacting with invisible self-organizing atoms through a magnetic force feedback interface.
The future of video: user experience in a large-scale, high-definition video display environment BIBAFull-Text 204-208
  Belgacem Ben Youssef; Jim Bizzocchi; John Bowes
The new flatscreen displays provide a high-quality platform for the presentation of the moving image. The Introduction of High-Definition Television (HDTV) will push video quality to higher levels. We will see unprecedented cinema-quality moving images available in our homes. These and other emergent video technologies will support the use of more complex visual narrative constructions and enable the utilization of high-resolution flatscreen panel displays as ambient "video paintings". This paper provides an outline of some of the emergent production techniques enabled by large-scale high-definition video display environments. It also discusses the need for a new generation of postproduction tools in order to realize the aesthetic possibilities of this new medium. Finally, the paper reviews our creative visual explorations in the development of an ambient video genre through a set of three video works.
Back to the 70's BIBAFull-Text 209-212
  Cristina Portalés; Francisco Giner; Francisco Sanmartín
Back to the 70's is an augmented reality application, designed to deliver the Vera University campus back to the city centre as it was 30 years ago. Within this, the user is immersed in a new hypothetical environment where the campus buildings are seen together with some historical ones belonging to Valencia City. This paper describes the methodologies followed to deal with the occlusion problem via a conjunction of 3D objects acting as a subtracting models, and the acquisition of the user orientation inside the application, which is achieved via a combination of a visual and an inertial tracker.
Heat sensation in image creation with thermal vision BIBAFull-Text 213-216
  Daisuke Iwai; Kosuke Sato
We introduce how to involve the heat sensation in image creation by using thermal vision. We develop "ThermoTablet" which can detect touch regions of physical input objects on a sensing surface using changes of a temperature distribution of the surface when those objects are hotter or colder than the surface. Image creation applications of painting, image modifications are implemented on it. In the painting application, users can directly use physical paintbrushes and airbrushes with hot water in spite of paint, and even use their own fingers, hands, and breaths directly. "ThermoInk" transforms the temperature information into a variation of painting. Image modification application aims an intuitive user interface for color saturation modification, hue modification, shape modification and CAD model deformation which are strongly related to heat sensations.
Adapting a large scale networked virtual environment for display on a PDA BIBAFull-Text 217-220
  Tom Jehaes; Peter Quax; Wim Lamotte
In order to allow users to access a large-scale online virtual environment at any time or place, some form of mobile access is needed using for instance a PDA or SmartPhone. In this paper, we describe how the display part of our in-house developed large scale online virtual environment was adapted for mobile devices. We discuss the main issues encountered and describe our approach for 3D rendering of a large virtual environment on a PDA. More specifically, we use a hybrid geometry/image-based rendering approach in order to limit the memory requirements and processing power needed. Our experimental results, using both software and hardware accelerated rendering, show that this hybrid approach strikes an effective balance between image quality and rendering speed.
Automatic kinetic typography composer BIBAFull-Text 221-224
  Mitsuru Minakuchi; Katsumi Tanaka
Animated text, commonly called kinetic typography, is any attractive visual expression used in films, TV programs, video games, etc. Previous studies have developed tools that support the authoring and rendering of kinetic typography. However, authoring kinetic typography is not easy because its methodology is still at an early stage. Hence, we systematize expression elements in kinetic typography and propose an automatic composer that converts raw text into kinetic typography data.
Digiwall: an interactive climbing wall BIBAFull-Text 225-228
  Mats Liljedahl; Stefan Lindberg; Jan Berg
Digiwall is a climbing wall enhanced with hardware and software. It combines the computer game with sport climbing, and extends both concepts with new features. Digiwall frees the user from focusing on a computer screen. Instead sound and music are used to convey the gaming experience. The Digiwall concept is designed to support a large number of games, competitions, challenges and even aesthetic experiences. It is an example of how technology can promote physical activity and engage people's senses and capabilities in a way that traditional computer gaming and sport climbing do not.
SCORPIODROME: an exploration in mixed reality social gaming for children BIBAFull-Text 229-232
  G. Metaxas; B. Metin; J. Schneider; G. Shapiro; W. Zhou; P. Markopoulos
This paper describes the design of SCORPIODROME a mixed reality game for groups of 3-4 children aged 11-14. SCORPIODROME is designed for social gaming; i.e., computer gaming that is intended to support and trigger social interaction between players to occur within and around playing the game. The paper discusses some of the lessons learnt from this design process and how SCORPIODROME paves the way towards the development of a whole class of mixed reality games. Finally, we reflect upon some of the methodological issues encountered.
Enhancement of aligning accuracy on zooming camera for augmented reality BIBAFull-Text 233-237
  Widya Andyardja Weliamto; Hock Soon Seah; Tian Feng; Li Li
This paper addresses the problem of the zooming effect of camera on focal length estimation for augmented reality applications. Our proposed method allows us to merge virtual objects properly into a real scene captured with varying focal length. Virtual objects appearing in the augmented scene need to be merged into the real scene taken with different camera pose (related to rotation and translation parameters) and camera zoom (related to focal length parameter). The system will then calculate appropriate transformation using a template of the marker that is already built in the database. Several tests have been done in comparison between current AR toolkit and our system. The simulation results show that our system is able to achieve more accurate alignment without degenerate motion problem.
Hypersexual avatars: who wants them? BIBAFull-Text 238-241
  Annika Waern; Anna Larsson; Carina Nerén
Women are less dedicated to computer gaming than men. Previous studies show that one reason might be that current games exhibit hypersexualised female avatars: avatars that have exaggerated sexual signals to which female players object. We report on a study in which this hypothesis was tested. The study was performed with men and women aged 17-22 from the Stockholm area. In our study, both women and men showed similar preferences in avatar selections. However, we also found that the women seemed to be more aware of personality stereotypes, in that they were more consistent in attributing a hypersexual avatar to a 'bimbo' personality.
