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ACE Tables of Contents: 0405060708091011121314

Proceedings of the 2004 International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2004 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology
Dates:2004-Sep-02 to 2004-Sep-04
Standard No:ISBN: 1-58113-882-2; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: ACE04
Links:Conference Website (defunct)
Gaze-triggered selective information display BIBAFull-Text 10-17
  Junji Watanabe; Hideyuki Ando; Taro Maeda
We propose a 2 dimensional information display triggered by the eye movement of the viewer. This display is composed of two units, a rapid frame rate camera and a single LED (Light Emitting Diode) array. The camera captures images around the viewer's eyeball. When the display detects the viewer's rapid eye movement known as a saccade, the LED array flickers synchronized with the saccade. Through the retinal afterimages drawn by the saccade, the viewer can perceive 2D images with only a single light array. If we can detect the viewer's saccade as it occurs in real-time we can successfully show 2D images by flickering the light sources within its interval. Additionally, if we can detect when and who makes saccades, the gaze-triggered display can present different 2D images to each person using only one light array. Considering these characteristics, gaze-triggered display can be a new type of augmented reality visual display.
"Fancy a schmink?": a novel networked game in a café BIBAFull-Text 18-23
  Josephine Reid; Mathew Lipson; Jenny Hyams; Kate Shaw
In this paper we describe a week long public field trial called Schminky. Based on our findings from the trial we consider the design implications for spontaneous, networked sound-based games. The venue for the trial was a café in a digital media centre. The paper reflects on the role of place and the notion of embedded histories.
How can entertainment improve workers' motivation and their productivity? BIBAFull-Text 24-31
  Itaru Kuramoto; Kazumasa Kashiwagi; Yu Shibuya; Yoshihiro Tsujino; Shigeki Ohtsuka
We still have dull but nonautomated work. The work falls workers' motivation down, so their productivity is decreased. In order to keep their motivation high, we propose the method to install the power of entertainment, which makes people relax, fun and active.
   In this paper, we discuss what should be the entertainment for workers, and propose the guidelines of it. For instance:
  • The entertainment should reflect their amount of work.
  • The amount of work must follow their subjectivity.
  • The entertainment should not require any operations because it must not
       distract workers. Then we describe the estimation method of amount of work and an entertainment representation system in detail. The system shows a virtual tree for each worker. This grows up corresponding to his/her subjective amounts of work.
       As the result of the evaluation experiment, we found the joy of the entertainment can raise up the workers' motivation and their productivity.
  • Compelling experiences in mixed reality interactive storytelling BIBAFull-Text 32-41
      Fred Charles; Marc Cavazza; Steven J. Mead; Olivier Martin; Alok Nandi; Xavier Marichal
    Entertainment systems promise to be a significant application for Mixed Reality. Recently, a growing number of Mixed Reality applications have included interaction with virtual actors and storytelling. However, AI-based Interactive Storytelling techniques have not yet been explored in the context of Mixed Reality. In this paper, we describe a fully-integrated first prototype based upon the adaptation of an Interactive Storytelling technique to a Mixed Reality system. After a description of the real time image processing techniques that support the creation of a hybrid environment, we introduce the storytelling technique and the essential modalities of user interactions in the Mixed Reality context. Finally, we illustrate these experiments by discussing examples obtained from the system.
    Free viewpoint video synthesis and presentation of sporting events for mixed reality entertainment BIBAFull-Text 42-50
      Naho Inamoto; Hideo Saito
    This paper presents a new framework for arbitrary view synthesis and presentation of sporting events for mixed reality entertainment. In accordance with the viewpoint position of an observer, virtual view image of sporting scene is generated by view interpolation among multiple videos captured at real stadium. Then the synthesized sporting scene is overlaid onto a desktop stadium model in the real world via HMD. This makes it possible to watch the event in front of the observer. Projective geometry between cameras is used for virtual view generation of the dynamic scene and geometric registration between the real world and the virtual view image of sporting scene. The proposed method does not need to calibrate multiple video cameras for capturing the event and the HMD camera. Therefore it can be applied even to dynamic events in a large space and enables observation with immersive impression. The proposed approach leads to make a new type of mixed reality entertainment for sporting events.
    IPD for emotional NPC societies in games BIBAFull-Text 51-60
      David Joseph Chaplin; Abdennour El Rhalibi
    "Using Emotional Drives and Interaction to model Intelligent NPC's in Role Playing Games"; Modern video games have very little in the way of producing realistic Non Player Characters (NPCs) behavior based on its emotions. In life there are effects on people emotions that have to be taken into account. Any action taken by/on an NPC (agent) should have a residual effect in its drives, and this in turn should affect the emotional decisions of the agent. This paper introduces possible emotional models to control NPCs behavior. The system is based on an agents model interacting with a Rule Based System (RBS) to manage agent emotions, drives and relationships with other agents -- the Iterated Prisoners Dilemma (IPD) is used to simulate interactions between agents. The RBS is a separate component of the agent model. It maintains and regulates the agent's emotional states and needs, and provides the data to the agent system to execute a 3D world with animated and skinned agents. The 3D output was created to allow the interactions and drives to be examined based on scenarios and to view the emotional effect of an event on an agent.