Geometric model reconstruction from streams of DirectX 3D game application BIBAFull-Text 242-245
  Zhigeng Pan; Xiaochao Wei; Jian Yang
This paper presents a method of intercepting data stream, command stream and rendering states from DirectX 9 graphics pipeline by hooking the low-level graphics library. It also shows that it is useful to reconstruct geometric models or render models with new styles. The paper shows not only how the basic mechanics of intercepting streams in the DirectX 9 graphics pipeline lead to a non-invasive extension mechanism for graphics applications, but also how to manipulate the streams and states of pipeline properly to reconstruct geometric information and export models of different styles. While describing how our system efficiently reconstructs a declarative representation of the geometry implicit in the graphics library command stream, a set of application extensions built with this framework is presented including the replayer and reconstructer.
Surveys of exhibition planners and visitors about a distributed haptic museum BIBAFull-Text 246-249
  Toshio Asano; Yutaka Ishibashi; Satoshi Minezawa; Masaki Fujimoto
This paper presents the results of surveys of exhibition planners and visitors about our distributed haptic museum, which is a distributed virtual museum with touchable exhibits. We visited 15 museums and talked with 23 exhibition planners such as curators and researchers in various types of museums and art galleries after explaining our system and its exhibits. In addition, a questionnaire was given to 75 students acting as visitors. The students experienced our system after a similar presentation to the one given to the exhibition planners. We studied the availability and directionality of the distributed haptic museum based on these discussions and questionnaire results in terms of the concept, haptic interface device, usage, contents, and so on.
Improving quality of service in videogames BIBAFull-Text 250-253
  Inmaculada García; Ramón Mollá
Every object in a videogame has different aspects to simulate as behavior, physics, graphics or sounds. Every aspect requires its own Quality of Service (QoS) levels (complexity and sampling). Traditional videogames follow a scheme of continuous coupled simulation. This rigid scheme does not allow to define a specific QoS sampling frequency. It is defined implicitly for the whole system and it is hardly dependent on the videogame, system load and the machine characteristics. A discrete simulation paradigm allows to define a private QoS criteria for each aspect of each object in the videogame. This discrete system allows a Smart System Degradation (SSD) and may redefine the objects QoS while the videogame is running. Objects may adapt its QoS based on the system status or on local performance degradation. This paper shows the results of the transformation of a continuous simulation videogame kernel (Fly3D) into a discrete one by integrating the discrete event simulator DESK.
Interactive three-dimensional rendering on mobile computer devices BIBAFull-Text 254-257
  Javier Lluch; Rafael Gaitán; Emilio Camahort; Roberto Vivó
We present a client/server system that is able to display 3D scenes on handheld devices. This kind of devices have important restrictions of memory and computing power. Therefore, we need to limit the amount of geometry sent by the server to each client. We extract the geometry that is visible for each client and send it. The clients render the geometry using the OpenGL ES [10] API. Our geometry extraction algorithm employs multiresolution and view-dependent simplification. We present results of our system running on a software implementation of OpenGL ES that runs on a Pock-etPC 2003.
Energy browser: to make exercise enjoyable and interesting BIBAFull-Text 258-261
  Satoshi Nakamura; Mitsuru Minakuchi; Katusmi Tanaka
Previously, we developed a Web browser called the EnergyBrowser system that gives people an incentive to exercise. In the EnergyBrowser system, the user wears a motion sensor and walks/runs on a treadmill. Web pages are displayed incrementally in proportion to the rate of walking/running. The user can exercise while browsing the Web. In this paper, we will evaluate the effectiveness of the EnergyBrowser system, which we exhibited at an open house and evaluated using a questionnaire. We will discuss the effectiveness of our system.
Keeping bots out of online games BIBAFull-Text 262-265
  Philippe Golle; Nicolas Ducheneaut
We study the problem of restricting participation in online games to human players, so they can enjoy the game without interference from automated playing agents known as bots. We propose a range of techniques, both software and hardware based, to distinguish bots from human players in a wide variety of online games, from poker to "shoot'em ups."
Massive flux design for an interactive water installation: water games BIBAFull-Text 266-269
  Narcís Parés; Jaume Durany; Anna Carreras
This paper identifies and contextualizes the limitations and problems found in interactive installations that require a massive flux of users. It then presents a set of solutions for these practical problems and shows how they have been applied to a real life installation with exceptionally good results. The application is an interactive water installation for children and their families for the international event called "Universal Forum of Cultures, Barcelona 2004".
Lowering the development time of multimodal interactive application: the real-life experience of the XVR project BIBAFull-Text 270-273
  Marcello Carrozzino; Franco Tecchia; Sandro Bacinelli; Carlo Cappelletti; Massimo Bergamasco
In this paper we present XVR, an integrated development environment for the rapid development of Virtual Reality applications. Using a modular architecture and a VR-oriented scripting language, XVR contents can be embedded on a variety of container applications. This makes it suitable to write contents ranging from web-oriented presentations to more complex VR installations involving advanced devices, such as real-time trackers, haptic interfaces, sensorized gloves and stereoscopic devices, including HMDs. Some case studies are also presented to illustrate the development processes related to XVR and its features.
Designing a narrative-based audio only 3D game engine BIBAFull-Text 274-277
  Timothy Roden; Ian Parberry
Immersing players in believable and engaging virtual environments is a common goal for many interactive computer games. While PC-based audio only games set in virtual worlds have traditionally been developed for blind players, new technology will soon create a market for audio only games aimed at a mass audience. We propose a framework for authoring interactive narrative-based audio only adventure games set in 3D virtual environments. Our work builds on several years of research into audio only applications for sight impaired users, augmented reality systems and human-computer interaction studies. We argue that a simple user interface enhances both immersion and entertainment value, making audio only games practical for mobile computing. Novel features of our system include real-time gameplay and support for multiple players. We also describe a software architecture for creating audio only games, the current implementation of which uses low-cost existing PC-based hardware and software.