    A novel interaction system with force feedback between real -- and virtual human: an entertainment system: "virtual catch ball" BIBAFull-Text 61-66
      Seungzoo Jeong; Naoki Hashimoto; Sato Makoto
    In the existed studies, interaction system involving force and touch feedback, have been scarely suggested any research. Therefore, we focus on touch and force-feedback activities in interaction with real human. In this paper, we propose the interaction system which combines an immersive virtual environment with human-scale haptic interface. And we implement reactive virtual human that user can visual-and force feedback. With the implemented system, we developed Virtual Catch Ball system. Through this experience, we confirmed that our system have the potential to succeed for a novel communication channel. We desire that our approach can be utilized in creating a more natural and intuitive interaction.
    Multi-Audible table for collaborative work BIBAFull-Text 67-73
      Fusako Kusunoki; Ikuko Eguchi Yairi; Takuichi Nlshimura
    This paper presents a prototype Multi-Audible system. By Multi-Audible, we mean that plural users have a portable device to hear different audio information during the interaction. The proposed system is an interactive art system that sends auditory information to a user through the device based on the position of that user's finger on a table with touch screen functionality. We describe the hardware and software configuration, contents of the proposed system, and some midterm experimental results.
    Robot's play: interactive games with sociable machines BIBAFull-Text 74-83
      Andrew G. Brooks; Jesse Gray; Guy Hoffman
    Personal robots for human entertainment form a new class of computer-based entertainment that is beginning to become commercially and computationally practical. We expect a principal manifestation of their entertainment capabilities will be socially interactive game playing. We describe this form of gaming and summarize our current efforts in this direction on our lifelike, expressive, autonomous humanoid robot. Our focus is on teaching the robot via playful interaction using natural social gesture and language. We detail this in terms of two broad categories: teaching as play and teaching with play.
    The sensing board enhanced by interactive sound system for collaborative work BIBAFull-Text 84-90
      Fusako Kusunoki; Ayako Isyama; Kouji Tokiwa; Takuichi Nlshimura
    In this paper, we describe a new sensing board system enhanced with audio devices. Our previous board system provides users with common display images using tangible pieces, thus, users collaboratively work with visual and tangible information. On the other hand, the proposed system is characterized by the functionality of the direct responses of both sounds and images from the contents. Using the system, we develop three application systems with the following objectives: (1) Users enjoy interaction of sounds and images; (2) Users have high level of engagement; and (3) Users enjoy personal sounds and images. We have carried out experiments to evaluate the benefits and have found that these systems enhance user engagement, participation, and continuous operation.
    Scene-driver: a narrative-driven game architecture reusing broadcast animation content BIBAFull-Text 91-99
      Annika Wolff; Paul Mulholland; Zdenek Zdrahal
    Currently there is much interest in the development of computer and DVD-based games and activities that supplement or are marketed alongside broadcast television content. Scene-Driver was developed for the purpose of reusing content from an animated children's television series within the context of a narratively coherent game. Content from the children's television series "Tiny Planets" was used in the development and testing of Scene-Driver. Each episode of the series has been divided into a collection of scenes, each of which represents a narrative unit such as conflict introduction and resolution. The game is aimed at children of the ages 5-7 and an interface has been developed which can be intuitively used by children of this age. This interface takes the form of "domino-like" tiles which depict characters and objects from the television series (unlike ordinary dominoes that have numbers on either side). The tiles can be played according to different game rules. The child's choice of tile influences the direction of a narrative. The game and interface have been tested with children of the target age range in two evaluation studies. Both studies demonstrated the potential of Scene-Driver to produce engaging narratively coherent games using children's animation content.
    Extending game participation with embodied reporting agents BIBAFull-Text 100-108
      Dan Fielding; Mike Fraser; Brian Logan; Steve Benford
    We introduce a multi-agent framework to generate reports of players' activities within multi-player computer games so that other players who are currently unable to participate can keep track of the activities of their colleagues. We describe an initial implementation of our framework as an extension to the Capture the Flag game within Unreal Tournament. We report the results of a preliminary experiment that shows that embodied reporter agents give varying coverage depending on deployment strategies used, and, in particular, suggests that the dynamic assignment of reporter agents by an editor agent can provide more effective coverage than static assignment schemes. Finally, we explore future applications of this work including other genres of games, the emergence of games as spectator sports, implications for pervasive games as well as non-gaming applications.
    A user-centric adaptive story architecture: borrowing from acting theories BIBAFull-Text 109-116
      Magy Seif El-Nasr
    Interactive virtual environments are becoming increasingly popular for their utility in education, virtual training, and entertainment. These applications often rely on a scenario that is revealed to the user as he/she interacts with synthetic objects and characters that inhabit virtual worlds. Current interactive narrative architectures used in the interactive entertainment industry often use decision trees, which are hard to author and modify. Some interactive entertainment productions are starting to use more generative techniques, such as plan-based or goal-based narrative. In this paper, I present an interactive narrative architecture that extends current research in interactive narrative by integrating a user modeling and user behavior analysis technique, which I argue facilities a more engaging and fulfilling experience. I have implemented the architecture within an interactive story called Mirage. The architecture resulted from an iterative design and development process involving a team that included film and theatre professionals. During this design and development process, I have experimented and evaluated different narrative techniques, which resulted in the proposed architecture.
    Augmented Reality Chinese Checkers BIBAFull-Text 117-126
      Nicholas Cooper; Aaron Keatley; Maria Dahlquist; Simon Mann; Hannah Slay; Joanne Zucco; Ross Smith; Bruce H. Thomas
    This paper presents an application, Augmented Reality Chinese Checkers that we created to investigate user interface issues for table top projected augmented reality entertainment applications. A new tangible interaction device, the wireless button enhanced fiducial, is introduced to support selection tasks in mixed reality environments. The Augmented Reality Chinese Checkers game is built on a framework which can be used to create other computer supported collaborative games. The system is built using the Passive Detection Framework to track the 6 degrees of freedom position in real time of marked objects in the environment. The game supports up to six players at a time.