A pressure sensing floor for interactive media applications BIBAFull-Text 278-281
  Prashant Srinivasan; David Birchfield; Gang Qian; Assegid Kidané
This paper explores the design of a reconfigurable large-area high-resolution pressure sensing floor to help study human dance movement. By measuring the pressure of a user interacting with the system, our device is able to provide real-time knowledge about both the location of the performer on the floor as well as the amount and distribution of force being exerted on the floor. This system has been designed to closely integrate and synchronize with external systems including marker-based motion capture systems, audio-sensing equipment and video-sensing technology, thus allowing for robust multimodal sensing of a subject in the integrated environment. Furthermore, the mats comprising the floor can be readily re-arranged in order to allow for a large number of configurations. Some other possible applications of the pressure sensing floor include virtual reality based entertainment systems or video game control interfaces as well as rehabilitation projects for disabled people with foot or motor-control disorders.
A qualitative exploration of entertainment experiences BIBAFull-Text 282-285
  Greg Hale
Research into film experiences can reveal much about experiences of computer based entertainment. This paper reports on the first stage of an investigation of people's film content experiences. Ten young adults matching the prime demographic for film-goers watched a short film. Afterwards they were interviewed about their experiences of the film. The most important themes were similarities of experience, differences in experience and plausibility. This material was then set in the context of mental models. The paper concludes by outlining the implications of this work for computer based entertainment.
Augmenting digital audio broadcast with rich data BIBAFull-Text 286-289
  Annelies De Bruine; Huw Jeffries; Erik Geelhoed; Richard Hull; Nick Piggott
HP Laboratories, GWR, Bristol University, ASL and Panasonic Semiconductor are collaborating to explore the potential of Digital Audio Broadcasting through a series of user trials. Our first iPAQ-based prototype allows listeners to GWR-Bristol to interact with a set of web pages broadcast alongside the digital audio stream and displayed on a small color display. In a hands-on study, typical GWR listeners responded very positively to the experience of viewing web pages on a visual radio. Local news, weather forecasts, event listings, and details of the last ten songs broadcast proved especially popular.
Magic moments in situated mediascapes BIBAFull-Text 290-293
  Josephine Reid; Richard Hull; Kirsten Cater; Constance Fleuriot
In this paper, we describe the situation and factors that lead to "Magic Moments" in mediascape experiences and discuss the implications for how to design these magic moments without them appearing contrived. We introduce a framework for Experience Design and describe a set of design heuristics which should extend the field of HCI to encompass aspects of user experience, mobility, the outside environment and facets of the new medium. The distinctive feature of mediascapes is their link to the physical environment. The findings are primarily based on analysis of public reaction to Riot! 1831, a mediascape in the form of an interactive drama which is based on the actual riots that took place in a public square in Bristol, England in 1831.
A real-time collision detection algorithm for mobile billiards game BIBAFull-Text 294-297
  Bailin Yang; Xi Cheng; Zhigeng Pan
Collision detection is a key technique in game design. However, some algorithms employed in PC game are not suitable for mobile game because of the low performance and small screen size in mobile devices. Combining with the features of the mobile devices, this paper proposes a quick and feasible collision detection algorithm. This algorithm makes use of the multi-level collision detection and dynamic multi-resolution grid subdivision to reduce the computing time for collision detection, which improves the algorithm performance greatly. In the collision response phase, this paper adopts the time step binary search algorithm to ensure both the computing precision and system efficiency. The mobile billiards game designed for the Bird Company indicates that this algorithm has good performance and real-time interaction.
Personalizing game content using audio-visual media BIBAFull-Text 298-301
  Jukka Holm; Kai Havukainen; Juha Arrasvuori
This paper introduces the concept of media-controlled games, where game content is personalized using audio-visual media as an input to the game. Each piece of background music or picture selected by the player makes the game look different and behave variedly.
Adaptive mixed reality games BIBAFull-Text 302-305
  Christian Reimann; Volker Paelke
Emerging technologies for positioning and context recognition together with advances in mobile computing and wireless communication technology enable the creation of new styles of games that are not only suited to mobile use but also exploit the dynamic context of the user. While spatial aspects and the task of "navigation" have been present in computer games from the beginning this has mostly been in the form of simulation on a fixed display. This paper presents an exploratory study on the use of real world geographic environments for and within games.
Gaming on the edge: using seams in ubicomp games BIBAFull-Text 306-309
  Matthew Chalmers; Marek Bell; Barry Brown; Malcolm Hall; Scott Sherwood; Paul Tennent
Outdoor multi-player games are an increasingly popular application area for ubiquitous computing, supporting experimentation both with new technologies and new user experiences. This paper presents an outdoor ubicomp game that exploits the gaps or seams that exist in complex computer systems. Treasure is designed so that players move in and out of areas of wireless network coverage, taking advantage not only of the connectivity within a wireless 'hotspot' but of the lack of connectivity outside it. More broadly, this paper discusses how the notion of seamful design can be a source of design ideas for ubicomp games.
Rendezvous: supporting real-time collaborative mobile gaming in high latency environments BIBAFull-Text 310-313
  Angie Chandler; Joe Finney
Despite the ever increasing popularity of handheld, networked gaming consoles, fully interactive real-time, multiplayer games designed for these platforms have yet to become a reality. This is primarily caused by the reliance of these handheld devices on telecoms networks such as GPRS and 3G to enable communications between players, introducing network latencies beyond the capacity of existing games and supporting consistency mechanisms to operate successfully.
   This paper motivates the need for a new approach to consistency in mobile multiplayer gaming environments, and introduces Rendezvous, a novel solution to the high latency consistency problem, based on the concept of elegant recovery from an inconsistent shared state, rather than the more traditional approach of prevention of the initial inconsistency. The paper goes on to present preliminary design, implementation and evaluation of Rendezvous, with respect to its application to a mobile real-time multiplayer game written for the smart phone platform called Knockabout.
Tri-Story as "intuitive cinema" interactive storytelling based on physical action for multi-screen BIBAFull-Text 314-317
  Satoru Tokuhisa; Alice Ding; Masa Inakage
This paper proposes "intuitive cinema" -- a new form of interactive storytelling, which emphasizes user motive and viewpoints, and implements its cinematic expressions based on immersive quality and audience's viewing methods. We use the quality of physical action that is made possible through a multi-screen system, and use it to approach a novel interactive storytelling method. From this concept comes "intuitive cinema", that allows its viewers freedom to watch the movies from their personal viewpoints. The content consists of 3 channels of live-action motion pictures, and the system applies interactive displays to realize the content "Tri-Story" based on the concept of intuitive cinema.
Synchronization methods for supporting distributed 3D virtual environments in Java™ BIBAFull-Text 318-321
  Kevin Gorman; Daneyand Singley; Yuichi Motai
This paper presents a 3D distributed virtual environment (DVE). The DVE, created using Java, is intended to allow for the creation of applications to enable multiple users to collaboratively interact in, and communicate about, a virtual world. This DVE is used to primarily support a flight simulator application. Three client-server synchronization methods were developed and compared. The method of transparent synchronization with non-blocking I/O has been found to be the best method for maintaining synchronization among DVEs. The successful creation of the DVE and the positive results collected in the supporting experimental data, leads to the conclusion that Java, with the addition of the non-blocking I/O and 3D API's, can be successfully used to create high performance 3D DVEs.
Implementing encrypted streaming video in a distributed server environment BIBAFull-Text 322-325
  Jason But; Grenville Armitage
Technical issues are not the only ones preventing large scale introduction of online streaming video services. Unlike generic web browsing applications, streaming video imposes greater demands on network resources. Caching of content through the use of distributed servers has been proposed as a solution to reduce resource requirements and improve scalability. Video caching presents a unique challenge to copyright protection schemes, particularly if we consider provision of functionality such as indexed and high-speed playback modes. This paper discusses the issues involved in implementing copyright protection for cached streaming video, concluding with a set of requirements for any proposed scheme.
Forces, clashes and remnants: a model for event-driven iterative multidisciplinary game design BIBAFull-Text 326-329
  Sus Lundgren; Staffan Björk
In this paper we present a model that describes how design disciplines interact with each other in mulltidisciplinary game design. We base this model on experience from the design of a computer-augmented card game. myTHeme. Our purpose is to show how hardware, software and game rules interact with and affect each other during the design process of games that are computer augmented. The model revolves around a flexible core of design requirements, suitable for multidisciplinary design projects. This model is an adaptation of the classic iterative design model, helping to explain clashes between design areas and aid focus shifting from one design discipline to another.
D4MD: deformation system for a vehicle simulation game BIBAFull-Text 330-333
  Tiago Rodrigues; Rui Pires; José Miguel Salles Dias
This paper presents a hybrid geometrical-physical, plastic deformation technique applicable for solids, in the context of a car simulation game. This technique doesn't aim to be mechanically correct but to produce visual appealing and realistic-looking results.
Playmakers in multiplayer game communities: their importance and motivations for participation BIBAFull-Text 334-337
  Antti Salovaara; Mikael Johnson; Kalle Toiskallio; Sauli Tiitta; Marko Turpeinen
In many game-like open-ended multiplayer communities, the success of the game, and well-being of the community, depends on the efforts of certain individuals who arrange resources for gameplay to other players. These include e.g. game masters, server hosts, and fan site creators. We identify the importance of these voluntary "playmakers" by describing their activities in four communities: (1) Habbo Hotel moderators, creative room designers and fan site builders, (2) Live-action role-playing game masters and non-player characters, (3) Geocaching cache creators, and (4) Neverwinter Nights dungeon masters, player guides, developers, and server hosts. Based on an analysis of this empirical data we describe motivations that the playmakers have for participation in game community activities. Such descriptions will help to improve design for games where playmaker involvement is of critical importance to the game's success.
Virtual reality school for children with learning difficulties BIBAFull-Text 338-341
  Lucia Vera; Gerardo Herrera; Elias Vived
This paper describes the process starting from the identification of educational needs of children with learning difficulties to the design of a fully interactive virtual school, where it is possible to learn about the physical and social world. The fundamentals of this design are the exclusive advantages that Real Time Graphics offer for developing tools in which children can learn while playing. This development has been done in the framework of a strongly-funded project by the Spanish Government. This ongoing project is in its final stage of development and will produce tools which are valid both for special and mainstream education, ready to be used and tested over final users.
BodyMusic: a novel framework design for body-driven music composition BIBAFull-Text 342-345
  Horace H. S. Ip; Belton Kwong; Ken C. K. Law
This paper presents the design and development of a novel framework for interactive body-driven music composition. This framework consists of three layers and we call the resulting system, BodyMusic. BodyMusic acts as a cyber instrument that enables both musicians and music laypersons to interactively and intuitively control and compose the tonality and the melody of the music through body motions without real musical instruments. This work is an innovative approach that enables users to dynamically generate music through their body motions and gestures without chronic learning and training. BodyMusic can be used in entertainment and can also be used for music education in primary schools. Music theories are embedded in the design so that melody flow and musical expressions including the pitch, rhythm and volume of the melody can be varied in real time.
REMUPP: an interface for evaluation of relations between musical parameters and perceived properties BIBAFull-Text 346-349
  Johnny Wingstedt; Jan Berg; Mats Liljedahl; Stefan Lindberg
New media offers new roles, functions and challenges to music, calling for new methods and tools for music research. To meet these increasingly important challenges. REMUPP, a new software tool for the investigation of relations between music and perceived properties or characteristies, was designed. The ideas behind REMUPP and the technology used to realize it is deseribed. In order to test the sensitivity and validity of REMUPP. a simple experiment aimed to examine some properties of music was carried out. 38 subjects were listening to music and instructed to indicate their priority for different aspects of the music (musical parameters) while they actively controlled these aspects. The results show that REMUPP is able to bring out significant differences between the musical parameters, and that these differences correspond well with findings by others.
Building 3D interactive environments for the children's narrative: a didactic project BIBAFull-Text 350-353
  Andrea Baroni; Chiara Evangelista; Marcello Carrozzino; Massimo Bergamasco
A didactic project based on computer technology and advanced computer graphics combined with an active classroom experience is presented. The final purpose is the creation and the test of a new authoring tool for building 3d interactive environments inside a narrative context.