    An intra-stream synchronization algorithm for haptic media in networked virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 127-133
      Yutaka Ishibashi; Hidehiko Kasugai; Masaki Fujimoto
    This paper proposes an intra-stream synchronization algorithm for haptic media in networked virtual environments where a user manipulates a CG object collaboratively in a 3-D virtual space by using a haptic interface device. The algorithm behaves as the Virtual-Time Rendering (VTR) algorithm, which the authors previously proposed, on the light traffic conditions and as Skipping algorithm, which was also proposed by them, on the heavy traffic conditions. By experiment, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
    Media synchronization between voice and movement of avatars in networked virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 134-139
      Yutaka Ishibashi; Katsunori Inazumi; Shuji Tasaka; Toshio Asano
    This paper studies media synchronization control between voice and movement of avatars constructed by computer graphics (CG) in networked virtual environments. For the control, we adopt the virtual-time rendering (VTR) media synchronization algorithm, which the authors previously proposed. In the VTR algorithm, we choose the voice as the master stream and the movement of an avatar as the slave stream. By carrying out an experiment in which we interactively move both arms of the avatar synchronously with the voice, we assess the media synchronization quality and demonstrate the effectiveness of the media synchronization control.
    Multiplayer internet gaming with VRML: a relook BIBAFull-Text 140-147
      Peter K. K. Loh; S. Phong; W. Cai; Tony K. Y. Chan
    In this paper, we discuss the viability and technical constraints faced when implementing a multiplayer internet game with VRML 2.0.
    Audio games: new perspectives on game audio BIBAFull-Text 148-154
      Johnny Friberg; Dan Gärdenfors
    This paper discusses the design of audio games, a quite new computer game category that originates from games for players with visual impairments as well as from mainstream music games. In the TiM project (Tactile Interactive Multimedia), SITREC develops three sound-based games that point out new directions for game audio design. The TiM games demonstrate different ways in which games can be designed around an auditory experience. Several unique features of audio games are presented emphasising unexplored potentials for interactivity and future development areas are suggested.
       SITREC proposes an approach to the design of auditory interfaces that takes three listening modes into consideration: casual listening, semantic listening and reduced listening. A semiotic model is presented that illustrates this view on sound object design and ways in which sounds can be combined. The discourse focuses on issues of continuous display, musicality and clarity, and introduces the notion of "spatialised game soundtracks," as opposed to separated background music and game effect sounds.
       The main challenge when developing auditory interfaces is to balance functionality and aesthetics. Other important issues are the inclusion of meta-level information in order to achieve a high level of complexity and to provide elements of open-endedness. This refers to planning the overall gameplay, as well as to designing individual sound objects and combining them into complex, interactive soundscapes.
    The intelligent street: responsive sound environments for social interaction BIBAFull-Text 155-162
      Henrik Lörstad; Mark d'Inverno; John Eacott
    The Intelligent Street is a music installation that is able to respond intelligently to the collective requests of users interacting together. The performance it creates is largely influenced by the collective set of text commands from users' mobile phones. In this way, users in shared environments, subjugated for so long to uncontrollable and often undesired 'Muzak', can now directly influence their sonic environment and collectively create the aural soundscape that they desire. We see our project as enabling inhabitants of any given space from passive consumers to active creators, and anticipate it has significant commercial, social and educational potential.
       In this paper we present a description of the installation, its software architecture and implementation, as well as a report on subsequent user-evaluation in providing a musical public playground and, moreover, our over-arching goals as musicians and software engineers.
    Augmenting the virtual domain with physical and social elements: towards a paradigm shift in computer entertainment technology BIBAFull-Text 163-172
      Carsten Magerkurth; Timo Engelke; Maral Memisoglu
    In this paper, means of enriching computer entertainment experiences by emphasizing physical and social game elements are discussed. A conceptual framework in which the relations between the virtual, the physical, and the social domains are modelled is presented. Interfaces that mediate between the domains are discussed along with a complementary software architecture that helps developing hybrid computer games. Finally, sample games that follow the approach of physical and social augmentation are presented.
    The soul of ActiveCube: implementing a flexible, multimodal, three-dimensional spatial tangible interface BIBAFull-Text 173-180
      Ryoichi Watanabe; Yuichi Itoh; Masatsugu Asai; Yoshifumi Kitamura; Fumio Kishino; Hideo Kikuchi
    ActiveCube is a novel user interface which allows intuitive interaction with computers. ActiveCube allows users to construct and interact with Three Dimensional (3D) environments using physical cubes equipped with input/output devices. Spatial, temporal and functional consistency is always maintained between the physical object and its corresponding representation in the computer. In this paper we detail the design and implementation of our system. We describe the method we used to realize flexible 3D modeling by controlling the recognition signals of each face in each cube. We also explain how we integrated additional multimodal interaction options by a number of sophisticated I/O devices and by the inclusion of a second microprocessor in our cubes. We argue that ActiveCube, with its current real-time multimodal and spatial capabilities, is ready to enable a large range of interactive entertainment applications that were impossible to realize before.
    Entertainment feature of a game using skin conductance response BIBAFull-Text 181-186
      Shigeru Sakurazawa; Naofumi Yoshida; Nagisa Munekata
    There are many computer games in the world, but generally game players challenge either the computer, or real players in the case of many person games. In view of the strong connectivity advocated between communication and entertainment in the field of entertainment computing, the use of biological signals for computer games is of interest. Here, a novel type of game using biological signals was developed as an entertainment device. The change in skin conductance caused by sweating was measured as a signal reflecting the player's agitation during the game. This type of game incorporates various characteristics relating to communication. First, players of the game challenge themselves because they are able to view their detected biological signals. In this situation, a kind of self-reference system is constructed. Second, the environments in which the game is played changed how the game was enjoyed. Third, the game system reveals differences of context between player and observer. From these characteristics, it is considered that the use of biological signals is attractive for entertainment computing.
    The HoverMesh: a deformable structure based on vacuum cells: new advances in the research of tangible user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 187-193
      Andrea Mazzone; Christian Spagno; Andreas Kunz
    In this paper we propose a novel attempt to develop a spatial tangible user interface (TUI) [1] based on a deformable structure, the so-called HoverMesh. It consists of a stiff cubical, whose upper wall is composed of a deformable mesh of particle filled inflatable cells. This mesh can be deformed by inflating and/or deflating the cubical while consolidating (evacuating) and/or releasing (inflating) the cells. The HoverMesh is both an input and output device and we see its major benefit in the wide interaction area. The haptic feedback modality is thus embedded as well. The first results in our early experiments sustain the concept of a mesh based on inflatable cells.
    Virtual environment system layered object model BIBAFull-Text 194-202
      Manuel Oliveira
    The current development trend concerning online games and virtual environments has and continues to yield monolithic solutions, which are responsible for the wide proliferation of system implementations. However, there is much overlap of functionality, but the adopted design principles make reusability unfeasible, representing a significant waste of resources.
       This paper presents an alternative novel approach based on a layered object model, addressing the pitfalls associated to the existing systems. The approach relies on object-oriented methodology coupled with component layered design to system architectures. The aim is to design and implement systems that promote reusability and flexibility, thus allowing system construction based on smaller building blocks.
       The proposed methodology revolves around a four layered object model consisting of a universal platform, networking, middleware and application. This paper presents a solution for the universal platform -- Java Adaptive Dynamic Environment.
    The need for real time consistency management in P2P mobile gaming environments BIBAFull-Text 203-211
      Duncan J. McCaffery; Joe Finney
    The introduction of more powerful, feature rich, portable handsets is enabling more engaging mobile multimedia entertainment. Improvements in wireless technology infrastructure are enabling access to ubiquitous, always-on data networks. We believe that based on the popularity of multiplayer games over IP networks, there will be significant demand for mobile multiplayer games. Based upon our early trials, we also believe that the current trend for using centralised client/server models will not offer the most suitable architecture to enable them. To support our research we have built a novel augmented reality real time game as a requirements gatherer for gaming in a wireless environment. In this paper we indicate why a centralised approach will not be suitable for real-time interactions. As an alternative we propose a decentralised approach which includes support for consistency and interest management over heterogeneous networked wireless environments.
    Optimizing returns in the gaming industry for players and operators of Video Poker machines BIBAFull-Text 212-216
      Tristan Barnett; Stephen R. Clarke
    Video Poker in Australia is on the verge of extinction. These machines are being replaced in casinos as it is claimed they generate less money than the traditional slot machines. A brief outline of Video Poker is given and a method of calculating the optimal strategies for any Video Poker machine is developed. The distinction between non-progressive and progressive machines is highlighted by an extensive analysis of a Joker Wild Video Poker machine still offered at Star City casino. Video Poker is interesting to analyze due to the changing strategies produced by progressive jackpots. These allow players to have the odds in their favor, while paradoxically allowing the casinos to increase their percentage margin on extra turnover as the jackpot rises. This situation makes progressive jackpots beneficial for both the player and the casino and it seems reasonable these machines should be accessible to players in all Australian casinos. Progressive jackpots applied to other industries are also discussed.
    Edutaining school pupils for Japanese hand alphabets BIBAFull-Text 217-221
      Miki Namatame; Yasushi Harada; Fusako Kusunoki; Takao Terano
    This paper presents Practice! Yubimoji AIUEO (PYA) to let ordinary elementary school pupils learn basic character expressions (AIUEO) of the Japanese hand characters (Yubimoji). PYA at a Personal Computer has an easy-to-use and look-and-feel visual interfaces. This paper describes what are the principles of PYA, how PYA works, and why PYA is effective from the edutainment view.
    From text to images through meanings BIBAFull-Text 222-227
      Jayakumar S. Kandhasamy; Ming Xie
    Natural language is an easy and effective medium to interact with computers by humans and we foresee that it is an effective way to visualize or realize one's imagination by computer. And it makes the complex task of creating 3D scenes or images faster and easier. As a result, creation of 3D scenes will be seen as just programming the computer with human language such as English. This paper presents a meaning centric framework for text to 3D image system to visualize the meaning of text and we propose an active memory, which is based on object oriented programming technique, to construct the mental world or active database. Thus each word in the active database acts as an agent compared to just a graphic based annotation, which can be found in existing systems. The active memory incrementally acquires and organizes the lexicon of natural language, visual objects and behaviors through real time interaction with the environment (including human masters). Based on the meaning centric framework, we have started the development of a software agent called KnowNet. KnowNet is an on-line learning, tutoring and visualization system for English language, which supports bi-directional learning activities such as human learning from computer and computer learning from human. It uses VRML browser to render 3D images. Most importantly, KnowNet acts as an entertainer for people who is proficient in English language and it act as an English language teacher for those who wants to learn English language.