   In the paper we will describe our didactic project, the current technology implementation and the final interactive application realized.
ARMS: a trading card game using AR technology BIBAFull-Text 354-355
  Haruhiro Katayose; Kazuhiko Imanishi
Trading card games have become very popular among children all over the world. This paper describes an example of enhancing a trading card game involved with Augmented Reality technologies, the players of which can experience monster summoning and battles, as if they are happening on their own arms.
Notbook AR BIBAFull-Text 356-357
  Moisés Mañas Carbonell; Francisco Giner Martínez; Javier Montesa Andrés
Notbook is an art installation created with multi-user means of multimedia documental narration using AR technology (Augmented Reality). It invites the spectator to play with the concept of reading and explore the space of action by means of 3D elements, including video and sound.
A viable approach to deliver television events, having multiple and selectable plots: MultiChannelStory BIBAFull-Text 358-360
  Massimo Deriu
In this paper we describe an idea to develop interactive narrative with iTV. We propose a framework to deliver television events, usually dramas or cartoons, having multiple and selectable plots, using the DVB-MHP platform. We define these events as MultiChannelStories.
Developing games with Magic Playground: a gesture-based game engine BIBAFull-Text 361-362
  Carolina Cabral; Juana Dehanov; José Miguel Salles Dias; Rafael Bastos
This paper presents Magic Playground, a game engine that enables the development of entertainment applications with realtime gesture-based Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). We describe the main architectural elements of our system and provide a guideline on how to program the engine in order to create games. Finally, we present usability evaluation results of a game, which emulates the known Tetris game. [1]
Cyclone Uppercut, a boxing game for an immersive environment BIBAFull-Text 363-364
  Ronald Sidharta; Carolina Cruz-Neira
Cyclone Uppercut is a Virtual Reality (VR) boxing game designed to run in a six sided CAVE-like projection system such as the C6 at Iowa State University. In this game, the player assumes the role of a young boxer fighting in the final match to be the Japanese Rookie Boxer Champion. In the C6's immersive environment, the player uses his/her body to interface with the game. The game play requires the player to dodge enemy's attacks, and to execute various punches to win the game. In this paper we discuss the challenges of creating interfaces to simulate a sport like boxing for an immersive space. We also discuss the philosophy that influences the game play, and followed by the detail of implementation. We argue that the unique design of the game make it an experience that can only be experienced in a fully immersive environment like the C6.
Towards a cinematically enhanced narrative BIBAFull-Text 365-366
  Alejandro Ramírez
This paper describes the automatic creation of simple cinematic scenes and events that use film language (FL) as the basis for the creation of a visual story, aiming to improve its narrative. Taking a simple screenplay as our input, we generate relevant cinematic events and conditions using a film grammar. Our system, using a Knowledge-Base (KB) approach, generates the cinematic view of the story, providing 3D animation clips that correspond to the screenplay. A prototype under development is described, together with its applications and current status.
Towards an intelligent storyboarding tool for 3D games BIBAFull-Text 367-368
  Amav Jhala; William Bares; R. Michael Young
We present an intelligent storyboarding tool that takes as an input abstract annotated action specification to generate camera actions and geometric constraints for executing as a dynamic storyboard.
Real-time cinematic camera control for interactive narratives BIBAFull-Text 369
  Dan Amerson; Shaun Kime; R. Michael Young
Current 3D game engines offer the potential for new types of interactive storytelling. In this paper, we discuss automated cinematography as it relates to interactive narratives in virtual worlds. Due to the interactive nature of these environments, automated camera controllers cannot fully utilize all of the idioms in the domain of cinematography. It is important to note that substantial investigations into interactive cinematography have already been made [1, 2, 3]. In contrast to these individual systems, we propose a hybrid system that uses abstractly defined cinematographic idioms as constraints to choose the best camera placement for any shot at any moment within any geometry.
Integrating plan-based behavior generation with game environments BIBAFull-Text 370
  R. Michael Young; Mark O. Riedl
In this paper, we describe an architecture called Mimesis, designed to integrate a range of intelligent components with conventional game engines. The architecture is designed to bridge the gap between game engine design and development and much of the work in artificial intelligence that focuses on the automatic creation of novel and effective action sequences.
Challenges for pervasive mobile game design: examining players' emotional responses BIBAFull-Text 371-372
  Laura Ermi; Frans Mäyrä
The research is focused on developing pervasive and persistent game concepts that are most suitable for contemporary mobile phones. The analysis of the emotional responses of the testplayers in the first play-test and of the game prototype The Songs of North pointed at some key challenges to be met in order to successfully design pervasive mobile games that provide pleasant gameplay experiences: overcoming and exploiting the technical limitations and uncertainties, inventing means to ensure the sufficiency of meaningful tasks, and paying special attention to social playability and acceptance.
Through the looking glass: you can play against your own reflection BIBAFull-Text 373-374
  Yasuaki Kakehi; Takeshi Naemura
This interactive artwork overturns the commonsense assumption that a looking glass reflects the world in front of it. The worlds outside and inside the looking glass are not symmetric in our optical system. This feature allows you to play an air-hockey game against yourself reflected in the looking glass.
Real or unreal?: an evaluation setting for emotional characters using unreal technology BIBAFull-Text 375-376
  Manfred Eckschlager; Michael Lankes; Regina Bernhaupt
This paper sketches a setup to perform user experience tests on game characters which act emotionally based on their personality and situation. The test setting is primarily designed to benchmark Nemesys, a system designed to elicit emotions based on an artificial neural network that is able to learn six basic emotional states. Nemesys is based on models drawn from the state of the art in modeling emotions in the field of psychology and also includes the Five-Factor Model of Personality to represent different personalities.
   The test and application scenario employs the commercial 3D game engine from Unreal Tournament 2003, a stereoscopic projecting of the scene and biofeedback measurements of the affective state of the player.