    Using frustration in the design of adaptive videogames BIBAFull-Text 228-232
      Kiel M. Gilleade; Alan Dix
    In efforts to attract a wider audience, videogames are beginning to incorporate adaptive gameplay mechanics. Unlike the more traditional videogame, adaptive games can cater the gaming experience to the individual user and not just a particular group of users as with the former. Affective videogames, games that respond to the user's emotional state, may hold the key to creating such gameplay mechanics. In this paper we discus how the emotion frustration may be used in the design of adaptive videogames and the ongoing research into its detection and measurement.
    A synthetic traffic model for Quake3 BIBAFull-Text 233-238
      Tanja Lang; Philip Branch; Grenville Armitage
    This paper presents our development of a synthetic traffic model for the interactive online computer game Quake3. The goal is a traffic model that can be used by researchers and Internet Service Provider engineers to estimate the potential future impact of Quake3 traffic over IP networks. We developed our ns2 simulation model for Quake3's IP traffic by running live network experiments and characterising the observed packet length, packet inter-arrival times, and data rates (in packets- and bits- per second). Our observations are documented in this paper, and we expect our traffic model will assist network planners who wish to better support real-time game traffic.
    Machine learning techniques for FPS in Q3 BIBAFull-Text 239-244
      Stephano Zanetti; Abdennour El Rhalibi
    This paper presents a First Person Shooter Artificial Intelligence system that makes use of machine learning capabilities to achieve more human-like behavior and strategies. The AI is trained with a supervised learning paradigm using example recorded during the observation of expert human players. The Machine Learning section of the AI is based on various Feed Forward Multi-layer Neural Networks trained by Genetic Algorithms. The AI system is developed and tested in the Quake 3 Arena game engine. The system is able to learn certain behaviors but still lack on some others. The results are evaluated and possible improvements are proposed.
    Defining grief play in MMORPGs: player and developer perceptions BIBAFull-Text 245-250
      Chek Yang Foo; Elina M. I. Koivisto
    In current literature, grief play in Massively Multi-player Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) refers to play styles where a player intentionally disrupts the gaming experience of other players. In our study, we have discovered that player experiences may be disrupted by others unintentionally, and under certain circumstances, some will believe they have been griefed. This paper explores the meaning of grief play, and suggests that some forms of unintentional grief play be called greed play. The paper suggests that greed play be treated as griefing, but a more subtle form. It also investigates the different types of griefing and establishes a taxonomy of terms in grief play.
    Performance evaluation of client-side video stream quality selection using autonomous avatars BIBAFull-Text 251-256
      Peter Quax; Patrick Monsieurs; Wim Lamotte
    In this paper we present test results performed on our framework for networked virtual environment (NVE) applications that incorporates real-time video communication between avatars. The primary goal of the architecture is to provide efficient scalability for large scale networked virtual environments. To realize this, our solution maximizes client responsibilities and relies on direct client-to-client communication streams. By employing multiple multicast groups to channel the video streams, we achieve bandwidth adaptation at client side with minimal server intervention. This results in a reduced server-load and at the same time guarantees a highly scalable end-result, depending only on the available processing power of the individual connected clients.
    Limitations of using real-world, public servers to estimate jitter tolerance of first person shooter games BIBAFull-Text 257-262
      Grenville Armitage; Lawrence Stewart
    This paper quantitively evaluates the relevance of network jitter on player satisfaction and performance in multiplayer online games, particularly in comparison to overall network latency (or 'ping') times. We extend previously published work that showed Quake III players preferred servers less than 150-180ms away. Our modified, public Quake III server logged 20+ latency samples per second per client, from which we derived the jitter (instantaneous latency fluctuations) for each connected player. We found that using real-world traffic resulted in a highly correlated relationship between jitter and latency (jitter being generally one fifth, or less, of the path's latency), making it difficult to derive any independent relationship between jitter and player satisfaction. However, our results do demonstrate that absolute jitter over typical Internet paths is far less significant than the absolute latency for interactive games such as Quake III. This suggests Internet service providers (ISPs) should focus primarily on bringing latency within reasonable bounds.
    Massively multi-player games: matching game design with technical design BIBAFull-Text 263-268
      Anne-Gwenn Bosser
    We propose a framework model to facilitate the prototyping and refinement of Massively Multi-player Online Games (MMOG), when included in the appropriate development environment. This work-in-progress report is motivated by observations made in the video game industry about the industrial process of designing such a demanding application, and based upon the technical know-how in that domain. A major benefit of the development environment based on this framework would be to validate game-design interactions when confronted with technical feasibility. A further benefit of this tool would be to assist the rest of the development process: for a spiral life-cycle style process, the tool could provide some interesting ways for analyzing the performance of more and more accurate prototypes at each stage of the development.
    AR-bowling: immersive and realistic game play in real environments using augmented reality BIBAFull-Text 269-274
      Carsten Matysczok; Rafael Radkowski; Jan Berssenbruegge
    The game and entertainment industry plays an enormous role within the development and extensive usage of new technologies. They are one major technology driver concerning the development of powerful graphics hardware, innovative interaction devices and efficient game engines.
       Actual game developments show the trend to include the player with his whole body -- the time of sitting in darkened rooms in front of a computer monitor is outdated. Therefore, special hard-and software components have been developed and new user interfaces have been designed allowing an unprecedented game play.
       The subsequent consequential step is to play games everywhere (independent from time and place), to include the game player completely in the game (high level of immersion) and to integrate the game seamlessly into reality (blurring the edges of reality and virtuality). Therefore, new and innovative technologies must be used. One of these technology is Augmented Reality.
       In this paper, we describe the use of Augmented Reality to enable an immersive and realistic game play in real environments. As game we chose bowling. To support the bowling game with AR-technology a dedicated concept has been developed. The level of game realism is enhanced by an integrated real-time kinematics multi-body system simulation. A first prototypical realization, which is used for user testings, confirms the previously identified potentials of AR-technology within game entertainment.
    CamBall: augmented networked table tennis played with real rackets BIBAFull-Text 275-276
      Charles Woodward; Petri Honkamaa; Jani Jäppinen; Esa-Pekka Pyökkimies
    We present a computer system for natural interaction in an augmented virtual environment, enabling people to play table tennis over Internet/LAN with real rackets. No special hardware is required except for the web cameras. The pose of the rackets is computed by marker detection from the image. The players see each other in the camera image, which is streamed real time over the network. The multicast implementation enables a network audience to view the game, too.
    Artificial intelligence based on fuzzy behavior for game programming BIBAFull-Text 277-279
      Nitiwat Sanornoi; Pitikhate Sooraksa
    This paper applies the behavior-based control for mobile robots to design the artificial-intelligent characteristics of game programming in order to reduce the complexity of the intelligence features of the enemies in a game. The artificial intelligence in this paper composes of fuzzy system for creation of the natural behavior. This fuzzy model employs Takagi-Sugeno's methodology for building program modules. The character described in the model herein is the enemy of 'Mage in the Demon Zone' game.
    Variations on a fuzzy logic gesture recognition algorithm BIBAFull-Text 280-283
      Lesley Anderson; Dr. Jon Purdy; Warren Viant
    Web-cam based gesture recognition systems for home use are becoming more viable. A modification to an algorithm developed by Bimber yields low failure rates for wand motions tested against three sets of gestures. Additionally, the speed at which a gesture is performed does not affect its recognition rate, though the gesture's orientation does.
    A lightweight rule-based Al engine for mobile games BIBAFull-Text 284-289
      Lynne Hall; Adrian Gordon; Russell James; Lynne Newall
    The growth of the mobile gaming market offers considerable potential for the deployment of engaging and compelling games constructed using AI components and techniques. This paper discusses a rule-based approach for constructing lightweight Game AI systems for deployment on mobile devices. The development environment and the mimosa programming language for constructing Game AI components are outlined. A prototype game of Texas Hold'em Poker implemented using this environment is described. Ideas for future work, including the development of games mentors for deployment on mobile devices are briefly presented.
    Communication environment for sharing fond memories BIBAFull-Text 290-295
      Masumi Shimizu; Mie Nakatani; Hirokazu Kato; Shogo Nishida
    Fond memories are kept in one's mind and are used to reminisce from time to time. They provide not only a life of pleasure to those who possess them, but also bonds that tie people who share them together. Utilizing this property, we propose to develop an environment where people can share their feelings for fond memories, as well as empathize and communication with each other.
       We consider this environment like a park, where you drop in and take a rest on a bench, look at the fountain and feel comfortable atmosphere away from your daily life. Instead of benches or fountains, we provide some triggers for fond memories and create a warm environment for your heart. We named this environment "Reminiscence Park." The triggers for remembering in Reminiscence Park are the old popular songs common to the users' younger days. Such songs are expected to have many connections to people's memory because they are widely listened to.
       One of the many possible applications we are developing for Reminiscence Park is a prototyping system modeling a music box. Opened by one or more people, the box starts to play a common song from their youth. The box chooses the songs based on their ages and ranks them based on the activeness to their conversation.
    Proposal of an algorithm to synthesize music suitable for dance BIBAFull-Text 296-301
      Hirofumi Morioka; Mie Nakatani; Shogo Nishida
    The authors come up with an algorithm of synthesizing music that can appropriately express emotions in dances. This algorithm can help one compile music suitable for dance movies or animation films, and is also applicable to any entertainment systems that use music or dance. This algorithm is composed of three modules. The first is the module of computing emotions from an inputted dance, the second that of computing emotions from music in the database and the last that of selecting music suitable for inputted dance via an interface of emotion. Present paper deals with the process of development and evaluation of such algorithm as mentioned above.
    "SeeSaw videogame" a new multi-user collaborative game device BIBAFull-Text 302-306
      Diego J. Díaz; Clara Boj; Moisés Mañas
    This poster describes the prototype of the "SeeSaw videogame", a multi-user device which allows four people to physically interact with a 3D Videogame in real time.
    Embodied 3D story space BIBAFull-Text 307-312
      Junichi Hoshino; Hiroshi Mori; Atsushi Nakano; Jun Takazawa
    In this paper, we propose the immersive 3D movie system using contextual constraint action model. Important actions that define the structure of the story are called key-actions. Structure of key-action network represents story patterns. Spontaneous actions between key actions are interpolated using action networks. By integrating attention behaviors such as eye contact and joint attention, the user can get feeling that the user is communicating with the actor.