What you look like when learning hand alphabets BIBAFull-Text 377-378
  Miki Namatame; Yasushi Harada; Fusako Kusunoki; Takao Terano; Shigenori Inagaki
When ordinary people learn hand languages, it is critical to properly understand that the forms of the hand shapes and moves are different for speakers and listeners. To cope with the issue, we have equipped a PC camera with the visual interface of an edutainment system for Japanese hand alphabets. To investigate the visual interface, we have conducted experiments with/without the camera device to measure the eye movement when subjects use the interface The experimental results have shown the effectiveness of the how-you-look-smart interface with a PC camera.
The memory book BIBAFull-Text 379-380
  M. C. Juan; B. Rey; D. Perez; D. Tomas; M. Alcañiz
In this paper we present an Augmented Reality book for remembering past events and to plan future ones. We have developed this system using Brainstorm eStudio. We have incorporated Augmented Reality options into Brainstorm eStudio using a plugin of ARToolKit. The user can create his own book selecting images, objects and videos from a database. The selection of elements and their inclusion into the book is achieved using a tangible interface.
Telepresence meets racing games BIBAFull-Text 381-382
  Yongjin Kim; Jaehoon Jung; Seokhee Jeon; Sangyoon Lee; Gerard J. Kim
Telepresence is an advanced form of teleoperation that enables humans to interact with and experience environments that are normally difficulty to access such as remote or dangerous environments. As a technology, telepresence emphasizes the richness of the experience of the user, or "presence," how much the user feels being situated at the target environment. In this poster, we present a telepresence racing game. The user remotely controls a toy car that operates in the real environment and equipped with wireless stereo-cameras and other sensors. The experience of the user is enriched by the information displayed to the user, namely the live stereo image and artificial multimodal special effects generated from the information from the sensors. The proposed telepresence game is expected to offer a different kind of fun and excitement without the "suspension" of disbelief compared to the 3D graphics based games.
Tierra Inhospita: exploring a virtual world with your face BIBAFull-Text 383-384
  Ginés García Mateos; Sergio Fructuoso Muñoz
In this poster, we describe the application of advanced computer vision techniques to create a perceptual interface based on face detection, tracking and pose estimation."Tierra Inhospita" is a virtual 3D world, similar to a first-person game, controlled by means of the user's head. Using integral projections, faces are tracked in a fast and reliable way. Then, additional information is extracted from the projections to estimate 3D position and orientation of the face. Although not accurate in terms of 3D locations, these estimations accomplish their purposes of stability and responsiveness to user's gestures. Finally, these parameters are converted into movement in the virtual world.
   The proposed technique has been implemented and tested in a prototype, which is publicly available [1]. Our experiments have proved the viability of the method.
Interactive free-hand drawing and in-between generation with DBSC BIBAFull-Text 385-386
  Hock Soon Seah; Zhongke Wu; Feng Tian; Xian Xiao; Boya Xie
Based on our novel shape and stroke model, Disk B-spline Curve (DBSC), this demo provides user an interactive free-hand drawing system. With a digital tablet the user may draw directly onto the computer a picture whose strokes are then represented by DBSC functions. This representation will not only save space for storing and transmission, but also allow the user to manipulate strokes easily and effectively like zooming. Given two or more pictures, the system can automatically generate intermediate frames, so called in-betweens, thus forming a smooth sequence of animation.
Kick-real, a mobile mixed reality game BIBAFull-Text 387
  Christian Reimann
Interaction with mobile applications is often awkward due to the limited and miniaturized input modalities available. This is especially problematic for games where the only incentive to use an application is the pleasure derived from the interaction. It is therefore interesting to examine novel forms of interaction in order to increase the "playability" of mobile games.
   This demo presents a mobile mixed reality game using computer vision (CV) as it's main interaction modality. The user can kick a virtual ball with his real foot into a virtual goal.
Augmented reality with zooming camera: accurate pose and focal length estimation BIBAFull-Text 388
  Widya Andyardja; Seah Hock Soon; Tian Feng; Hu Meiqun
In this research, we want to build a system that allows us to track the object and augment the virtual object into the real scene image properly. This research addresses the problem of camera self-calibration. The object that we want to track may look small in the image since it is far away. A camera that has zooming capability is very useful to enlarge the image. The field of view (FOV) of an optical zooming camera will change according to the camera focal length. The focal length estimation is needed in order to have a good augmentation object without deformation. Once the camera focal length is known, the 3D virtual object is overlaid on the image.
Teddy-bear based robotic user interface for interactive entertainment BIBAFull-Text 389-390
  Noriyoshi Shimizu; Naoya Koizumi; Maki Sugimoto; Hideaki Nii; Dairoku Sekiguchi; Masahiko Inami
A Robotic User Interface (RUI) is part of a concept in which a robot is used as an interface for human behavior. Our RUI, which we have been developing for communications, is a system for interpersonal exchanges that uses robots as agents for physical communication. In this paper, we propose a new type of RUI for interactive entertainment. This RUI enables people to directly interact with the information world.
SymBall: camera driven table tennis for mobile phones BIBAFull-Text 391-392
  Mika Hakkarainen; Charles Woodward
We present a table tennis game implemented for Symbian OS Series 60 mobile phones, using the phone's integrated camera as the main game controller. The game demonstrates how the integrated cameras are already usable for interaction on mobile phones, with real time performance. Data communication between the phones is handled using Bluetooth, but the implementation would allow for using slower radio links too.
Demonstration for human scale haptic interaction with a reactive virtual human in a realtime physics simulator BIBAFull-Text 393
  Shoichi Hasegawa; Ishikawa Toshiaki; Naoki Hashimoto
We will present a virtual boxing system with a framework for haptic interaction with a reactive virtual human in a physically simulated virtual world. Figure 1 shows the setup of the demonstration. The user controls an avatar in the virtual world via human scale haptic interface and interacts with the virtual human through the avatar. The virtual human recognizes the user's motion and reacts to it.