    ABRCon, Adaptive oBject Re-CONfiguration: an approach to enhance, repeat playability of games and repeat watchability of movies BIBAFull-Text 313-316
      Dhananjay Sampath
    One of the major issues that exist, while creating a computer game, is its replayability. To increase game replayability is to increase the life of the game. Here I propose a preliminary development of a method to enhance the replayability by binding various objects of a map/environment/level as certain parameters to a 'location' equation which will randomize the allocation of the object's position in a virtual world with respect to its last stored location. This enhances the game's replayable nature as the expectation of an object at a location ceases to exist. The idea finds greatest application in the Action genre games; where as of now, changes in environment can be achieved by changing the entire map whereas a single map could be made more playable by changing the position and the location of the numerous familiar objects that a player encounters, each time he plays that particular level or map. The Game AI could be made adaptive with respect to the player's skill as the game progresses within a level.
       Adaptive Object Re-Configuration or the ABRCon when applied to the cinema could prove to be an entirely different paradigm. It involves more pre-production work of storing the entire movie in the form of meta data which when fed into a high-performance image processing player would produce the adaptively reconfigured image sequence.
    The effect of stereoscopic viewing of a virtual space on a networked game using haptic media BIBAFull-Text 317-320
      Masaki Fujimoto; Yutaka Ishibashi
    This paper deals with a game in which a user moves an object in a virtual space using haptic media in distributed virtual environments. We make a comparison of the operationality of the game between stereoscopic viewing of the virtual space and normal (i.e., non-stereoscopic) viewing by experiment. We also clarify the relation between the effect of stereoscopic viewing and the deterioration in the operationality owing to the network delay and its jitter. In addition, we calculate the gain of stereoscopic viewing by using experimental results.
    Foot-based mobile interaction with games BIBAFull-Text 321-324
      Volker Paelke; Christian Reimann; Dirk Stichling
    Interaction with mobile applications is often awkward due to the limited and miniaturized input modalities available. This is especially problematic for games where the only incentive to use an application is the pleasure derived from the interaction. It is therefore interesting to examine novel forms of interaction in order to increase the "playability" of mobile games.
       In this paper we present a simple mobile gaming application on a standard Pocket PC PDA that employs computer vision (CV) as it's main interaction modality. Practical experience with the application demonstrates the feasibility of CV as a primary interaction modality and indicates the high potential of CV as an input modality for mobile devices in the future. Our approach exploits the video capabilities that are becoming ubiquitous on camera equipped smart-phones and PDAs to provide a fun solution for interaction tasks in games like "Pong", "Break-out" or soccer.
    Development of force-feedback device for PC-game using vibration BIBAFull-Text 325-330
      Sam-ha Choi; hee-Dong Chang; Kyung-Sik Kim
    Among recent technologies that are applied to game development, virtual reality part is getting much attention for its technological effectiveness in transmitting game processing circumstances in variety that are happening in game world very realistically. In this study we analyze interface for game that is based on a action realization technology and force-feedback technology among technologies for developing virtual reality, in other words, technical analogy on game controller and the positive and negative sides of game controller for each platform. Based on that, more ordinary and effective way to deliver the functions to users in PC game field where application of force-feedback technology is least satisfied. And, Force-Feedback device has been developed to satisfy the users' needs by using vibration.
    Audio-visual interfaces in digital art BIBAFull-Text 331-336
      Ernest Edmonds; Andrew Martin; Sandra Pauletto
    This paper outlines the evolution, in the history of art and technology, of image-sound interface systems. This can be called the evolution of the "audiovisual discourse" in art and technology. Recent software for audio and visual material manipulation is briefly described and audiovisual digital art works, developed during the COSTART Research Project, are illustrated as examples of contemporary artistic projects concerned with this theme. Different artistic approaches in the use of audiovisual systems are identified on the basis of the historical research and the author's work, as artist and technologist, in collaboration with the artists participating to the project. Finally the role of the computer as audiovisual instrument is discussed.
    Motion editing with data glove BIBAFull-Text 337-342
      Wai-Chun Lam; Feng Zou; Taku Komura
    In this paper, we propose a new method to edit captured human motion data by using the data glove. The animator first wears a glove and mimics the human body motion observed in the graphical display using his/her hand. Then, a mapping function that converts the motion of the hand to that of the whole body will be generated. Finally, by moving the hand in a slightly different way, a new motion with different taste will be generated. For example, after mimicking the walking motion by alternatively moving the index finger and the middle finger, by quickly moving the fingers with larger strides, it is possible to obtain a running motion. To achieve this goal, a method to map the hand motion to the whole body is proposed. Our method can be used not only for editing human motion, but also for controlling human figures in real time environments such as games and virtual reality systems.
    Magic mirror: a new VR platform design and its applications BIBAFull-Text 343-348
      Ig-Jae Kim; Hyun Jin Lee; Hyoung-Gon Kim
    This paper describes a case study of VR platform Magic Mirror and its applications that are economic in development process and cost, flexible by contents and installation conditions, and that has business potential for consumer market. Magic Mirror uses video based virtual world and tangible interaction by motion tracking. Magic Mirror platform enables a user to monitor their action and to collaborate with other users of remote place within attractive interaction feedback. Magic Mirror system gives serious distance learning experience with tutoring and group collaboration. They are presented in public exhibitions and tested by exhibition visitors. They showed application potential of Magic Mirror platform in interactive game, distance learning, and entertainment field.
    Dynamic streaming media: creating custom programmes in real-time BIBAFull-Text 349
      Nipan Maniar; William Garrison
    This demonstration examines the potential of streaming media to deliver custom programmes and interactivity using database systems. It examines the development of the Lifesign Project in the UK where a substantial collection of video programmes were supported by virtual editing tools allowing users to structure programmes for their own needs.