Telepresence racing game BIBAFull-Text 394
  Yongjin Kim; Jaehoon Jung; Seokhee Jeon; Sangyoon Lee; Gerard J. Kim
Telepresence enables users to interact with and experience "real" environments by providing the display and means of interaction using sensors and actuators. In this demonstration, we apply the concept of telepresence to the good old sports car racing game. The user remotely controls, from a desktop computer, a toy car that is situated in a remote environment and equipped with wireless stereo-cameras and other sensors. The experience of the user is enriched by the information displayed to the user, namely the live stereo image and artificial multimodal special effects generated from the information from the sensors. The proposed telepresence game is expected to offer a different kind of fun and excitement compared to the 3D graphics based counterparts because the user does not have to suspend one's disbelief, and has to be aware and conscious of the actual physical implications of one's action. In the actual demo, two telepresence toy cars will run on a small mock up race track (thus requiring two control PC's).
Free network visible network BIBAFull-Text 395-396
  Clara Boj; Diego J. Díaz; Adrian David Cheok; Ke Xu; Wei Liu
This artistic project uses the possibilities of the new technologies to create new landscapes in the public space by means of the visualization of the data that flow between digital networks. It changes our perception of the world with the "invisible meanings" that are around us.
Game space design foundations for trans-reality games BIBAFull-Text 397-404
  Craig A. Lindley
Trans-reality games are games that take advantage of pervasive, mobile, ubiquitous, location-based and mixed reality technical infrastructures to create game spaces that can include physical reality together with one or more virtual realities. Creating these games requires basic design decisions about the relationships between the large scale game spaces involved. In particular, the different game spaces can be related by general 3D coordinate system transforms, together with decisions regarding isomorphism at different levels of spatial scale. The result is a large space of possibilities for trans-reality game space design supporting very different forms of game mechanics.
Fast delivery of game events with an optimistic synchronization mechanism in massive multiplayer online games BIBAFull-Text 405-412
  Stefano Ferretti; Marco Roccetti
As smart players often win MMOG sessions by adopting frantic gaming strategies along the game evolution, also the system activities concerned with the distributed support of MMOGs must advance at a very fast pace. Unfortunately, MMOGs' responsiveness requirements are hardly met when pessimistic approaches are adopted to synchronize the game event exchange activities among game servers. In this paper we show how MMOGs are better supported by optimistic synchronization schemes coupled with mechanisms that exploit the semantics of games. Results obtained from an experimental assessment of our developed scheme demonstrate the validity of our claim.
Integrate and conquer: the next generation of intelligent avatars BIBAFull-Text 413-420
  Jaroslaw Francik; Adam Szarowicz
FreeWill+ is a framework that aims at integrating various animation techniques for controlling human-like characters. With heterogeneity and multi-layering as its main design principles, the system contains a society of complex interrelated animation components (actions), executing on various levels of abstraction and also varying in the level of built-in intelligence. They arrange themselves into ad-hoc created associations to perform tasks and fulfil goals. As both reactive and proactive modes of operation are present, and the communication between actions is crucial, the overall structure may be considered as a multiagent system. We will show how a relatively simple, multi-layered and multi-agent structure can cope with collision-free motion planning problem.
Game design through self-play experiments BIBAFull-Text 421-428
  Alasdair Macleod
The application of self-play experiments to computer games was pioneered by Thompson in 1982 with his chess machine BELLE. Since then the technique has been widely used in a variety of games to train artificial players employing a range of artificial neural network architectures. Of particular note is the TD-learning Backgammon program of Tesauro developed in 1995. When developing artificial game players that learn by experience, it is generally possible to accelerate the training process through self-play. Compared with training by humans, this confers the advantages of greater speed and a precise control of playing strength through parameter variation. In spite of these potential advantages, the use of self-play experiments is considered by many to be a treacherous road fraught with problems. The value of such experiments is unclear and the threshold of learning that can be achieved through self-play alone is unknown. There is the common-sense perception that only limited playing skill can be achieved through machine self-play, a notion that is challenged here. A new application that is immune from the problems associated with machine learning is the use of self-play experiments to test the integrity and fairness of games and modify the rules accordingly. We will show how the rules of a particular game, Perudo, can be analysed for fairness and how the excessive positive feedback that arises when forces become unbalanced can be curbed. We use the notion of fair in the same sense as in a soccer game -- if a team loses a goal, neglecting psychological effects, the chance of losing a second goal is not significantly changed. It is recognised that the cumulative growth in advantage is part of many games and that it is inappropriate to alter the rules in these cases. However the rate at which advantages grow can be moderated by rule alterations. We will also consider the application of the technique to a range of traditional games. In chess, for example, White is considered to have an advantage over Black. The imbalance can be determined for different playing strengths and extrapolated. We will show that the principles can be extended to the more complex situations of computer games and propose that the development of unintelligent agents to explore game play is advantageous.
The case for dynamic difficulty adjustment in games BIBAFull-Text 429-433
  Robin Hunicke
Conventional wisdom suggests that while players enjoy unpredictability or novelty during gameplay experiences, they will feel "cheated" if games are adjusted during or across play sessions. In order for adjustment to be effective, it must be performed without disrupting or degrading the core player experience. This paper examines basic design requirements for effective dynamic difficulty adjustment (DDA) given this constraint, presents an interactive DDA system (Hamlet), and offers preliminary evaluation results which challenge common assumptions about player enjoyment and adjustment dynamics.
Clouds and stars: efficient real-time procedural sky rendering using 3D hardware BIBAFull-Text 434-437
  Timothy Roden; Ian Parberry
Real-time virtual reality applications, including games, increasingly use outdoor environments. A common task in an earth-type environment is to render a sky that is realistic both in terms of imagery and physics. Programmable graphics hardware offers the opportunity to procedurally generate and render a highly realistic sky at a minimal cost. We propose an integrated set of efficient algorithms that run in graphics hardware for interactive sky rendering that is fully parameterized for real-time control. Features of our method include multi-layered dynamic clouds and stars that individually flicker at varying intensity and rate.