    Carplication: a rhetorical study information racer BIBAFull-Text 350-351
      Steffen P. Walz; Gerhard M. Buurman; Christoph Wartmann; Simon Schirm; Ádám Moravánszky; Ronald Vuillemin
    In this paper, we summarize our one-level single player game Carplication, a "study information racer" which we produced to let prospective students, as well as third parties, testplay and experience our newly established three-year Game Design B.A. program in an enjoyable, content appropriate rhetorical form.
    Automatic dance generation from music annotation BIBAFull-Text 352-353
      Hiroshi Mori; Say uri Ohta; Junichi Hoshino
    Automatic dance generation from music is useful for various entertainment applications including computer games. In this paper, we propose the automatic dance generation technique from music annotation.
    Panorama-based immersive story environment BIBAFull-Text 354
      Atsushi Nakano; Chan Rai; Junichi Hoshino
    Building realistic story environment is important for many entertainment and edutainment applications such as virtual trip and history learning. In this paper, we propose panorama-based immersive story environment. Virtual characters can walk and talk in photorealistic environment by using locomotion network and object annotations.
    Mobile sound communities BIBAFull-Text 355-356
      William Carter; Scott S. Fisher
    This paper describes a research project aimed at developing authoring tools for the collaborative creation of soundscapes and an associated system for the storage and playback of those soundscapes in a physical environment.
    A step towards anywhere gaming BIBAFull-Text 357-358
      Siddharth Singh; Adrian David Cheok; Soh Chor Kiong
    In this paper we describe the first stage of work in our ongoing research on novel multi-platform, multi-device Anywhere Gaming system. Developing a networked game that can run seamlessly on different devices with different connectivity methods is a challenging task and various issues have to be addressed. Our approach is to develop a small-scale, real-time, multiplayer game which can be then used to study these issues. Our multi-player networked Pong game can be played in real-time on mobile devices and stationary PCs. The system comprises the Sony-Ericsson P800 phone, a central game server, and personal computers.
    Augmented reality post-it system BIBAFull-Text 359
      Siddharth Singh; Adrian David Cheok; Guo Loong Ng; Farzam Farbiz
    The Augmented Reality Post-It (AR Post-It) messaging system uses the mobile phone as an augmented reality (AR) interface allowing users to view electronic messages in an AR context. The distinguishing feature of the system is that the messages are displayed only when the receiver is present at the location specified by the sender. Our system does not use any sophisticated location tracking technology, instead making use of simple fiducial markers to tag different locations. The sender posts messages over the internet to the mobile phone user, specifying the location where the message should be displayed. These messages are stored in a central server, and downloaded onto the phone when the recipient uses her phone's digital camera to view a marker.
    Human Pacman: a mobile wide-area entertainment system based on physical, social, and ubiquitous computing BIBAFull-Text 360-361
      Adrian David Cheok; Kok Hwee Goh; Wei Liu; Farzam Farbiz; Sze Lee Teo; Hui Siang Teo; Shang Ping Lee; Yu Li; Siew Wan Fong; Xubo Yang
    Human Pacman is a novel mixed reality interactive entertainment system that ventures to embed the natural physical world seamlessly with a fantasy virtual playground by capitalizing on infrastructure provided by wearable computer, mixed reality, and ubiquitous computing research. We have progressed from the old days of 2D arcade Pacman on screens, with incremental development, to the popular 3D game home console Pacman, and the recent mobile online Pacman. Finally with our research system Human Pacman, we have a physical role-playing computer fantasy together with real human-social and mobile-gaming that emphasizes on collaboration and competition between players in a wide outdoor area that allows natural wide-area human-physical movements. Pacmen and Ghosts are now human players in the real world experiencing computer graphics fantasy-reality by using the wearable computers on them. Virtual cookies and actual tangible physical objects are incorporated into the game play to provide unique experiences of seamless transitions between real and virtual worlds. We believe Human Pacman is pioneering a new form of gaming that anchors on physicality, mobility, social interaction, and ubiquitous computing.
    Jumanji Singapore: an interactive 3D board game turning Hollywood fantasy into reality BIBAFull-Text 362-363
      Zhiying Zhou; Adrian David Cheok; Tingting Chan; Yu Li
    Traditional board games encourage social and physical interactions among players. However, there is a lack of visual and auditory fantasies supported by computer games. In this demo we present an tangible augmented reality (AR) board game, called "Jumanji Singapore", to turn Hollywood fantasy into reality. Players are allowed to transport among physical world, 3D AR world, and 3D virtual reality (VR) world. Physical dices are used to directly interact with AR/VR graphics and control the process of the board game. This demo shows an example of tangible AR interface for interactive board game application.
    Magic Story Cube: an interactive tangible interface for storytelling BIBAFull-Text 364-365
      Zhiying Zhou; Adrian David Cheok; JiunHorng Pan; Yu Li
    From of old, storytelling is important for both education and entertainment. With the augmented reality (AR) technology, storytelling becomes more and more interactive and intuitive in the sense of human computer interaction. Although AR technology is not new, it's potential in education is just beginning to be explored. In this demo we present a tangible AR interactive interface for storytelling using physical cube. We embed both the concept of AR and the concept of tangible interaction in the prototype -- "Magic Story Cube". Multiple modalities including speech, 3D audio, 3D graphics and touch are used to provide the user (especially children) with multi-sensory experiences in the process of storytelling. Our research explores a new interface for children education and entertainment.