Personality model for a companion AIBO BIBAFull-Text 438-441
  Iulia Dobai; Leon Rothkrantz; Charles van der Mast
In this paper we describe the architecture that allows the modeling of an emotionally intelligent robot. We chose to implement these architectures on AIBO, which is a quadruped autonomous robot, developed by Sony. AIBO was developed as an entertainment robot with its "mind" resident on a memory stick. Our goal is to develop a new mind for a companion AIBO with a more complex personality model. The focus of this paper is on a model of personality. Taking into consideration the realities concerning an emotionally intelligent AIBO, that acts in an unpredictable and changing environment, the existing models of personality need improvement, modifications and adaptations to the current situation. Most existing personality models that are used in virtual humans and agents take into consideration three layers: personality, mood and emotions or just two: personality and emotions. We, on the other hand will try to add a new set of parameters: needs that will not constitute a new layer but together with the personality layer, a pillar for the top two layers of mood and emotions. This paper introduces the architecture that renders valuable the personality model discussed above.
AI middleware as means for improving gameplay BIBAFull-Text 442-445
  Börje Karlsson; Bruno Feijó
Current commercial AI middleware are still far from being a generic and flexible tool for developing computer games. Also the literature lacks proposals in this field. In this work we present some of our current research on developing a new proposal for a flexible architecture that can be used in several types of games. This AI engine is designed to provide support for the implementation of AI functionalities in computer games, streamlining this implementation and allowing the developers to focus their attention on the creative side of the game, but is also focused on introducing new techniques that could allow for an improved gameplay experience or even new gameplay styles. In order to fulfill this goal, this research focuses on the design issues of such a system and its integration into games, using more powerful techniques from academic AI and strongly relying on software engineering principles.
Towards manifold learning for gamebot behavior modeling BIBAFull-Text 446-449
  Christian Thurau; Christian Bauckhage
Traditionally Computer Game Agent behaviors are generated by top-down approaches like finite state machines or scripts. So far, however, this had only mediocre success in creating life-like impressions. The bottom-up approach of imitation learning for agents has become very popular in recent robotics research and, in earlier work, we already discussed how imitation learning may apply to the programming of life-like computer game characters. However, so far we ignored problems concerning high dimensional state spaces for the most part, although behavior execution and learning takes place in such spaces.
   In this paper, we investigate the usage of non-linear dimensionality reduction for gamedata. We therefore focus on the aspect of topological gameworld representations and their dimensionality reduced counterparts. Dimensionality reduction is achieved by learning manifolds using Locally Linear Embedding. A mapping between data and embedding space is realized by Radial Basis Function interpolators. Experiments focus on movement path calculation and comparison in 3D and 2D embedding space world representations. The results indicate certain problems inherent to this approach but nevertheless justify further investigations.
How to make games for visually impaired children BIBAFull-Text 450-453
  Dominique Archambault; Damien Olivier
This paper discusses the principal constraints encountered when adapting computer game so they work for visually impaired children. A game platform, the blindstation, was developed to answer to the technical problem. It allows to adapt existing content or create some new games. It provides a set of Python functions to describe those games in an way, independent from their representation. The platform can then render the game in a multi-modal way using the screen, keyboard, mouse and joystick, but also using some specific devices like a Braille terminal, 3D sound, a tactile board or a speech synthesiser. The rendering is done according to an XML style sheet which describes the available resources. It can be customised depending on the available devices but also on the user's choices and disabilities. Our experience is based on the TiM project intends to develop and to adapt computer games for visually impaired children. Several games specially adapted for blind children (from 3 to 10 years old) were designed, involving blind children to evaluate and improve the games. We have established that this is more than games that are strictly accessible, that is games in which all contents can be accessed (directly or via an alternative), but games that are still considered as games by the targeted users.
IntelligentBox as component based development system for body action 3D games BIBAFull-Text 454-457
  Yoshihiro Okada
This paper treats component based approach for the development of body action 3D games. The research group of the author has already proposed a 3D software development system called IntelligentBox. IntelligentBox has provided various software components called boxes, which are 3D visible, reactive objects. IntelligentBox allows the user to develop 3D graphics applications including 3D games by combining already existing boxes through direct manipulations on a computer screen. This is the main feature of IntelligentBox, which is a difference from other conventional systems. In this paper, the author introduces the extension of IntelligentBox to the development of body action 3D games. To deal with body actions, various components, i.e., particular boxes, those handle input devices frequently used in virtual reality applications, are introduced to IntelligentBox. Furthermore, the author introduced a particular component called virtual mouse pointer to make it possible to manipulate 3D objects using an input device like a data-glove.
Game logic portability BIBAFull-Text 458-461
  Ahmed BinSubaih; Steve Maddock; Daniela Romano
Many game engines integrate the game logic with the graphics engine. In this paper we separate the two, thus making the logic portable between game engines. In our architecture the logic is represented as an ontology and a set of rules for a particular application domain. A mediator with an embedded rules-engine links the logic to a suitable game engine.
   We demonstrate our architecture in two ways. First, we show a traffic accident scenario running on two different game engines, with a separate mediator for each engine. The logic type is smart-terrain logic, with participants triggering events based on interaction and proximity tests. In the second demonstration (a simple first-person shooting game) we show the extensibility and performance of the architecture to control non-player characters quickly manoeuvring using proximity tests and waypoints.
Motivation-driven educational game design: applying best practices to music education BIBAFull-Text 462-465
  Guillaume Denis; Pierre Jouvelot
Building upon research on motivation theory, we provide insights on how video games can be framed as expert tools that naturally reconcile learning and fun, a worthy goal since students are forced to where players volunteer, namely learning. Our main contribution is to suggest best practices rooted in psychology and motivation theory that we believe should be used when designing educational games.
   As a case study, we illustrate this approach by looking at the design of our ongoing Cha-Luva Swing Festival project, a video game dedicated to music education. Its overall pedagogical goal is to spur the players' curiosity and creativity by enabling them to easily play music using gamepads as musical instruments. This example perfectly illustrates our results, since motivational lapses due to instrumental limitations often lead to resignation and surrender.